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Article

Evaluation of Strength and Muscle Activation Indicators in Sticking Point Region of National-Level Paralympic Powerlifting Athletes

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Department of Physical Education, Federal University of Sergipe (UFS), São Cristovão 49100-000, Sergipe, Brazil
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Group of Studies and Research of Performance, Sport, Health and Paralympic Sports-GEPEPS, The Federal University of Sergipe (UFS), São Cristovão 49100-000, Sergipe, Brazil
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Graduate Program of Physiological Science, Federal University of Sergipe (UFS), São Cristovão 49100-000, Sergipe, Brazil
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Graduate Program of Physical Education, Federal University of Sergipe (UFS), São Cristovão 49100-000, Sergipe, Brazil
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Escola Superior Desporto e Lazer, Instituto Politécnico de Viana do Castelo, Rua Escola Industrial e Comercial de Nun’Álvares, 4900-347 Viana do Castelo, Portugal
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Instituto de Telecomunicações, Delegação da Covilhã, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal
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Cardiovascular & Physiology of Exercise Laboratory, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Canada
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Campus of Florestal, University Federal of Viçosa (UFV), Florestal 36570-900, Minas Gerais, Brazil
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Department of Physical Education, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal 59078-970, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil
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Research Center in Sports Sciences, Health Sciences and Human Development (CIDESD), Trás os Montes and Alto Douro University, 5001-801 Vila Real, Portugal
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Faculty of Life Sciences and Education, University of South Wales, Pontypridd, Wales CF37 5UP, UK
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Paralympic Sports Program, SARAH Rehabilitation Hospital Network, Brasilia 71535-005, Distrito Federal, Brazil
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Institute of Primary Care, University of Zurich, 8091 Zurich, Switzerland
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Medbase St. Gallen Am Vadianplatz, 9001 St. Gallen, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Cristina Cortis, Andrea Fusco and Carl Foster
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2021, 6(2), 43; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfmk6020043
Received: 22 April 2021 / Revised: 10 May 2021 / Accepted: 12 May 2021 / Published: 15 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription-2nd Edition)
Background: The sticking region is considered an intervening factor in the performance of the bench press with high loads. Objective: To evaluate the strength indicators in the sticking point region in Powerlifting Paralympic athletes. Methods: Twelve Brazilian Powerlifting Paralympic athletes performed maximum isometric force (MIF), rate of force development (RFD), time at MIF, velocity, dynamic time in sticking, and surface electromyography in several distances from the bar to the chest. Results: For velocity, there was a difference between the pre-sticking and sticking region (1.98 ± 0.32 and 1.30 ± 0.43, p = 0.039) and dynamic time between the pre-sticking and the sticking region (0.40 ± 0.16 and 0.97 ± 0.37, p = 00.021). In static test for the MIF, differences were found between 5.0 cm and 15.0 cm (CI 95% 784; 1088; p = 0.010) and between 10.0 cm and 5.0 cm (CI 95% 527; 768; p < 0.001). Regarding the RFD, differences were found (CI 95% 938; 1240; p = 0.004) between 5.0 cm and 25.0 cm and between 10.0 cm and 25.0 cm (CI 95% 513; 732; p < 0.001). In relation to time, there were differences between 5.0 cm and 15.0 cm (CI 95% 0.330; 0.515; p < 0.001), 5.0 cm, and 25.0 cm (CI 95% 0.928; 1.345; p = 0.001), 10.0 cm and 15.0 cm (p < 0.05) and 15.0 cm and 25.0 cm (p < 0.05). No significant differences were observed between the muscles in electromyography, although the triceps showed the highest muscle activation values. Conclusions: The maximum isometric force, rate of force development, time, velocity, and dynamic time had lower values, especially in the initial and intermediate phases in the sticking region. View Full-Text
Keywords: strength indicators; sticking point; Powerlifting Paralympic strength indicators; sticking point; Powerlifting Paralympic
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MDPI and ACS Style

Aidar, F.J.; Clemente, F.M.; Matos, D.G.d.; Marçal, A.C.; de Souza, R.F.; Moreira, O.C.; Almeida-Neto, P.F.d.; Vilaça-Alves, J.; Garrido, N.D.; dos Santos, J.L.; Jeffreys, I.; Neto, F.R.; Reis, V.M.; Cabral, B.G.d.A.T.; Rosemann, T.; Knechtle, B. Evaluation of Strength and Muscle Activation Indicators in Sticking Point Region of National-Level Paralympic Powerlifting Athletes. J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2021, 6, 43. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfmk6020043

AMA Style

Aidar FJ, Clemente FM, Matos DGd, Marçal AC, de Souza RF, Moreira OC, Almeida-Neto PFd, Vilaça-Alves J, Garrido ND, dos Santos JL, Jeffreys I, Neto FR, Reis VM, Cabral BGdAT, Rosemann T, Knechtle B. Evaluation of Strength and Muscle Activation Indicators in Sticking Point Region of National-Level Paralympic Powerlifting Athletes. Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology. 2021; 6(2):43. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfmk6020043

Chicago/Turabian Style

Aidar, Felipe J., Filipe M. Clemente, Dihogo G.d. Matos, Anderson C. Marçal, Raphael F. de Souza, Osvaldo C. Moreira, Paulo F.d. Almeida-Neto, José Vilaça-Alves, Nuno D. Garrido, Jymmys L. dos Santos, Ian Jeffreys, Frederico R. Neto, Victor M. Reis, Breno G.d.A.T. Cabral, Thomas Rosemann, and Beat Knechtle. 2021. "Evaluation of Strength and Muscle Activation Indicators in Sticking Point Region of National-Level Paralympic Powerlifting Athletes" Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology 6, no. 2: 43. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfmk6020043

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