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Inventions, Volume 6, Issue 1 (March 2021) – 20 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Home energy management systems (HEMS) require an accurate forecast of the electric power produced by photo-voltaic installations. If prective control algorithms are used in HEMS, this accurate forecast must be available for a specified prediction horizon (PH). By using historic data of the electric power generated, weather data and house occupation, multi-objective evolutionary algorithm designed shallow neural networks achieve a superior forecasting performance than other current modeling techniques, including deep learning models. View this paper
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Article
Design and Construction of a Novel Simple and Low-Cost Test Bench Point-Absorber Wave Energy Converter Emulator System
Inventions 2021, 6(1), 20; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/inventions6010020 - 22 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 675
Abstract
This paper proposed a test bench device to emulate or simulate the electrical impulses of a wave energy converter (WEC). The objective of the study is to reconstruct under laboratory conditions the dynamics of a WEC in the form of an emulator to [...] Read more.
This paper proposed a test bench device to emulate or simulate the electrical impulses of a wave energy converter (WEC). The objective of the study is to reconstruct under laboratory conditions the dynamics of a WEC in the form of an emulator to assess the performance, which, in this case, is the output power. The designed emulator device is programmable, which makes it possible to create under laboratory conditions the operating mode of the wave generator, identical to how the wave generator would work under real sea conditions. Any control algorithm can be executed in the designed emulator. In order to test the performance of the constructed WEC emulator, an experiment was conducted to test its power output against that of a real point-absorber WEC. The results indicate that, although the power output for that of the real WEC was higher than the WEC emulator, the emulator performed perfectly well. The relatively low power output of the emulator was because of the type of algorithm that was written for the emulator, therefore increasing the speed of the motor in the algorithm (code) would result in higher output for the proposed WEC emulator. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Low-Cost Inventions and Patents)
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Article
Image Preprocessing for Artistic Robotic Painting
Inventions 2021, 6(1), 19; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/inventions6010019 - 14 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 614
Abstract
Artistic robotic painting implies creating a picture on canvas according to a brushstroke map preliminarily computed from a source image. To make the painting look closer to the human artwork, the source image should be preprocessed to render the effects usually created by [...] Read more.
Artistic robotic painting implies creating a picture on canvas according to a brushstroke map preliminarily computed from a source image. To make the painting look closer to the human artwork, the source image should be preprocessed to render the effects usually created by artists. In this paper, we consider three preprocessing effects: aerial perspective, gamut compression and brushstroke coherence. We propose an algorithm for aerial perspective amplification based on principles of light scattering using a depth map, an algorithm for gamut compression using nonlinear hue transformation and an algorithm for image gradient filtering for obtaining a well-coherent brushstroke map with a reduced number of brushstrokes, required for practical robotic painting. The described algorithms allow interactive image correction and make the final rendering look closer to a manually painted artwork. To illustrate our proposals, we render several test images on a computer and paint a monochromatic image on canvas with a painting robot. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Control Theory and Applications)
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Article
Efficient Protection Scheme Based on Y-Source Circuit Breaker in Bi-Directional Zones for MVDC Micro-Grids
Inventions 2021, 6(1), 18; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/inventions6010018 - 10 Mar 2021
Viewed by 444
Abstract
A new bi-directional circuit breaker is presented for medium-voltage dc (MVDC) systems. The Y-source impedance network topology is used to implement the breaker. The current transfer function is derived to show the frequency response and the breaker operation with the high frequencies. Mathematical [...] Read more.
A new bi-directional circuit breaker is presented for medium-voltage dc (MVDC) systems. The Y-source impedance network topology is used to implement the breaker. The current transfer function is derived to show the frequency response and the breaker operation with the high frequencies. Mathematical analysis is achieved with different conditions of coupling among the breaker inductors. The minimum level of the magnetic coupling is determined, which is represented by the null condition. The effect of the turns-ratio on this condition is investigated as well. The breaker is designed with two types of fault conductance slope rates. The Y-source breaker is simulated, and the results verify the breaker operation during the fault condition and the load change. The results also demonstrate the effect of the coupling level on the minimum values of the source current when the fault occurs. Based on the expected fault type in the MVDC systems, the proposed breaker is developed to interrupt the overcurrent due to any of these fault types. A protection scheme is proposed for a 12-bus, two-level micro-grid, where the Y-source breakers are used in the bi-directional zones. The results verify the ability of the breaker to conduct and interrupt the current in both directions of the power flow. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microgrids: Protection, Cyber Physical Issues, and Control)
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Article
Development of a Double Skin Facade System Applied in a Virtual Occupied Chamber
Inventions 2021, 6(1), 17; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/inventions6010017 - 04 Mar 2021
Viewed by 497
Abstract
In this study a system constituted by seven double skin facades (DSF), three equipped with venetian blinds and four not equipped with venetian blinds, applied in a virtual chamber, is developed. The project will be carried out in winter conditions, using a numerical [...] Read more.
In this study a system constituted by seven double skin facades (DSF), three equipped with venetian blinds and four not equipped with venetian blinds, applied in a virtual chamber, is developed. The project will be carried out in winter conditions, using a numerical model, in transient conditions, and based on energy and mass balance linear integral equations. The energy balance linear integral equations are used to calculate the air temperature inside the DSF and the virtual chamber, the temperature on the venetian blind, the temperature on the inner and outer glass, and the temperature distribution in the surrounding structure of the DSF and virtual chamber. These equations consider the convection, conduction, and radiation phenomena. The heat transfer by convection is calculated by natural, forced, and mixed convection, with dimensionless coefficients. In the radiative exchanges, the incident solar radiation, the absorbed solar radiation, and the transmitted solar radiation are considered. The mass balance linear integral equations are used to calculate the water mass concentration and the contaminants mass concentration. These equations consider the convection and the diffusion phenomena. In this numerical work seven cases studies and three occupation levels are simulated. In each case the influence of the ventilation airflow and the occupation level is analyzed. The total number of thermal and indoor air quality uncomfortable hours are used to evaluate the DSF performance. In accordance with the obtained results, in general, the indoor air quality is acceptable; however, when the number of occupants in the virtual chamber increases, the Predicted Mean Vote index value increases. When the airflow rate increases the total of Uncomfortable Hours decreases and, after a certain value of the airflow rate, it increases. The airflow rate associated with the minimum value of total Uncomfortable Hours increases when the number of occupants increases. The energy production decreases when the airflow increases and the production of energy is higher in DSF with venetian blinds system than in DSF without venetian blinds system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heat transfer and Thermal Managements of Innovative Systems)
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Article
Sensor Localization Using Time of Arrival Measurements in a Multi-Media and Multi-Path Application of In-Situ Wireless Soil Sensing
Inventions 2021, 6(1), 16; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/inventions6010016 - 27 Feb 2021
Viewed by 598
Abstract
The problem of localization of nodes of a wireless sensor network placed in different physical media (anchor nodes above ground and sensor nodes underground) is addressed in this article. We use time of arrival of signals transmitted between neighboring sensor nodes and between [...] Read more.
The problem of localization of nodes of a wireless sensor network placed in different physical media (anchor nodes above ground and sensor nodes underground) is addressed in this article. We use time of arrival of signals transmitted between neighboring sensor nodes and between satellite nodes and sensor nodes as the ranging measurement. The localization problem is formulated as a parameter estimation of the joint distribution of the time of arrival values. The probability distribution of the time of arrival of a signal is derived based on rigorous statistical analysis and its parameters are expressed in terms of the location coordinates of the sensor nodes. Maximum likelihood estimates of the nodes’ location coordinates as parameters of the joint distribution of the various time of arrival variables in the network are computed. Sensitivity analysis to study the variation in the estimates with respect to error in measured soil complex permittivity and magnetic permeability is presented to validate the model and methodology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Robotics and Automation in Agriculture)
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Article
Deep Learning-Assisted Short-Term Load Forecasting for Sustainable Management of Energy in Microgrid
Inventions 2021, 6(1), 15; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/inventions6010015 - 03 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 755
Abstract
Nowadays, supplying demand load and maintaining sustainable energy are important issues that have created many challenges in power systems. In these types of problems, short-term load forecasting has been proposed as one of the management and energy supply modes in power systems. In [...] Read more.
Nowadays, supplying demand load and maintaining sustainable energy are important issues that have created many challenges in power systems. In these types of problems, short-term load forecasting has been proposed as one of the management and energy supply modes in power systems. In this paper, after reviewing various load forecasting techniques, a deep learning method called bidirectional long short-term memory (Bi-LSTM) is presented for short-term load forecasting in a microgrid. By collecting relevant features available in the input data at the training stage, it is shown that the proposed procedure enjoys important properties, such as its great ability to process time series data. A microgrid in rural Sub-Saharan Africa, including household and commercial loads, was selected as the case study. The parameters affecting the formation of household and commercial load profiles are considered as input variables, and the total household and commercial load profiles of the microgrid are considered as the target. The Bi-LSTM network is trained by input variables to forecast the microgrid load on an hourly basis by recognizing the consumption pattern. Various performance evaluation indicators such as the correlation coefficient (R), mean squared error (MSE), and root mean squared error (RMSE) are utilized to analyze the forecast results. In addition, in a comparative approach, the performance of the proposed method is compared and evaluated with other methods used in similar studies. The results presented for the training phase show an accuracy of R = 99.81% for the Bi-LSTM network. The test and load forecasting stage are performed by the Bi-STLM network, with an accuracy of R = 99.34% and forecasting errors of MSE = 0.1042 and RMSE = 0.3243. The results confirm the high performance of the proposed Bi-LSTM technique, with a high correlation coefficient when compared to other methods used for short-term load forecasting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Technologies for the Energy Systems of the Future)
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Article
Discrete Seed Feeder Designing for Mobile Apparatus: Early Results for Pinus sylvestris L. Species
Inventions 2021, 6(1), 14; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/inventions6010014 - 31 Jan 2021
Viewed by 863
Abstract
Discrete feeding of forest seeds is an urgent task for accurate detection of seeds during grading and reducing the seeding rate. The study used Pinus sylvestris L. seeds from cones collected in a natural stand of the Lisinsky educational-and-experimental forestry farm, Leningrad region, [...] Read more.
Discrete feeding of forest seeds is an urgent task for accurate detection of seeds during grading and reducing the seeding rate. The study used Pinus sylvestris L. seeds from cones collected in a natural stand of the Lisinsky educational-and-experimental forestry farm, Leningrad region, Russia, in 2017. Well-known methods for determining the properties of bulk materials were used; the results were processed by mathematical statistics using the MS Excel program. The physical and mechanical properties of uncalibrated seeds as a bulk material were determined. The angle of repose of Pinus sylvestris L. seeds, determined using a hollow cylinder by calculation, is 24.92°. The angle of repose of Pinus sylvestris L. seeds, determined using a hollow cylinder and a goniometer, is 32.7°. The significant discrepancy (~8°) in the values obtained by these methods is explained by the seeds shape. The flowability of Pinus sylvestris L. seeds corresponds to an excellent (free) category. The study will enable correct seed treatment protocols for sustainable forest management. However, some questions remained unresolved: how to orient a single seed in the right direction? How does seed-size calibration affect the angle of repose? Full article
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Editorial
Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Inventions in 2020
Inventions 2021, 6(1), 13; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/inventions6010013 - 28 Jan 2021
Viewed by 464
Abstract
Peer review is the driving force of journal development, and reviewers are gatekeepers who ensure that Inventions maintains its standards for the high quality of its published papers [...] Full article
Article
Short-Term Forecasting Photovoltaic Solar Power for Home Energy Management Systems
Inventions 2021, 6(1), 12; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/inventions6010012 - 25 Jan 2021
Viewed by 645
Abstract
Accurate photovoltaic (PV) power forecasting is crucial to achieving massive PV integration in several areas, which is needed to successfully reduce or eliminate carbon dioxide from energy sources. This paper deals with short-term multi-step PV power forecasts used in model-based predictive control for [...] Read more.
Accurate photovoltaic (PV) power forecasting is crucial to achieving massive PV integration in several areas, which is needed to successfully reduce or eliminate carbon dioxide from energy sources. This paper deals with short-term multi-step PV power forecasts used in model-based predictive control for home energy management systems. By employing radial basis function (RBFs) artificial neural networks (ANN), designed using a multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA) with data selected by an approximate convex-hull algorithm, it is shown that excellent forecasting results can be obtained. Two case studies are used: a special house located in the USA, and the other a typical residential house situated in the south of Portugal. In the latter case, one-step-ahead values for unscaled root mean square error (RMSE), mean relative error (MRE), normalized mean average error (NMAE), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) and R2 of 0.16, 1.27%, 1.22%, 8% and 0.94 were obtained, respectively. These results compare very favorably with existing alternatives found in the literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photovoltaic Array Management)
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Article
Low Latency 5G Distributed Wireless Network Architecture: A Techno-Economic Comparison
Inventions 2021, 6(1), 11; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/inventions6010011 - 24 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 639
Abstract
The most profound requirements of fifth-generation (5G) technology implementations are the architecture design and the radio base station technology to capably run applications such as device-to-device, machine-to machine and internet of things at a reduced latency. Owing to these requirements, the implementation of [...] Read more.
The most profound requirements of fifth-generation (5G) technology implementations are the architecture design and the radio base station technology to capably run applications such as device-to-device, machine-to machine and internet of things at a reduced latency. Owing to these requirements, the implementation of 5G technology is very expensive to mobile network operators (MNO). In this study we modified the existing 4G network to form a distributed wireless network architecture (DWNA); the picocell and distributed antenna system were modified to support the enabling technology of 5G technology were a multi-edge computer (MEC), software-defined networking (SDN), massive multiple input multiple output (MIMO), ultra-dense network (UDN), Network Functions Virtualization (NFV) and device-to-device (D2D) communication at a reduced cost of ownership, improved coverage and capacity. We present a mathematical model for operational expenditure, capital expenditure and total cost of ownership (TCO) for the DWNA. A mathematical model for DWNA capacity and throughput was presented. Result shows that it is very economical for MNO to rent the space of the tower infrastructure from tower companies. The sensitivity analysis also shows a significant reduction in TCO for both the modified picocell and modified distributed antenna systems. Full article
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Article
Adaptive Stochastic Filtration Based on the Estimation of the Covariance Matrix of Measurement Noises Using Irregular Accurate Observations
Inventions 2021, 6(1), 10; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/inventions6010010 - 21 Jan 2021
Viewed by 477
Abstract
In measurement systems operating under various disturbances the probabilistic characteristics of measurement noises are usually known approximately. To improve the observation accuracy, a new approach to the Kalman’s filter adaptation is proposed. In this approach, the Covariance Matrix of Measurement Noises (CMMN) is [...] Read more.
In measurement systems operating under various disturbances the probabilistic characteristics of measurement noises are usually known approximately. To improve the observation accuracy, a new approach to the Kalman’s filter adaptation is proposed. In this approach, the Covariance Matrix of Measurement Noises (CMMN) is estimated by accurate measurements detected irregularly by the mobile object observation system (from radiofrequency identifiers, etalon reference, fixed points etc.). The problem of adaptive estimation of the observer’s noises covariance matrix in the Kalman filter is solved analytically for two cases: mutual noises correlation, and its absence. The numerical example for adaptive filtration of complexing navigation system parameters of a mobile object using irregular accurate measurements is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. Coordinate estimating errors have changed in comparison with the traditional scheme from 100 m to 2 m in latitude, and from 200 m to 1.5 m in longitude. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Control Theory and Applications)
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Article
Analysis of Oscillating Combustion for NOx−Reduction in Pulverized Fuel Boilers
Inventions 2021, 6(1), 9; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/inventions6010009 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 655
Abstract
Thermal power plants in different fields are regularly adapted to the state-of-the-art emissions standards, applying “The Best Available Techniques Reference”. Since 2016 in the power plant area new, more stringent limits for power plant units with a thermal output of more than 300 [...] Read more.
Thermal power plants in different fields are regularly adapted to the state-of-the-art emissions standards, applying “The Best Available Techniques Reference”. Since 2016 in the power plant area new, more stringent limits for power plant units with a thermal output of more than 300 MW operated with black coal are valid. Usually, in order to reach the new limits e.g., for NOX emissions, downstream reduction processes (Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction, SNCR or Selective Catalytic Reduction) are applied, which use of operating resources (essentially ammonia water) thereby increase. By the means of an experimentally validated process, by which pulverized fuel is fed by oscillation through a swirl burner into a pilot combustion chamber with a thermal output of 2.5 MW, nitrogen oxides can be reduced without further activities, for instance from 450 mg/mN3 in non-oscillation operation mode (0 Hz) to 280 mg/mN3 in oscillation operation mode (3.5 Hz), normalized to an O2–content of 6% each. These findings were patented in EP3084300. Particularly promising are the experiments which utilize oscillation of a large portion of the burn out air instead of the fuel in order to minimize the fatigue of the pulverized fuel oscillator, amongst others. Thereby, the nitrogen conversion rate, which describes the ratio of NOX to fuel nitrogen, including thermal NOX can be reduced from 26% for non-oscillation operation mode down to 16%. The present findings show that fuel oscillation alone is not sufficient to achieve nitrogen oxides concentrations below the legislative values. Therefore, a combination of different primary (and secondary) measures is required. This paper presents the experimental results for oscillating coal-dust firing. Furthermore, an expert model based on a multivariate regression is developed to evaluate the experimental results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofuels and Bioplastics in Sustainable Development)
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Article
Measurement of Multiple Cardiac Performance Endpoints in Daphnia and Zebrafish by Kymograph
Inventions 2021, 6(1), 8; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/inventions6010008 - 17 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1307
Abstract
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the number one cause of death worldwide. This condition resulted in huge research on CVD increasing the need for animal models suitable for in vivo research. Daphnia and zebrafish are good animal models for cardiovascular research due to their [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the number one cause of death worldwide. This condition resulted in huge research on CVD increasing the need for animal models suitable for in vivo research. Daphnia and zebrafish are good animal models for cardiovascular research due to their relative body transparency and easy culture property. Several methods have been developed to conduct cardiac performance measurement in Daphnia and zebrafish. However, most of the methods are only able to obtain heartbeat rate. The other important cardiac endpoints like stroke volume, ejection fraction, fraction shortening, cardiac output, and heartbeat regularity must use other programs for measurement. To overcome this limitation, in this study, we successfully developed a one-stop ImageJ-based method using kymograph macros language that is able to obtain multiple cardiac performance endpoints simultaneously for the first time. To validate its utility, we incubated Daphnia magna at different ambient temperatures and exposed zebrafish with astemizole to detect the corresponding cardiac performance alterations. In summary, the kymograph method reported in this study provides a new, easy to use, and inexpensive one-stop method obtaining multiple cardiac performance endpoints with high accuracy and convenience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Inventions and innovation in Biotechnology and Materials)
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Article
Grading of Scots Pine Seeds by the Seed Coat Color: How to Optimize the Engineering Parameters of the Mobile Optoelectronic Device
Inventions 2021, 6(1), 7; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/inventions6010007 - 15 Jan 2021
Viewed by 646
Abstract
Research Highlights: There is a problem of forest seeds quality assessment and grading afield in minimal costs. The grading quality of each seed coat color class is determined by the degree of its separation with a mobile optoelectronic grader. Background and Objectives [...] Read more.
Research Highlights: There is a problem of forest seeds quality assessment and grading afield in minimal costs. The grading quality of each seed coat color class is determined by the degree of its separation with a mobile optoelectronic grader. Background and Objectives: Traditionally, pine seeds are graded in size, but this can lead to a loss of genetic diversity. Seed coat color is individual for each forest seed and is caused to a low error in identifying the genetic features of seedling obtained from it. The principle on which the mobile optoelectronic grader operates is based on the optical signal detection reflected from the single seed. The grader can operate in scientific (spectral band analysis) mode and production (spectral feature grading) mode. When operating in production mode, it is important to determine the optimal engineering parameters of the grader that provide the maximum value of the separation degree of seed-color classes. For this purpose, a run of experiments was conducted on the forest seeds separation using a mobile optoelectronic grader and regression models of the output from factors were obtained. Materials and Methods: Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seed samples were obtained from cones of the 2019 harvest collected in a natural stand. The study is based on the Design of Experiments theory (DOE) using the Microsoft Excel platform. In each of three replications of each run from the experiment matrix, a mixture of 100 seeds of light, dark and light-dark fraction (n = 300) was used. Results: Interpretation of the obtained regression model of seed separation in the visible wavelength range (650–715 nm) shows that the maximum influence on the output—separation degree—is exerted by the angle of incidence of the detecting optical beam. Next in terms of the influence power on the output are paired interactions: combinations of the wavelength with the angle of incidence and the wavelength with the grader’s seed pipe height. The minimum effect on the output is the wavelength of the detecting optical beam. Conclusions: The use of a mobile optoelectronic grader will eliminate the cost of transporting seeds to and from forest seed centers. To achieve a value of 0.97–1.0 separation degree of Scots pine seeds colored fractions, it is necessary to provide the following optimal engineering parameters of the mobile optoelectronic grader: the wavelength of optical radiation is 700 nm, the angle of incidence of the detecting optical beam is 45° and the grader’s seed pipe height is 0.2 m. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Robotics and Automation in Agriculture)
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Article
Conveyor-Belt Dryers with Tangential Flow for Food Drying: Development of Drying ODEs Useful to Design and Process Adjustment
Inventions 2021, 6(1), 6; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/inventions6010006 - 11 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 609
Abstract
The mathematical investigation presented in this paper concerns the conveyor-belt dryer with tangential flow operating in co-current. This dryer is bigger than the continuous through-circulation conveyor dryer but has the advantage of better preserving the organoleptic and nutritional qualities of the dried product. [...] Read more.
The mathematical investigation presented in this paper concerns the conveyor-belt dryer with tangential flow operating in co-current. This dryer is bigger than the continuous through-circulation conveyor dryer but has the advantage of better preserving the organoleptic and nutritional qualities of the dried product. In a previous work a mathematical modeling of the conveyor-belt dryer with tangential flow was carried out to offer guidelines for its optimized design. The last of those design guidelines indicated the need for an optimized adjustment of the dryer to ensure the constant maintenance of the final moisture content of the product. The fast and very precise measurement of the moisture content as the first step in the feedback chain was therefore necessary. Considering the difficulty of this type of measurement, two specific ordinary differential equations (ODEs) were obtained with the mathematical investigation of this work. Their solution became a relationship between the final moisture content of the product, the outlet air temperature, and other quantities that could be easily implemented in an automatic dryer control system. Therefore, the fast and accurate and much less expensive measurement of the temperature of the air leaving the dryer, owing to the relationship found, replaces the measurement of moisture content for the adjustment system. The experimental verification of the relationship highlighted the need to introduce a modification by which the relationship was finally validated. Full article
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Article
Voltage Differential Protection for Series Arc Fault Detection in Low-Voltage DC Systems
Inventions 2021, 6(1), 5; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/inventions6010005 - 31 Dec 2020
Viewed by 890
Abstract
Series arc faults are challenging to detect in low-voltage dc (LVDC) distribution systems because, unlike other fault types, series arc faults result in only small changes in the current and voltage waveforms. Though there have been several approaches proposed to detect series arc [...] Read more.
Series arc faults are challenging to detect in low-voltage dc (LVDC) distribution systems because, unlike other fault types, series arc faults result in only small changes in the current and voltage waveforms. Though there have been several approaches proposed to detect series arc faults, each approach has its requirements and limitations. A step change in the current and voltage waveforms at the arc inception is one of the characteristic signatures of these faults that can be extracted without requiring one to sample the waveforms at a very high frequency. This characteristic feature is utilized to present a novel approach based on voltage differential protection to detect series arc faults in LVDC systems. The proposed method is demonstrated using an embedded controller and experimental data that emulate a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test environment. The successful detection of series arc faults on two sets of series arc fault experimental data validated the approach. The results presented also illustrate the computational feasibility in implementing the approach in a real-time environment using an embedded controller. In addition, the paper discusses the robustness of the approach to load changes and loss of time synchronization between measurements at the two terminals of the line. Full article
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Article
Energy Efficiency for Social Buildings in Morocco, Comparative (2E) Study: Active VS. Passive Solutions Via TRNsys
Inventions 2021, 6(1), 4; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/inventions6010004 - 28 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 656
Abstract
This paper aims to highlight the potential of solar water heater installations in Morocco. The project involves the comparison of active and passive solutions for energy efficiency in buildings. To this end, a numerical simulation model of solar water heater installations is created [...] Read more.
This paper aims to highlight the potential of solar water heater installations in Morocco. The project involves the comparison of active and passive solutions for energy efficiency in buildings. To this end, a numerical simulation model of solar water heater installations is created under TRNsys. Three hot water demand scenarios (Low, Standard, and High) were taken into account for the six climatic zones defined in the Moroccan thermal regulation of constructions. The same software (TRNsys) is used to model a pilot building consisting of 16 flats. Energy efficiency actions have been applied to the building envelope (insulation and glazing) and simulations are made for the six areas. The simulation results comparing energy and financial savings show the influence of subsidized gas prices on solar water heaters’ relevance despite significant energy savings. This work proves that solar water heaters will be a primary obligation for Morocco, taking into account changes in butane gas prices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Technologies for the Energy Systems of the Future)
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Article
New Adaptive Control Strategy for a Wind Turbine Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG)
Inventions 2021, 6(1), 3; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/inventions6010003 - 28 Dec 2020
Viewed by 941
Abstract
Wind energy conversion systems have become a key technology to harvest wind energy worldwide. In permanent magnet synchronous generator-based wind turbine systems, the rotor position is needed for variable speed control and it uses an encoder or a speed sensor. However, these sensors [...] Read more.
Wind energy conversion systems have become a key technology to harvest wind energy worldwide. In permanent magnet synchronous generator-based wind turbine systems, the rotor position is needed for variable speed control and it uses an encoder or a speed sensor. However, these sensors lead to some obstacles, such as additional weight and cost, increased noise, complexity and reliability issues. For these reasons, the development of new sensorless control methods has become critically important for wind turbine generators. This paper aims to develop a new sensorless and adaptive control method for a surface-mounted permanent magnet synchronous generator. The proposed method includes a new model reference adaptive system, which is used to estimate the rotor position and speed as an observer. Adaptive control is implemented in the pulse-width modulated current source converter. In the conventional model reference adaptive system, the proportional-integral controller is used in the adaptation mechanism. Moreover, the proportional-integral controller is generally tuned by the trial and error method, which is tedious and inaccurate. In contrast, the proposed method is based on model predictive control which eliminates the use of speed and position sensors and also improves the performance of model reference adaptive control systems. In this paper, the proposed predictive controller is modelled in MATLAB/SIMULINK and validated experimentally on a 6-kW wind turbine generator. Test results prove the effectiveness of the control strategy in terms of energy efficiency and dynamical adaptation to the wind turbine operational conditions. The experimental results also show that the control method has good dynamic response to parameter variations and external disturbances. Therefore, the developed technique will help increase the uptake of permanent magnet synchronous generators and model predictive control methods in the wind power industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Developments of Electrical Machines and Motor Drives)
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Article
A New Project for a Much More Diverse Moroccan Strategic Version: The Generalization of Solar Water Heater
Inventions 2021, 6(1), 2; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/inventions6010002 - 24 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 681
Abstract
This paper presents a strategical project for the new version of the Moroccan energy policy. It highlights the technology of solar water heaters (SWH), studying energy, economic and environmental gains of SWH generalization to satisfy the total resident need proposing a new strategic [...] Read more.
This paper presents a strategical project for the new version of the Moroccan energy policy. It highlights the technology of solar water heaters (SWH), studying energy, economic and environmental gains of SWH generalization to satisfy the total resident need proposing a new strategic version diversified in terms of adopted technologies (more than green electricity). A detailed analysis of thermal performances and economic profitability of direct thermosyphon solar water heaters (TSWH) for residential requirements in Morocco. The optimum design parameters were defined and investigated using the dynamic TRNSYS simulation program. The optimum system was simulated under the six climatic conditions of Morocco in order to assess the related performances in terms of the collector efficiency and solar fraction. The major finding of this work is that large-scale integration of TSWH into Moroccan residences could provide up to 70% of thermal energy loads. An economic study was also developed to predict the life-cycle savings generated by the generalization of this technology in Morocco for all residential building’s categories. Approximately 1250 million USD as national saving on the total energy bill can be achieved. The environmental effects were also assessed to achieve the aims of this work and to evaluate the CO2 emissions avoided due to this environmentally friendly solution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Technologies for the Energy Systems of the Future)
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Article
Deterioration of the Mechanical Properties of FFF 3D-Printed PLA Structures
Inventions 2021, 6(1), 1; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/inventions6010001 - 22 Dec 2020
Viewed by 663
Abstract
Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is a biodegradable polymer material used for the fabrication of objects by fused filament fabrication (FFF) 3D printing. FFF 3D printing technology has been quickly spreading over the past few years. An FFF-3D-printed object is formed from melted polymer extruded [...] Read more.
Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is a biodegradable polymer material used for the fabrication of objects by fused filament fabrication (FFF) 3D printing. FFF 3D printing technology has been quickly spreading over the past few years. An FFF-3D-printed object is formed from melted polymer extruded from a nozzle layer-by-layer. The mechanical properties of the object, and the changes in those properties as the object degrades, differ from the properties and changes observed in bulk objects. In this study we evaluated FFF-3D-printed objects by uniaxial tensile tests and four-point flexural tests to characterize the changes of three mechanical properties, namely, the maximum stress, elastic modulus, and breaking energy. Eight types of test pieces printed directly by an FFF 3D printer using two scan patterns and two interior fill percentages (IFPs) were tested by the aforesaid methods. The test pieces were immersed in saline and kept in an incubator at 37 °C for 30, 60, or 90 days before the mechanical testing. The changes in the mechanical properties differed largely between the test piece types. In some of the test pieces, transient increases in strength were observed before the immersion degraded the strength. Several of the test piece types were found to have superior specific strength in the tests. The results obtained in this research will be helpful for the design of PLA structures fabricated by FFF 3D printing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Inventions and innovation in Biotechnology and Materials)
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