Next Article in Journal
The “Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology” Journal Club Series: Highlights on Recent Papers in Corrective Exercise
Next Article in Special Issue
Effect of Video Observation and Motor Imagery on Simple Reaction Time in Cadet Pilots
Previous Article in Journal
Body Composition Changes over Multiple Academic Years in Female Collegiate Soccer Players
Previous Article in Special Issue
Effects of Dehydration on Archery Performance, Subjective Feelings and Heart Rate during a Competition Simulation
Brief Report

Bioimpedance Vector References Need to Be Period-Specific for Assessing Body Composition and Cellular Health in Elite Soccer Players: A Brief Report

1
Department of Health, Performance and Recovery, Parma Calcio 1913, 40121 Parma, Italy
2
Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, Università degli Studi di Milano, 20129 Milano, Italy
3
Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Università degli Studi di Firenze, 50139 Florence, Italy
4
Medical Department Manchester City Football Club, Manchester 03101, UK
5
Medical Department Parma Calcio 1913, 40121 Parma, Italy
6
Inflammatory Bowel Disease Unit, A.O.O.R. Villa Sofia-Cervello, 90146 Palermo, Italy
7
Department for Life Quality Studies, University of Bologna, 47921 Rimini, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(4), 73; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfmk5040073
Received: 27 August 2020 / Revised: 28 September 2020 / Accepted: 29 September 2020 / Published: 1 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription)
Purpose: Bioimpedance data through bioimpedance vector analysis (BIVA) is used to evaluate cellular function and body fluid content. This study aimed to (i) identify whether BIVA patters differ according to the competitive period and (ii) provide specific references for assessing bioelectric properties at the start of the season in male elite soccer players. Methods: The study included 131 male soccer players (age: 25.1 ± 4.7 yr, height: 183.4 ± 6.1 cm, weight: 79.3 ± 6.6) registered in the first Italian soccer division (Serie A). Bioimpedance analysis was performed just before the start of the competitive season and BIVA was applied. In order to verify the need for period-specific references, bioelectrical values measured at the start of the season were compared to the reference values for the male elite soccer player population. Results: The results of the two-sample Hotelling T2 tests showed that in the bivariate interpretation of the raw bioimpedance parameters (resistance (R) and reactance (Xc)) the bioelectric properties significantly (T2 = 15.3, F = 7.6, p ≤ 0.001, Mahalanobis D = 0.45) differ between the two phases of the competition analyzed. In particular, the mean impedance vector is more displaced to the left into the R-Xc graph at the beginning of the season than in the first half of the championship. Conclusions: For an accurate evaluation of body composition and cellular health, the tolerance ellipses displayed by BIVA approach into the R-Xc graph must be period-specific. This study provides new specific tolerance ellipses (R/H: 246 ± 32.1, Xc/H: 34.3 ± 5.1, r: 0.7) for performing BIVA at the beginning of the competitive season in male elite soccer players. View Full-Text
Keywords: BIVA; phase angle; R-Xc graph; tolerance ellipses BIVA; phase angle; R-Xc graph; tolerance ellipses
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Bongiovanni, T.; Mascherini, G.; Genovesi, F.; Pasta, G.; Iaia, F.M.; Trecroci, A.; Ventimiglia, M.; Alberti, G.; Campa, F. Bioimpedance Vector References Need to Be Period-Specific for Assessing Body Composition and Cellular Health in Elite Soccer Players: A Brief Report. J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5, 73. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfmk5040073

AMA Style

Bongiovanni T, Mascherini G, Genovesi F, Pasta G, Iaia FM, Trecroci A, Ventimiglia M, Alberti G, Campa F. Bioimpedance Vector References Need to Be Period-Specific for Assessing Body Composition and Cellular Health in Elite Soccer Players: A Brief Report. Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology. 2020; 5(4):73. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfmk5040073

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bongiovanni, Tindaro, Gabriele Mascherini, Federico Genovesi, Giulio Pasta, Fedon M. Iaia, Athos Trecroci, Marco Ventimiglia, Giampietro Alberti, and Francesco Campa. 2020. "Bioimpedance Vector References Need to Be Period-Specific for Assessing Body Composition and Cellular Health in Elite Soccer Players: A Brief Report" Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology 5, no. 4: 73. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfmk5040073

Find Other Styles

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop