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Inventions, Volume 7, Issue 1 (March 2022) – 31 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The operation of wind turbines in an open environment can lead to degradation of the aerodynamic performance since they are subjected to hazard weather situations, such as rainfalls and hailstorms. With the help of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes, information in the whole flow field over the wind turbine rotor could be provided. In general, hailstorm conditions have a negative effect on aerodynamic behavior, which leads to less power produced by a wind turbine. In hailstorm conditions, wake downstream the wind turbine softens more rapidly. Moreover, hailstones and raindrops are more concentrated on the pressure side of the blade and close to the hub, and these areas on the blades are more exposed to erosion. View this paper
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Article
Numerical Investigation of Winglet Aerodynamics and Dimple Effect of NACA 0017 Airfoil for a Freight Aircraft
Inventions 2022, 7(1), 31; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/inventions7010031 - 07 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1105
Abstract
Drag reduction is an ever-present challenge within the aeronautical engineering industry. This paper presents two substantial wing modifications: the addition of a winglet of a freighter aircraft and a dimpled wing on the NACA 0017 aerofoils. Studies on nine (9) different geometries of [...] Read more.
Drag reduction is an ever-present challenge within the aeronautical engineering industry. This paper presents two substantial wing modifications: the addition of a winglet of a freighter aircraft and a dimpled wing on the NACA 0017 aerofoils. Studies on nine (9) different geometries of dimpled aerofoils were performed against a control model of an aerofoil without any dimple. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was performed using two (2) commercial CFD platforms. This paper also explored two novel solutions of aircraft optimisation to mitigate the effects of drag and leading-edge pressure, while increasing the effect of lift. The optimised performance model of a freighter aircraft increased its aerodynamic efficiency. The study found that at take-off velocity of 82 m/s, winglets decreased pressure on the wing by 16.31%, through flow redirection and better flow integration into aerofoils wake. The study also analysed the separation layer and its effect through the appropriate use of the dimple effect. Increased lift effects were observed on a NACA 0017 aerofoil. Despite the low increase in drag of 6% from the modifications, the resultant L/D ratio was highly increased. This study also faced some challenges with validating the model. Hence some validation approaches were taken, and some other approaches suggested for future studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances and Challenges in Wind Energy Extraction II)
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Article
Strategic Placement of Solar Power Plant and Interline Power Flow Controllers for Prevention of Blackouts
Inventions 2022, 7(1), 30; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/inventions7010030 - 02 Mar 2022
Viewed by 988
Abstract
In these post COVID times, the world is going through a massive restructuring which India can use to its benefit by attracting foreign industrial investment. The major requirement is a reliable and ecofriendly electrical power source. Of late, renewable energy sources have increasingly [...] Read more.
In these post COVID times, the world is going through a massive restructuring which India can use to its benefit by attracting foreign industrial investment. The major requirement is a reliable and ecofriendly electrical power source. Of late, renewable energy sources have increasingly become popular as alternative source of electricity. They can provide immense aid in improving the reliability of the power system, when placed properly. The alternative integrated energy sources along with FACTS devices can provide a promising future for reliable power systems. In this paper, an effective location for the solar power unit and Interline Power Flow Controller using Line Severity Index is proposed in order to avoid contingencies. An Indian 62 bus system and IEEE 57 bus system are considered for the study. The Firefly algorithm is used to tune the IPFC in the Integrated Energy Systems scenario, for a dual objective function. The effect of placement of the solar unit and the optimized IPFC is analyzed and studied in detail in this paper. Full article
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Article
Modification of the Leeb Impact Device for Measuring Hardness by the Dynamic Instrumented Indentation Method
Inventions 2022, 7(1), 29; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/inventions7010029 - 28 Feb 2022
Viewed by 967
Abstract
The article is devoted to modification of the impact devices of Leeb hardness testers for the implementation of the dynamic instrumented indentation method. The results obtained made it possible to construct a load–displacement curve using primary EMF signals and made it possible to [...] Read more.
The article is devoted to modification of the impact devices of Leeb hardness testers for the implementation of the dynamic instrumented indentation method. The results obtained made it possible to construct a load–displacement curve using primary EMF signals and made it possible to determine the values of the dissipated and elastic impact body energy, the maximal load of indentation, the maximal and residual penetration depth and the geometric parameters of the indentation region, namely the contact area of the indenter with the surface and the volume of the displaced material. The listed parameters of the indentation process allow us to measure the contact and volume hardness, the elastic modulus and the yield strength of test objects with portable hardness testers. Full article
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Correction
Correction: Majeed, A.; Lee, S. Towards Privacy Paradigm Shift Due to the Pandemic: A Brief Perspective. Inventions 2021, 6, 24
Inventions 2022, 7(1), 28; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/inventions7010028 - 25 Feb 2022
Viewed by 755
Abstract
The authors made a mistake while publishing this paper [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Innovation Papers)
Article
Fast Location of Table Grapes Picking Point Based on Infrared Tube
Inventions 2022, 7(1), 27; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/inventions7010027 - 24 Feb 2022
Viewed by 842
Abstract
This study investigates the low mechanization level of grape picking, and the problems associated with the difficult location of grape picking points in three-dimensional space. A method for rapidly locating the picking points of table grapes based on an infrared tube was proposed [...] Read more.
This study investigates the low mechanization level of grape picking, and the problems associated with the difficult location of grape picking points in three-dimensional space. A method for rapidly locating the picking points of table grapes based on an infrared tube was proposed in this paper. Firstly, the Otsu algorithm and the maximum connected domain were used to obtain the image of the target grape, which realized the fast recognition and segmentation of the target grape in two-dimensional space. Secondly, a location device for grape-picking points based on an infrared tube was designed, which resolved the technical problem related to the difficulty of locating picking points in three-dimensional space, and realized the accurate positioning of picking points for table grapes. Finally, the experimental results show that the proposed method can quickly and accurately locate the picking points of table grapes in three-dimensional space. The average running time of the proposed algorithm is 0.61 s, and the success rate of location identification is 90.0%. It provides a feasible scheme for the mechanized picking of table grapes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Low-Cost Inventions and Patents: Series II)
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Article
Manufacturing of a Granular Fertilizer Based on Organic Slurry and Hardening Agent
Inventions 2022, 7(1), 26; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/inventions7010026 - 17 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1193
Abstract
The manufacturing of a granular fertilizer based on organic slurry (OS) and sorptive materials aims to enhance the circular economy. This article describes a technology that was conceived after appraising the chemistry of the anaerobic digestate and wood ash and the synergies of [...] Read more.
The manufacturing of a granular fertilizer based on organic slurry (OS) and sorptive materials aims to enhance the circular economy. This article describes a technology that was conceived after appraising the chemistry of the anaerobic digestate and wood ash and the synergies of combining both materials. The information available in the literature about similar materials such as cattle slurry and lime was also considered to build a better understanding of the underlying science. The processes and machinery designed were optimized from the points of view of energy and material consumption, cost of storage, transportation and land application. The system was sized to process 1 tonne of OS (97% moisture) in a 10 h batch-shift, consuming 140 kg of wood pellets and 0.55 kW of electricity for the fan blowing preheated air. The results of the market research allowed us to reach the most economically viable routes for the commercialization of granular fertilizers. Based on the financial study, an initial investment of GBP 20,000 is needed to successfully implement the value proposition and business plan. The wide adoption of the composite fertilizer improves the management of the OS and reduces the contamination of air, soil, and water derived from intensive agricultural practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Composite Materials from Recycled Constituent Materials)
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Communication
Assessing the Performance of a Subsurface Water Retention System (SWRS) Prototype: First Evaluation of Work Productivity and Costs
Inventions 2022, 7(1), 25; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/inventions7010025 - 09 Feb 2022
Viewed by 833
Abstract
The potential to use Subsurface Water Retention Systems (SWRSs) to combat desertification and improve agriculture in arid and semiarid areas has already been investigated and proved promising. Nevertheless, a lack of specific machinery has prevented this technology from demonstrating its effectiveness on vast [...] Read more.
The potential to use Subsurface Water Retention Systems (SWRSs) to combat desertification and improve agriculture in arid and semiarid areas has already been investigated and proved promising. Nevertheless, a lack of specific machinery has prevented this technology from demonstrating its effectiveness on vast areas. In the present study, a specific prototype is presented along with the results obtained from a preliminary study conducted to assess effectiveness, performance and associated cost. During the test, the machinery permitted the construction of a SWRS 100 cm belowground using a 140 kW tractor. The effective field capacity (EFC) averaged at 0.19 ha h−1 whilst total cost was estimated to be as high as 4800.00 € ha−1. However, 93% of the cost was associated with the purchase cost of the removable impermeable film. A removal operation was also investigated using a 42 kW excavator for evaluating the EFC and cost which averaged at 0.2 ha h−1 and 655.79 € ha−1, respectively. Full article
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Article
Engineering and Analytical Method for Estimating the Parametric Reliability of Products by a Low Number of Tests
Inventions 2022, 7(1), 24; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/inventions7010024 - 07 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 698
Abstract
The paper provides an overview of methods for determining reliability indicators and, on the basis of the analysis, proposes a new method for assessing the parametric reliability of products based on a small number of tests. The determination of the parameters and double [...] Read more.
The paper provides an overview of methods for determining reliability indicators and, on the basis of the analysis, proposes a new method for assessing the parametric reliability of products based on a small number of tests. The determination of the parameters and double logistic distribution based on the test results is considered, a statistical experiment was carried out, which was based on the method of statistical modeling of Monte Carlo. An example of evaluating parametric reliability by a new method is also given, on the basis of which an engineering technique is proposed. In the conclusion, remarks are made regarding the advantages of the novel method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Inventions and innovation in Advanced Manufacturing)
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Article
An Investigation on the Vortex Effect of a CALM Buoy under Water Waves Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)
Inventions 2022, 7(1), 23; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/inventions7010023 - 04 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1057
Abstract
Floating offshore structures (FOS) must be designed to be stable, to float, and to be able to support other structures for which they were designed. These FOS are needed for different transfer operations in oil terminals. However, water waves affect the motion response [...] Read more.
Floating offshore structures (FOS) must be designed to be stable, to float, and to be able to support other structures for which they were designed. These FOS are needed for different transfer operations in oil terminals. However, water waves affect the motion response of floating buoys. Under normal sea states, the free-floating buoy presents stable periodic responses. However, when moored, they are kept in position. Mooring configurations used to moor buoys in single point mooring (SPM) terminals could require systems such as Catenary Anchor Leg Moorings (CALM) and Single Anchor Leg Moorings (SALM). The CALM buoys are one of the most commonly-utilised type of offshore loading terminal. Due to the wider application of CALM buoy systems, it is necessary to investigate the fluid structure interaction (FSI) and vortex effect on the buoy. In this study, a numerical investigation is presented on a CALM buoy model conducted using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) in ANSYS Fluent version R2 2020. Some hydrodynamic definitions and governing equations were presented to introduce the model. The results presented visualize and evaluate specific motion characteristics of the CALM buoy with emphasis on the vortex effect. The results of the CFD study present a better understanding of the hydrodynamic parameters, reaction characteristics and fluid-structure interaction under random waves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Trends in Nanofluids III)
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Article
A Numerical Analysis of Fluid Flow and Torque for Hydropower Pelton Turbine Performance Using Computational Fluid Dynamics
Inventions 2022, 7(1), 22; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/inventions7010022 - 03 Feb 2022
Viewed by 878
Abstract
The difficulty of delivering electrical power to rural areas motivated the researchers to explore more accessible power sources. Hydropower is considered a desirable option due to its sustainability and lower costs. Pelton turbines have been widely used in hydropower plants because of their [...] Read more.
The difficulty of delivering electrical power to rural areas motivated the researchers to explore more accessible power sources. Hydropower is considered a desirable option due to its sustainability and lower costs. Pelton turbines have been widely used in hydropower plants because of their low installation and maintenance costs. This study provides a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for Pelton turbine performance under various flow conditions. The model is based on the conservation of mass principle, Newton’s second law, and the first law of thermodynamics. It is used to predict the torque produced by a turbine at different rotational speeds. Previously published experimental results for the same turbine geometry and flow parameters were used to validate the model’s predictions. Validation revealed that the model can reproduce the experimental results. This provides the required robustness for its use as a tool for turbine design and modification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Trends in Nanofluids III)
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Article
An Analysis of the Wind Parameters in the Western Side of the Black Sea
Inventions 2022, 7(1), 21; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/inventions7010021 - 02 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 714
Abstract
In the present research, an overview of the wind climate on the northwestern coast of the Black Sea basin is assessed, using a total of 6 years of data (2015–2020) provided by the National Institute of Marine Geology and Geoecology (GeoEcoMar). It is [...] Read more.
In the present research, an overview of the wind climate on the northwestern coast of the Black Sea basin is assessed, using a total of 6 years of data (2015–2020) provided by the National Institute of Marine Geology and Geoecology (GeoEcoMar). It is well known that the enclosed/semi-enclosed basins are complex environments and to accurately represent the features of wind and wave are necessary high resolution spatial fields. For the Black Sea, which is an enclosed basin with complicated regional geography, the main weather parameters reported (wind direction, wind speed, air temperature, air pressure) give a more comprehensive picture of how energetic the area of interest is, and represent the features of the Black Sea’s diversified marine environment. Finally, the results obtained in this paper cover a broad range of applications in marine studies, being useful for future research in the area of wind climate in the Black Sea. Full article
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Article
Mechanism Cleaning of the Ear Canal
Inventions 2022, 7(1), 20; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/inventions7010020 - 30 Jan 2022
Viewed by 916
Abstract
The cleaning of the ear canal is very important, and it is crucial that it is performed by an otolaryngologist as it requires a high level of competence and skill. The accumulation of cerumen or earwax in the ear canal is one of [...] Read more.
The cleaning of the ear canal is very important, and it is crucial that it is performed by an otolaryngologist as it requires a high level of competence and skill. The accumulation of cerumen or earwax in the ear canal is one of the most commonly observed problems in patients, and ignoring it may cause hearing loss, irritation and discomfort. There are a number of techniques that have been utilized in the past for cleaning the ear canal, including irrigation, i.e., curettage and water pick, and syringing. There are many patients who are unable to clean their ear canal through a natural self-cleaning process. The main aim of this study is to develop a unique model for ear cleaning free of irritation or discomfort, especially for those patients who have disorders of the self-cleaning ear canal process. The tool is designed specifically considering patient safety and comfort. However, the commercialization of this tool requires research and modification for improved quality results considering primarily the patient’s health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Innovation Papers)
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Article
Introducing the Living Lab Approach in the Coastal Area of Constanta (Romania) by Using Design Thinking
Inventions 2022, 7(1), 19; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/inventions7010019 - 29 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 959
Abstract
Living Labs are an innovative concept that combines research, governance, and citizens, using technology and knowledge. Using design thinking techniques as a method of approach, this innovative idea builds a bridge between decision makers and stakeholders, promoting a shared vision of growth and [...] Read more.
Living Labs are an innovative concept that combines research, governance, and citizens, using technology and knowledge. Using design thinking techniques as a method of approach, this innovative idea builds a bridge between decision makers and stakeholders, promoting a shared vision of growth and innovation at the community level. The coastal zone is an extremely dynamic area in terms of human and natural activities. This is a particularly sensitive area to climate change, necessitating ongoing adaptation and mitigating action. This paper aims to introduce the application of the Living lab concept in the management of the coastal area of Constanta (Romania). The concept of the Living Lab means involving citizens along with public bodies and research structures. This new coastal management model will use the design thinking approach and will consider the pressures that exist between the activities that occur in the examined coastal zone. In the study, “Multi-Criteria Analysis of the Mass Tourism Management Model Related to the Impact on the Local Community in Constanța (Romania)”, published in MDPI Inventions on 28 June 2021, a coastal management model was built that took into consideration only the data given by the government. In this paper, the authors aim to expand their research by including data from independent sources, using the concept of a Living Lab. Full article
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Review
The Latest Advances in Wireless Communication in Aviation, Wind Turbines and Bridges
Inventions 2022, 7(1), 18; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/inventions7010018 - 29 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1072
Abstract
Present-day technologies used in SHM (Structural Health Monitoring) systems in many implementations are based on wireless sensor networks (WSN). In the context of the continuous development of these systems, the costs of the elements that form the monitoring system are decreasing. In this [...] Read more.
Present-day technologies used in SHM (Structural Health Monitoring) systems in many implementations are based on wireless sensor networks (WSN). In the context of the continuous development of these systems, the costs of the elements that form the monitoring system are decreasing. In this situation, the challenge is to select the optimal number of sensors and the network architecture, depending on the wireless system’s other parameters and requirements. It is a challenging task for WSN to provide scalability to cover a large area, fault tolerance, transmission reliability, and energy efficiency when no events are detected. In this article, fundamental issues concerning wireless communication in structural health monitoring systems (SHM) in the context of non-destructive testing sensors (NDT) were presented. Wireless technology developments in several crucial areas were also presented, and these include engineering facilities such as aviation and wind turbine systems as well as bridges and associated engineering facilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Innovation Papers)
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Editorial
Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Inventions in 2021
Inventions 2022, 7(1), 17; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/inventions7010017 - 26 Jan 2022
Viewed by 702
Abstract
Rigorous peer-reviews are the basis of high-quality academic publishing [...] Full article
Article
Design and Simulation of a Greenhouse FSS Nanofiber Film for Enhancing Agricultural Productivity by Selective Reduction of UV and NIR
Inventions 2022, 7(1), 16; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/inventions7010016 - 26 Jan 2022
Viewed by 737
Abstract
A greenhouse covering film is an essential part of any greenhouse. Its function is to filter solar radiation in the ultraviolet (UV) and the near-infrared (NIR) bands while allowing a great amount of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) to transmit. This paper proposes a [...] Read more.
A greenhouse covering film is an essential part of any greenhouse. Its function is to filter solar radiation in the ultraviolet (UV) and the near-infrared (NIR) bands while allowing a great amount of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) to transmit. This paper proposes a design of the greenhouse covering film based on a frequency selective surface (FSS). Aluminum is made into fibers in the nanoscale. They are laid out in an array, in-plane at equidistance from one another. This arrangement induces the wavelength selectivity of light via adjustment to the fiber sizes and spacings. The performance is evaluated by a finite element analysis (FEA) method. The results show less than 26% transmittance of UV and NIR while allowing more than 94% transmittance in the PAR regime. Full article
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Review
A Systematic Review of Applications of Machine Learning Techniques for Wildfire Management Decision Support
Inventions 2022, 7(1), 15; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/inventions7010015 - 21 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1473
Abstract
Wildfires threaten and kill people, destroy urban and rural property, degrade air quality, ravage forest ecosystems, and contribute to global warming. Wildfire management decision support models are thus important for avoiding or mitigating the effects of these events. In this context, this paper [...] Read more.
Wildfires threaten and kill people, destroy urban and rural property, degrade air quality, ravage forest ecosystems, and contribute to global warming. Wildfire management decision support models are thus important for avoiding or mitigating the effects of these events. In this context, this paper aims at providing a review of recent applications of machine learning methods for wildfire management decision support. The emphasis is on providing a summary of these applications with a classification according to the case study type, machine learning method, case study location, and performance metrics. The review considers documents published in the last four years, using a sample of 135 documents (review articles and research articles). It is concluded that the adoption of machine learning methods may contribute to enhancing support in different fire management phases. Full article
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Article
Improvement of the Liquefied Natural Gas Vapor Utilization System Using a Gas Ejector
Inventions 2022, 7(1), 14; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/inventions7010014 - 14 Jan 2022
Viewed by 826
Abstract
The production, transportation, and storage of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is a promising area in the gas industry due to a number of the fuel’s advantages, such as its high energy intensity indicators, its reduced storage volume compared to natural gas in the [...] Read more.
The production, transportation, and storage of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is a promising area in the gas industry due to a number of the fuel’s advantages, such as its high energy intensity indicators, its reduced storage volume compared to natural gas in the gas-air state, and it ecological efficiency. However, LNG storage systems feature a number of disadvantages, among which is the boil-off gas (BOG) recovery from an LNG tank by flaring it or discharging it to the atmosphere. Previous attempts to boil-off gas recovery using compressors, in turn, feature such disadvantages as large capital investments and operating costs, as well as low reliability rates. The authors of this article suggest a technical solution to this problem that consists in using a gas ejector for boil-off gas recovery. Natural gas from a high-pressure gas pipeline is proposed as a working fluid entraining the boil-off gas. The implementation of this method was carried out according to the developed algorithm. The proposed technical solution reduced capital costs (by approximately 170 times), metal consumption (by approximately 100 times), and power consumption (by approximately 55 kW), and improved the reliability of the system compared to a compressor unit. The sample calculation of a gas ejector for the boil-off gas recovery from an LNG tank with a capacity of 300 m3 shows that the ejector makes it possible to increase the boil-off gas pressure in the system by up to 1.13 MPa, which makes it possible to not use the first-stage compressor unit for the compression of excess vapours. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Innovation Papers)
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Editorial
Low-Cost Inventions and Patents
Inventions 2022, 7(1), 13; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/inventions7010013 - 11 Jan 2022
Viewed by 613
Abstract
Inventions have been the technological advances of mankind [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Low-Cost Inventions and Patents)
Article
DSP Processer-in-the-Loop Tests Based on Automatic Code Generation
Inventions 2022, 7(1), 12; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/inventions7010012 - 11 Jan 2022
Viewed by 648
Abstract
The digital signal processing (DSP) processor-in-the-loop tests based on automatic code generation technology are studied. Firstly, the idea of model-based design is introduced, and the principle and method of embedded code automatic generation technology are analyzed by taking the automatic code generation of [...] Read more.
The digital signal processing (DSP) processor-in-the-loop tests based on automatic code generation technology are studied. Firstly, the idea of model-based design is introduced, and the principle and method of embedded code automatic generation technology are analyzed by taking the automatic code generation of the DSP control algorithm for pulse width modulation (PWM) output as an example. Then, the control system model is established on MATLAB/Simulink. After verifying the model through simulation, the target board platform is established with DSP as the core processor, and the automatically generated code is tested by the processor-in-the-loop (PIL). The results show that the technology greatly shortens the development cycle of the project, improves the robustness and consistency of the control code, and can be widely used in the complex algorithm development process of the controller, from intelligent design and modeling to implementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Innovation Papers)
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Article
Estimation of the Tower Shape Effect on the Stress–Strain Behavior of Wind Turbines Operating under Offshore Boundary Conditions
Inventions 2022, 7(1), 11; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/inventions7010011 - 07 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 690
Abstract
The metal tower, or the pylon, is one of the most important elements in the construction of a wind turbine. It has the role of supporting the entire wind turbine, and it also allows access for inspection and conducting planned maintenance and repairs. [...] Read more.
The metal tower, or the pylon, is one of the most important elements in the construction of a wind turbine. It has the role of supporting the entire wind turbine, and it also allows access for inspection and conducting planned maintenance and repairs. Moreover, the tower ensures support for the structure and strengthens the whole assembly. It has a particularly important role, as it has to face very severe weather conditions. The present study aims to analyze the forces and moments resulting from the action of the wind on the tower of a wind turbine. Two important load cases are considered, namely, the load under operating conditions and the ultimate load under 50 year wind conditions. For this purpose, cylindrical and conical geometric shapes of the tower were chosen. These were analyzed under the action of both normal and extreme wind speeds. Then, the behavior of the two towers under the action of the wind speed for a location in the Black Sea was analyzed. Finally, in an attempt to make the structure more economical, the thickness of the shell was reduced. Full article
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Review
Review on Study Methods for Reciprocally Enwrapping Surfaces
Inventions 2022, 7(1), 10; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/inventions7010010 - 07 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 623
Abstract
The processing of the piece surfaces involves the transformation of the blank into a piece, the defining characteristics of the surfaces (the form, dimensions, deviations, etc.), depending to a large extent on the parameters of the generated processes of the surfaces. Generating surfaces [...] Read more.
The processing of the piece surfaces involves the transformation of the blank into a piece, the defining characteristics of the surfaces (the form, dimensions, deviations, etc.), depending to a large extent on the parameters of the generated processes of the surfaces. Generating surfaces by enveloping represents a complex problem, this mode of generating being a constant concern of researchers due to its advantages. A very important issue is the cutting edge profiling of the future tool, which will generate the wanted profile of the piece. Throughout time, researchers have studied the problems of enveloping surfaces and stated theorems related to them, based on which practical solutions have been conceive to determine the generating and generated surfaces form. The paper presents an overview on study methods for reciprocally enwrapping surfaces, as well as methods for profiling tools for generating helical surfaces by the kinematic method and by the method of decomposing the helical movement. This review can represent a basis for future research articles and projects. Full article
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Article
Numerical Study on Plastic Strain Distributions and Mechanical Behaviour of a Tube under Bending
Inventions 2022, 7(1), 9; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/inventions7010009 - 06 Jan 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 857
Abstract
Tubular pipe structures have been used in various applications—domestic, aviation, marine, manufacturing and material testing. The applications of tubular pipes have been considered greatly in the installation of tubular pipes, marine risers and pipe bending. For the investigation of plastic strains and the [...] Read more.
Tubular pipe structures have been used in various applications—domestic, aviation, marine, manufacturing and material testing. The applications of tubular pipes have been considered greatly in the installation of tubular pipes, marine risers and pipe bending. For the investigation of plastic strains and the mechanical behaviour of a tube under bending, considerations were made utilising an exponent model with assumptions on the plane strain. The bending moment, wall thickness effect, cross-sectional distribution, stresses during bending and neutral layer boundaries were all presented as necessary theoretical formulations on the physics of tubular pipe bending. This model was based on the analytical and numerical investigation. In principle, the application can be observed as the spooling of pipes, bending of pipes and reeling. Comparisons were made on two models developed on the finite element analysis in Simscale OpenFEA, namely the linear-elastic and the elasto-plastic models. This study presents visualization profiles using plastic strain to assess its effect on the tubular pipes. This can increase due to the limitation of plastic deformation on the composite materials selected. Full article
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Article
The Mathematical Models of the Operation Process for Critical Production Facilities Using Advanced Technologies
Inventions 2022, 7(1), 8; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/inventions7010008 - 30 Dec 2021
Viewed by 645
Abstract
The paper presents data on the problems of monitoring and diagnosing the technical conditions of critical production facilities, such as torpedo ladle cars, steel ladles. The accidents with critical production facilities, such as torpedo ladle cars, lead to losses and different types of [...] Read more.
The paper presents data on the problems of monitoring and diagnosing the technical conditions of critical production facilities, such as torpedo ladle cars, steel ladles. The accidents with critical production facilities, such as torpedo ladle cars, lead to losses and different types of damages in the metallurgical industry. The paper substantiates the need for a mathematical study of the operation process of the noted critical production facilities. A Markovian graph has been built that describes the states of torpedo ladle cars during their operation. A mathematical model is presented that allows determining the optimal frequency of diagnostics of torpedo ladle cars, which, in contrast to the existing approaches, take into account the procedures for preventive diagnostics of torpedo ladle cars, without taking them out of service. Dependence of the utilization coefficient on the period of diagnostics of PM350t torpedo ladle cars was developed. The results (of determining the optimal period of diagnostics for PM350t torpedo ladle cars) are demonstrated. The system for automated monitoring and diagnosing the technical conditions of torpedo ladle cars, without taking them out of service, has been developed and described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Innovation Papers)
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Article
Nanofluid Transport through a Complex Wavy Geometry with Magnetic and Permeability Effects
Inventions 2022, 7(1), 7; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/inventions7010007 - 25 Dec 2021
Viewed by 934
Abstract
The current article incorporates the numerical investigation of heat exchange rate and skin friction carried out through nanofluid saturated with thermally balanced porous medium over a rough horizontal surface that follows the sinusoidal waves. The effects of the external magnetic field are discussed [...] Read more.
The current article incorporates the numerical investigation of heat exchange rate and skin friction carried out through nanofluid saturated with thermally balanced porous medium over a rough horizontal surface that follows the sinusoidal waves. The effects of the external magnetic field are discussed by managing the magnetic field strength applied normally to the flow pattern. The occurring partial differential governing equations are grasped through a strong numerical scheme of the Keller box method (KBM) against the various parameters. The findings are elaborated through tables and diagrams of velocity, temperature, skin friction, Nusselt number, streamlines, and heat lines. The percentage increase in Nusselt number and coefficient of skin friction over the flat and wavy surface is calculated which leads to the conclusion that the copper (Cu) nanoparticles are better selected as compared to the silver (Ag) for heat transfer enhancement. It is also evident from sketches that the current analysis can be used to enhance the surface drag force by means of nanoparticles. It is a matter of interest that the magnetic field can be used to manage the heat transfer rate in such a complicated surface flow. The current readings have been found accurate and valid when compared with the existing literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Trends in Nanofluids III)
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Article
Developing and Investigating the Analyzers of Kinematic Viscosity and Density of Petroleum Products on Throttle Bridge Transducers
Inventions 2022, 7(1), 6; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/inventions7010006 - 24 Dec 2021
Viewed by 797
Abstract
Measuring the viscosity and density of petroleum products is important for their proper production, transportation and application. Viscosity and density are the main parameters determining the composition and structure of petroleum products. Therefore, in the industry, to control the quality of petroleum products [...] Read more.
Measuring the viscosity and density of petroleum products is important for their proper production, transportation and application. Viscosity and density are the main parameters determining the composition and structure of petroleum products. Therefore, in the industry, to control the quality of petroleum products during various technological processes, automatic and non-automatic devices are used for their measurement. The accuracy of measuring the viscosity and density of petroleum products is an important factor. The authors analyzed different methods of measuring the viscosity and density of petroleum products and synthesized three versions of throttle bridge transducers. These versions implement differential measurement methods and have different numbers of laminar and turbulent throttles. The authors obtained new equations of static conversion functions by channels of measuring the kinematic viscosity and density of petroleum products of the proposed throttle bridge transducers. The authors developed a block diagram and designed measuring equipment to study experimentally the static characteristics of the throttle bridge transducers. The authors determined that the maximal relative deviations of the results of experimental studies from numerical calculations of a static conversion factor by channels of kinematic viscosity and density were 5.88% and 8.76%, respectively. The authors developed two versions of automatic devices for measuring the kinematic viscosity and density of petroleum products based on the proposed throttle bridge transducers. The first version is an automatic analyzer with tracking astatic balancing. The second version is an automatic analyzer with deployment balancing. The authors developed constructions of both versions of automatic analyzers and obtained the results of experimental measuring of the kinematic viscosity and density of petroleum products in different ranges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Inventions and innovation in Advanced Manufacturing)
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Article
Production of PP Composites Reinforced with Flax and Hemp Woven Mesh Fabrics via Compression Molding
Inventions 2022, 7(1), 5; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/inventions7010005 - 21 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 886
Abstract
Hemp and flax fibers are among the most interesting vegetable fibers that can be used to reinforce polymeric matrices. In line with the global environmental requests, the use of these fibers especially coupled with thermoforming polymers are increasing more and more in order [...] Read more.
Hemp and flax fibers are among the most interesting vegetable fibers that can be used to reinforce polymeric matrices. In line with the global environmental requests, the use of these fibers especially coupled with thermoforming polymers are increasing more and more in order to expand their applications and replace synthetic fibers and thermosetting plastics. However, one of the major limitations of vegetable fibers is their poor adhesion with polymeric matrices that is often overcome by fibers chemical treatments or by using coupling agents within the matrix. Aiming to produce polypropylene (PP) bio composite laminates reinforced by hemp and flax fibers without additional process steps, this paper deals on the study of their production via the compression molding technique by using woven fabrics characterized by a large mesh size able to ensure a mechanical anchoring between fibers and matrix. Two different forming strategies that differ in the time required for reaching the maximum values of compression pressure and in the dwelling time at this value were used in order to investigate how the yarn impregnation was affected by them. To expand the applications of composites under investigation, tensile, bending, Izod, heat deflection temperature (HDT) and bearing tests were carried out. The results highlighted how the use of a waiting time before the reaching of the maximum moulding pressure allowed a better matrix flow within the vegetable yarn leading to higher mechanical performances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Innovation Papers)
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Article
Carbon Emissions and Renewables’ Share in the Future Iberian Power System
Inventions 2022, 7(1), 4; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/inventions7010004 - 21 Dec 2021
Viewed by 998
Abstract
The main objective of this study is to assess if the targets set by the European Commission (EC) relating to the share of renewables and CO2 emissions by 2030 will be accomplished by the Iberian power system. In this regard, several projections [...] Read more.
The main objective of this study is to assess if the targets set by the European Commission (EC) relating to the share of renewables and CO2 emissions by 2030 will be accomplished by the Iberian power system. In this regard, several projections for each generation technology’s installed capacity in the future power system are identified. These forecasts were issued by governmental and private Iberian organizations and by the European Association of Transmission System Operators (ENTSOE), the latter with three scenarios regarding the speed of the energy transition. The outputs of the study are extended to the 2040 horizon and include the energy generated by each technology, the CO2 emissions, the costs involved in the decarbonization, and the storage capacity needed to compensate for the renewables’ variability. The conclusion is that the Iberia peninsular is on the right path to achieve a fully decarbonized power system by 2040, outperforming by far the EC’s targets in 2030 if the governmental projections are followed. A significant capacity of storage options is envisaged to compensate for the variability of generation from renewables and to replace the power regulation services provided by the fossil fuel plants that will be shut down. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Data Analytics in the Energy Sector)
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Article
Development of an Approach for Determining the Effectiveness of Inhibition of Paraffin Deposition on the Wax Flow Loop Laboratory Installation
Inventions 2022, 7(1), 3; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/inventions7010003 - 21 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 773
Abstract
The formation of wax deposits is a common phenomenon in the production and transportation of formation fluids. On the territory of the Perm Krai, this problem occurs in half of the mining funds. One of the most common and promising methods of dealing [...] Read more.
The formation of wax deposits is a common phenomenon in the production and transportation of formation fluids. On the territory of the Perm Krai, this problem occurs in half of the mining funds. One of the most common and promising methods of dealing with these deposits is the use of inhibitor regents. The most popular technique for assessing the effectiveness of a wax inhibitor is the «Cold Finger», which has a number of significant drawbacks. This work presents a number of methods for assessing the effectiveness of inhibition of paraffin formation on the laboratory installation «WaxFlowLoop». A number of laboratory studies have been carried out to determine the effectiveness of a paraffin deposition inhibitor for inhibiting the paraffin formation process of four target fluids. Verification of the obtained values was carried out by comparing them with the field data. As a result of laboratory studies, it was found that the value of the inhibitor efficiency, determined by the «Cold Finger» method, differs from the field data by an average of 2 times. At the same time, the average deviation of the results determined at the «WaxFlowLoop» installation from the field data is 8.1%. The correct selection of a paraffin deposition inhibitor and its dosage can significantly increase the inter-treatment period of the well, thereby reducing its maintenance costs and increasing the efficiency of well operation. Full article
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Article
The Operation of a Three-Bladed Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine under Hailstorm Conditions—A Computational Study Focused on Aerodynamic Performance
Inventions 2022, 7(1), 2; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/inventions7010002 - 21 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1063
Abstract
The aim of this study is the aerodynamic degradation of a three-bladed Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT) under the influence of a hailstorm. The importance and originality of this study are that it explores the aerodynamic performance of an optimum wind turbine blade [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is the aerodynamic degradation of a three-bladed Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT) under the influence of a hailstorm. The importance and originality of this study are that it explores the aerodynamic performance of an optimum wind turbine blade during a hailstorm, when hailstones and raindrops are present. The commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code ANSYS Fluent 16.0 was utilized for the simulation. The first step was the calculation of the optimum blade geometry characteristics for a three-bladed rotor, i.e., twist and chord length along the blade, by a user-friendly application. Afterwards, the three-dimensional blade and the flow field domain were designed and meshed appropriately. The rotary motion of the blades was accomplished by the application of the Moving Reference Frame Model and the simulation of hailstorm conditions by the Discrete Phase Model. The SST k–ω turbulence model was also added. The produced power of the wind turbine, operating in various environmental conditions, was estimated and discussed. Contours of pressure, hailstone and raindrop concentration and erosion rate, on both sides of the blade, are presented. Moreover, contours of velocity at various cross sections parallel to the rotor are demonstrated, to understand the effect of hailstorms on the wake behavior. The results suggest that the aerodynamic performance of a HAWT degrades due to impact and breakup of the particles on the blade. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Innovation Papers)
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