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J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol., Volume 7, Issue 1 (March 2022) – 29 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Recovery is a multidimensional process involving physiological, psychological, emotional, social, and behavioral aspects. Several recovery strategies have surged in popularity, claiming to address one or more of these components. However, endurance athletes are primarily utilizing, believing in, and rating highly the effectiveness of lifestyle recovery practices (i.e., hydration, nutrition, and sleep). Female endurance athletes use more recovery strategies in training, while top three finishers overall and by division use more strategies in both training and competition. Recovery was mainly determined by self-perception, and endurance athletes are relying on those around them such as coaches and fellow athletes, along with websites, for information and recommendations. Educating athletes on the multidimensionality of recovery is needed. View this paper
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Article
Analgesic Effect of Extracorporeal Shock-Wave Therapy in Individuals with Lateral Epicondylitis: A Randomized Controlled Trial
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2022, 7(1), 29; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfmk7010029 - 18 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1202
Abstract
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of extracorporeal shock-wave therapy (ESWT) on pain, grip strength, and upper-extremity function in lateral epicondylitis. A sample of 40 patients with LE (21 males) was randomly allocated to either the ESWT experimental (n = 20) [...] Read more.
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of extracorporeal shock-wave therapy (ESWT) on pain, grip strength, and upper-extremity function in lateral epicondylitis. A sample of 40 patients with LE (21 males) was randomly allocated to either the ESWT experimental (n = 20) or the conventional-physiotherapy control group (n = 20). All patients received five sessions during the treatment program. The outcome measures used were the Visual Analog Scale (VAS), the Taiwan version of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaire, and a dynamometer (maximal grip strength). Forty participants completed the study. Participants in both groups improved significantly after treatment in terms of VAS (pain reduced), maximal grip strength, and DASH scores. However, the pain was reduced and upper-extremity function and maximal grip strength were more significantly improved after ESWT in the experimental group. ESWT has a superior effect in reducing pain and improving upper-extremity function and grip strength in people with lateral epicondylitis. It seems that five sessions of ESWT are optimal to produce a significant difference. Further studies are strongly needed to verify our findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders—4th Edition)
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Article
Frequency Shifts in Muscle Activation during Static Strength Elements on the Rings before and after an Eccentric Training Intervention in Male Gymnasts
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2022, 7(1), 28; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfmk7010028 - 11 Mar 2022
Viewed by 831
Abstract
During ring performance in men’s gymnastics, static strength elements require a high level of maximal muscular strength. The aim of the study was to analyze the effect of a four-week eccentric–isokinetic training intervention in the frequency spectra of the wavelet-transformed electromyogram (EMG) during [...] Read more.
During ring performance in men’s gymnastics, static strength elements require a high level of maximal muscular strength. The aim of the study was to analyze the effect of a four-week eccentric–isokinetic training intervention in the frequency spectra of the wavelet-transformed electromyogram (EMG) during the two static strength elements, the swallow and support scale, in different time intervals during the performance. The gymnasts performed an instrumented movement analysis on the rings, once before the intervention and twice after. For both elements, the results showed a lower congruence in the correlation of the frequency spectra between the first and the last 0.5 s interval than between the first and second 0.5 s intervals, which was indicated by a shift toward the predominant frequency around the wavelet with a center frequency of 62 Hz (Wavelet W10). Furthermore, in both elements, there was a significant increase in the congruence of the frequency spectra after the intervention between the first and second 0.5 s intervals, but not between the first and last ones. In conclusion, the EMG wavelet spectra presented changes corresponding to the performance gain with the eccentric training intervention, and showed the frequency shift toward a predominant frequency due to acute muscular fatigue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sport Physiology and Performance - 2nd Edition)
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Article
Baseline Physical Activity Behaviors and Relationships with Fitness in the Army Training at High Intensity Study
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2022, 7(1), 27; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfmk7010027 - 08 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1013
Abstract
United States Army soldiers must meet physical fitness test standards. Criticisms of the Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) include limited testing of only aerobic and muscular endurance activity domains; yet, it is unclear what levels of aerobic and muscle strengthening activity may help [...] Read more.
United States Army soldiers must meet physical fitness test standards. Criticisms of the Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) include limited testing of only aerobic and muscular endurance activity domains; yet, it is unclear what levels of aerobic and muscle strengthening activity may help predict performance in aspects of the new Army Combat Fitness Test (ACFT). This study explored relationships between baseline self-reported aerobic and muscle strengthening activities and APFT- and ACFT-related performance. Baseline participant data (N = 123) were from a cluster-randomized clinical trial that recruited active-duty military personnel (mean age 33.7 ± 5.7 years, 72.4% White, 87.0% college-educated, 81.5% Officers). An online survey was used for self-report of socio-demographic characteristics and weekly aerobic and muscle-strengthening physical activity behaviors. Participants also completed the APFT (2 min push-ups, 2 min sit-ups, 2-mile run) and ACFT-related measures (1-repetition maximum deadlift, pull-up repetitions or timed flexed arm hang, horizontal jump, and dummy drag). Bivariate logistic regression found greater aerobic and muscle-strengthening activity predicted better APFT performance, while better ACFT-related performance was predicted by greater muscle-strengthening activity. Although our data are mostly from mid-career officers, command policies should emphasize the new Holistic Health and Fitness initiative that encourages regular aerobic and muscle-strengthening physical activity for soldiers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health and Performance through Sports at All Ages)
Article
Electromyographic Analysis of the Lumbar Extensor Muscles during Dynamic Exercise on a Home Exercise Device
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2022, 7(1), 26; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfmk7010026 - 01 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1110
Abstract
Resistance exercise with devices offering mechanisms to isolate the lumbar spine is effective to improve muscle strength and clinical outcomes. However, previously assessed devices with these mechanisms are not conducive for home exercise programs. The purpose of this study was to assess the [...] Read more.
Resistance exercise with devices offering mechanisms to isolate the lumbar spine is effective to improve muscle strength and clinical outcomes. However, previously assessed devices with these mechanisms are not conducive for home exercise programs. The purpose of this study was to assess the surface electromyographic (EMG) activity of the lumbar extensor muscles during dynamic exercise on a home back extension exercise device. Ten adults (5 F, 5 M) performed dynamic lumbar extension exercise on a home device at three loads: 1.00 × body weight (BW), 1.25 × BW and 1.50 × BW. Surface EMG activity from the L3/4 paraspinal region was collected. The effect of exercise load, phase of movement, and position in the range of motion on lumbar extensor EMG activity (normalized to % maximum voluntary isometric contraction) was assessed. Lumbar extensor EMG activity significantly increased from 1.00 BW to 1.50 BW loads (p = 0.0006), eccentric to concentric phases (p < 0.0001), and flexion to extension positions (p < 0.0001). Exercise using a home back extension exercise device progressively activates the lumbar extensor muscles. This device can be used for home-based resistance exercise programs in community-dwelling adults without contraindications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription-2nd Edition)
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Article
Association between Concentric and Eccentric Isokinetic Torque and Unilateral Countermovement Jump Variables in Professional Soccer Players
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2022, 7(1), 25; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfmk7010025 - 25 Feb 2022
Viewed by 878
Abstract
Isokinetic tests have been highly valuable to athletic analysis, but their cost and technical operation turn them inaccessible. The purpose of this study was to verify the correlation between unilateral countermovement jump variables and isokinetic data. Thirty-two male professional soccer players were subjected [...] Read more.
Isokinetic tests have been highly valuable to athletic analysis, but their cost and technical operation turn them inaccessible. The purpose of this study was to verify the correlation between unilateral countermovement jump variables and isokinetic data. Thirty-two male professional soccer players were subjected to the isokinetic testing of both knee extensors and flexors in concentric and eccentric muscle contractions. They also executed unilateral countermovement vertical jumps (UCMJ) to compare maximum height, ground reaction force, and impulse power with isokinetic peak torque. Data analysis was conducted through Pearson correlation and linear regression. A high correlation was found between dominant unilateral extensor concentric peak torque and the UCMJ maximum height of the dominant leg. The non-dominant leg jump showed a moderate correlation. No other variable showed statistical significance. Linear regression allowed the generation of two formulae to estimate the peak torque from UCMJ for dominant and non-dominant legs. Although few studies were found to compare our results, leading to more studies being needed, a better understanding of the unilateral countermovement jump may be used in the future as a substitute to the expensive and technically demanding isokinetic testing when it is unavailable, allowing the assessment of lower limb physical asymmetries in athletic or rehabilitation environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strength Training for Human Health and Performance)
Editorial
Progress of Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology in 2021
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2022, 7(1), 24; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfmk7010024 - 23 Feb 2022
Viewed by 727
Abstract
The Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology (JFMK, ISSN: 2411-5142), which was first released in March 2016, has gone from strength to strength in 2021 [...] Full article
Article
Intraoperative Load Sensing in Total Knee Arthroplasty Leads to a Functional but Not Clinical Difference: A Comparative, Gait Analysis Evaluation
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2022, 7(1), 23; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfmk7010023 - 18 Feb 2022
Viewed by 805
Abstract
Introduction: Although Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA) is a successful procedure, a significant number of patients are still unsatisfied, reporting instability at the mid-flexion range (Mid-Flexion Instability-MFI). To avoid this complication, many innovations, including load sensors (LS), have been introduced. The intraoperative use of [...] Read more.
Introduction: Although Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA) is a successful procedure, a significant number of patients are still unsatisfied, reporting instability at the mid-flexion range (Mid-Flexion Instability-MFI). To avoid this complication, many innovations, including load sensors (LS), have been introduced. The intraoperative use of LS may facilitate the balance of the knee during the entire range of motion to avoid MFI postoperatively. The objective of this study was to perform a Gait Analysis (GA) evaluation of a series of patients who underwent primary TKA using a single LS technology. Methods: The authors matched and compared two groups of patients treated with the same posterior stabilized TKA design. In Group A, 10 knees were intraoperatively balanced with LS technology, while 10 knees (Group B) underwent standard TKA. The correct TKA alignment was preoperatively determined aiming for a mechanical alignment. Clinical evaluation was performed according to the WOMAC, Knee Society Score (KSS) and Forgotten Joint Score, while functional evaluation was performed using a state-of-the-art GA platform. Results: We reported excellent clinical results in both groups without any statistical difference in patient reported outcome measurements (PROMs); from a functional standpoint, several GA space–time parameters were closer to normal in the sensor group when compared to the standard group, but a statistically significant difference was not reached. Conclusions: Gait Analysis represents a valid method to evaluate TKA kinematics. This study, with its limitations, showed that pressure sensitive technology represents a valid aid for surgeons aiming to improve the postoperative stability of TKA; however, other factors (i.e., level of intra-articular constraint and alignment) may play a major role in reproducing the normal knee biomechanics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Working Group in Sports Medicine)
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Article
Recovery Strategies in Endurance Athletes
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2022, 7(1), 22; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfmk7010022 - 13 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1840
Abstract
In order to achieve optimal performance, endurance athletes need to implement a variety of recovery strategies that are specific to their training and competition. Recovery is a multidimensional process involving physiological, psychological, emotional, social, and behavioral aspects. The purpose of the study was [...] Read more.
In order to achieve optimal performance, endurance athletes need to implement a variety of recovery strategies that are specific to their training and competition. Recovery is a multidimensional process involving physiological, psychological, emotional, social, and behavioral aspects. The purpose of the study was to examine current implementation, beliefs, and sources of information associated with recovery strategies in endurance athletes. Participants included 264 self-identified endurance athletes (male = 122, female = 139) across 11 different sports including placing top three overall in competition (n = 55) and placing in the top three in their age group or division (n = 113) during the past year. Endurance athletes in the current study preferred hydration, nutrition, sleep, and rest in terms of use, belief, and effectiveness of the recovery strategy. Female endurance athletes use more recovery strategies for training than males (p = 0.043, d = 0.25), but not in competition (p = 0.137, d = 0.19). For training, top three finishers overall (p < 0.001, d = 0.61) and by division (p < 0.001, d = 0.57), used more recovery strategies than those placing outside the top three. Similar findings were reported for competition in top three finishers overall (p = 0.008, d = 0.41) and by division (p < 0.001, d = 0.45). These athletes are relying on the people around them such as coaches (48.3%) and fellow athletes (47.5%) along with websites (32.7%) for information and recommendations. Endurance athletes should be educated on other strategies to address the multidimensionality of recovery. These findings will be useful for healthcare professionals, practitioners, and coaches in understanding recovery strategies with endurance athletes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sport Physiology and Performance - 2nd Edition)
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Article
Training Load, Maturity Timing and Future National Team Selection in National Youth Basketball Players
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2022, 7(1), 21; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfmk7010021 - 11 Feb 2022
Viewed by 917
Abstract
Despite its importance to the management of training stress, monotony and recovery from exercise, training load has not been quantified during periods of intensity training in youths. This study aimed to (1) examine and quantify the training load (TL) in youth national team [...] Read more.
Despite its importance to the management of training stress, monotony and recovery from exercise, training load has not been quantified during periods of intensity training in youths. This study aimed to (1) examine and quantify the training load (TL) in youth national team basketball players during a 2-week training camp according to maturity timing and (2) determine which parameters were related to under-18 (U18) national team selection. Twenty-nine U-16 national team basketball players underwent an anthropometric assessment to determine maturity timing. Players were categorised by maturity timing (early vs. average), whilst TL parameters during a 2-week training camp (i.e., 21 sessions) prior to FIBA U16 European Championship were used for group comparison and to predict future U-18 national team selection. The early-maturing players, who were taller and heavier (p < 0.05), experienced greater training strain in week 1 (p < 0.05) only. Irrespective of maturity timing, training loads in week 2 were predictive of onward selection for the U-18 national team. Conclusion: Based on present findings, practitioners are encouraged to develop their athletes’ ability to tolerate high weekly loads, but also to be mindful that athletes’ perceived exertion during national team training may be influenced by maturity timing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strength Training for Human Health and Performance)
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Article
Hybrid Hyaluronic Acid versus High Molecular Weight Hyaluronic Acid for the Treatment of Hip Osteoarthritis in Overweight/Obese Patients
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2022, 7(1), 20; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfmk7010020 - 09 Feb 2022
Viewed by 825
Abstract
Background: Obesity is the main risk factor for hip osteoarthritis, negatively affecting the outcome of the disease. We evaluated the effectiveness of viscosupplementation with hybrid hyaluronic acid compared to that with high molecular weight hyaluronic acid in overweight/obese patients with hip osteoarthritis (OA). [...] Read more.
Background: Obesity is the main risk factor for hip osteoarthritis, negatively affecting the outcome of the disease. We evaluated the effectiveness of viscosupplementation with hybrid hyaluronic acid compared to that with high molecular weight hyaluronic acid in overweight/obese patients with hip osteoarthritis (OA). Methods: 80 patients were divided into two groups: a treatment group received two ultrasound-guided intra-articular hip injections of hybrid HA 15 days apart; a control group received a single ultrasound-guided infiltration with medium-high molecular weight hyaluronic acid (1500–2000 kDa). We assessed the pain, functional and cardiovascular capacity of the patients at baseline, after 3 months, and after 6 months of the infiltrative sessions. Results: The treatment group showed greater improvements in the scores on the NRS scale (5.4 ± 0.8 vs. 6.3 ± 0.8; p < 0.05) and in the Lequesne index (11.4 ± 2.6 vs. 13.6 ± 2.7; p < 0.05) and in the distance traveled at 6MWT (238.1 ± 53.9 m vs. 210.7 ± 46.2 m; p = 0.02) both at 3 months (T1) and at 6 months (T2). Conclusions: This study underlines the importance of exploiting the anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and chondrogenic properties of hybrid HA for the treatment of hip OA in overweight/obese patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders—4th Edition)
Editorial
Effects of COVID-19 Syndemic on Sport Community
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2022, 7(1), 19; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfmk7010019 - 07 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 831
Abstract
Nowadays, we live in a society crossed by the greatest public health crisis in over a century: the COVID-19 pandemic [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Working Group in Sports Medicine)
Article
Extracellular to Intracellular Body Water and Cognitive Function among Healthy Older and Younger Adults
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2022, 7(1), 18; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfmk7010018 - 05 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1269
Abstract
Compromised cognitive function is associated with increased mortality and increased healthcare costs. Physical characteristics including height, weight, body mass index, sex, and fat mass are often associated with cognitive function. Extracellular to intracellular body water ratio offers an additional anthropometric measurement that has [...] Read more.
Compromised cognitive function is associated with increased mortality and increased healthcare costs. Physical characteristics including height, weight, body mass index, sex, and fat mass are often associated with cognitive function. Extracellular to intracellular body water ratio offers an additional anthropometric measurement that has received recent attention because of its association with systemic inflammation, hypertension, and blood–brain barrier permeability. The purposes of this study were to determine whether extracellular to intracellular body water ratios are different between younger and older people and whether they are associated with cognitive function, including executive function and attention, working memory, and information processing speed. A total of 118 healthy people (39 older; 79 younger) participated in this study. We discovered that extracellular to intracellular body water ratio increased with age, was predictive of an older person’s ability to inhibit information and stay attentive to a desired task (Flanker test; R2 = 0.24; p < 0.001), and had strong sensitivity (83%) and specificity (91%) to detect a lower executive function score. These findings support that extracellular to intracellular body water ratio offers predictive capabilities of cognitive function, even in a healthy group of elderly people. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders—4th Edition)
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Article
Drop Jumping on Sand Is Characterized by Lower Power, Higher Rate of Force Development and Larger Knee Joint Range of Motion
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2022, 7(1), 17; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfmk7010017 - 04 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1182
Abstract
Plyometric training on sand is suggested to result in advanced performance in vertical jumping. However, limited information exists concerning the biomechanics of drop jumps (DJ) on sand. The purpose of the study was to compare the biomechanical parameters of DJs executed on rigid [...] Read more.
Plyometric training on sand is suggested to result in advanced performance in vertical jumping. However, limited information exists concerning the biomechanics of drop jumps (DJ) on sand. The purpose of the study was to compare the biomechanical parameters of DJs executed on rigid (RIGID) and sand (SAND) surface. Sixteen high level male beach-volleyball players executed DJ from 40 cm on RIGID and SAND. Force- and video-recordings were analyzed to extract the kinetic and kinematic parameters of the DJ. Results of paired-samples t-tests revealed that DJ on SAND had significantly (p < 0.05) lower jumping height, peak vertical ground reaction force, power, peak leg stiffness and peak ankle flexion angular velocity than RIGID. In addition, DJ on SAND was characterized by significantly (p < 0.05) larger rate of force development and knee joint flexion in the downward phase. No differences (p > 0.05) were observed for the temporal parameters. The compliance of SAND decreases the efficiency of the mechanisms involved in the optimization of DJ performance. Nevertheless, SAND comprises an exercise surface with less loading during the eccentric phase of the DJ, thus it can be considered as a surface that can offer injury prevention under demands for large energy expenditure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription-2nd Edition)
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Article
Is Muscle Architecture Different in Athletes with a Previous Hamstring Strain? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2022, 7(1), 16; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfmk7010016 - 31 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1114
Abstract
Hamstring strains are a frequent injury in sports and are characterized by a high recurrence rate. The aim of this review was to examine the muscle and tendon architecture in individuals with hamstring injury. A systematic literature search in four databases yielded eleven [...] Read more.
Hamstring strains are a frequent injury in sports and are characterized by a high recurrence rate. The aim of this review was to examine the muscle and tendon architecture in individuals with hamstring injury. A systematic literature search in four databases yielded eleven studies on architecture following injury. Differences in the fascicle length (FL), pennation angle (PA) and muscle size measures (volume, thickness and physiological cross-sectional area) at rest were not significantly different between the previously injured limb and the contralateral limb (p > 0.05). There was moderate evidence that biceps femoris long head (BFlh) FL shortening was greater during contraction in the injured compared to the contralateral limb. The BFlh FL was smaller in athletes with a previous injury compared to uninjured individuals (p = 0.0015) but no differences in the FL and PA of other muscles as well as in the aponeurosis/tendon size were observed (p > 0.05). An examination of the FL of both leg muscles in individuals with a previous hamstring strain may be necessary before and after return to sport. Exercises that promote fascicle lengthening of both injured and uninjured leg muscles may be beneficial for athletes who recover from a hamstring injury. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Working Group in Sports Medicine)
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Editorial
Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology in 2021
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2022, 7(1), 15; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfmk7010015 - 26 Jan 2022
Viewed by 682
Abstract
Rigorous peer-reviews are the basis of high-quality academic publishing [...] Full article
Review
The Efficacy of Flywheel Inertia Training to Enhance Hamstring Strength
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2022, 7(1), 14; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfmk7010014 - 20 Jan 2022
Viewed by 926
Abstract
The purpose of this narrative review is to examine the efficacy of flywheel inertia training to increase hamstring strength. Hamstring strain injury is common in many sports, and baseline strength deficits have been associated with a higher risk of hamstring strain injury. As [...] Read more.
The purpose of this narrative review is to examine the efficacy of flywheel inertia training to increase hamstring strength. Hamstring strain injury is common in many sports, and baseline strength deficits have been associated with a higher risk of hamstring strain injury. As a result, strength and conditioning professionals actively seek additional techniques to improve hamstring strength with the aim of minimising the incidence of hamstring strain injury. One method of strength training gaining popularity in hamstring strength development is flywheel inertia training. In this review, we provide a brief overview of flywheel inertia training and its supposed adaptions. Next, we discuss important determinants of flywheel inertia training such as familiarisation, volume prescription, inertia load, technique and specific exercise used. Thereafter, we investigate its effects on hamstring strength, fascicle length and hamstring strain injury reduction. This article proposes that hamstring specific flywheel inertia training can be utilised for strength development, but due to the low number of studies and contrary evidence, more research is needed before a definite conclusion can be made. In addition, as with any training modality, careful consideration should be given to flywheel inertia training determinants. This review provides general recommendations of flywheel inertia training determinants that have value when integrating flywheel inertia training into a hamstring strengthening program. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription-2nd Edition)
Review
Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty Biomechanics
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2022, 7(1), 13; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfmk7010013 - 19 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1209
Abstract
The reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (rTSA) prosthesis has been demonstrated to be a viable treatment option for a variety of end-stage degenerative conditions of the shoulder. The clinical success of this prosthesis is at least partially due to its unique biomechanical advantages. As [...] Read more.
The reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (rTSA) prosthesis has been demonstrated to be a viable treatment option for a variety of end-stage degenerative conditions of the shoulder. The clinical success of this prosthesis is at least partially due to its unique biomechanical advantages. As taught by Paul Grammont, the medialized center of rotation fixed-fulcrum prosthesis increases the deltoid abductor moment arm lengths and improves deltoid efficiency relative to the native shoulder. All modern reverse shoulder prostheses utilize this medialized center of rotation (CoR) design concept; however, some differences in outcomes and complications have been observed between rTSA prostheses. Such differences in outcomes can at least partially be explained by the impact of glenoid and humeral prosthesis design parameters, surgical technique, implant positioning, patient-specific bone morphology, and usage in humeral and glenoid bone loss situations on reverse shoulder biomechanics. Ultimately, a better understanding of the reverse shoulder biomechanical principles will guide future innovations and further improve clinical outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty)
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Article
Impact of BMI, Physical Activity, and Sitting Time Levels on Health-Related Outcomes in a Group of Overweight and Obese Adults with and without Type 2 Diabetes
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2022, 7(1), 12; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfmk7010012 - 17 Jan 2022
Viewed by 961
Abstract
Physical activity level and sedentary behaviors affect health status in people with obesity and type 2 diabetes (DM2); their assessment is mandatory to properly prescribe exercise programs. From January 2011 to February 2014, 293 overweight/obese adults (165 women and 128 men, mean age [...] Read more.
Physical activity level and sedentary behaviors affect health status in people with obesity and type 2 diabetes (DM2); their assessment is mandatory to properly prescribe exercise programs. From January 2011 to February 2014, 293 overweight/obese adults (165 women and 128 men, mean age of 51.9 ± 9.5 years and 54.6 ± 8.3 years, respectively), with and without DM2, participated in a three-month intensive exercise program. Before starting, participants were allocated into three subgroups (overweight, body mass index or BMI = 25–29.9; class 1 of obesity, BMI = 30–34.4; or class 2 (or superior) of obesity, BMI > 35). The international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ-it) was used to evaluate participants’ baseline sitting time (SIT) and physical activity level (PAL). Stratified multiple analyses were performed using four subgroups of SIT level according to Ekelund et al., 2016 (low, 8 h/day of SIT) and three subgroups for PAL (high, moderate, and low). Health-related measures such as anthropometric variables, body composition, hematic parameters, blood pressure values, and functional capacities were studied at the beginning and at the end of the training period. An overall improvement of PAL was observed in the entire sample following the three-month intensive exercise program together with a general improvement in several health-related measures. The BMI group factor influenced the VO2 max variations, leg press values, triglycerides, and anthropometric variables, while the SIT group factor impacted the sitting time, VO2 max, glycemic profile, and fat mass. In this study, baseline PAL and SIT did not seem to influence the effects of an exercise intervention. The characteristics of our educational program, which also included a physical exercise protocol, allowed us to obtain positive results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription-2nd Edition)
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Article
Seasonal Accumulated Workloads in Collegiate Women’s Soccer: A Comparison of Starters and Reserves
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2022, 7(1), 11; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfmk7010011 - 16 Jan 2022
Viewed by 775
Abstract
Research quantifying the unique workload demands of starters and reserves in training and match settings throughout a season in collegiate soccer is limited. Purpose: The purpose of the current study is to compare accumulated workloads between starters and reserves in collegiate soccer. Methods: [...] Read more.
Research quantifying the unique workload demands of starters and reserves in training and match settings throughout a season in collegiate soccer is limited. Purpose: The purpose of the current study is to compare accumulated workloads between starters and reserves in collegiate soccer. Methods: Twenty-two NCAA Division III female soccer athletes (height: 1.67 ± 0.05 m; body mass: 65.42 ± 6.33 kg; fat-free mass: 48.99 ± 3.81 kg; body fat %: 25.22 ± 4.78%) were equipped with wearable global positioning systems with on-board inertial sensors, which assessed a proprietary training load metric and distance covered for each practice and 22 matches throughout an entire season. Nine players were classified as starters (S), defined as those playing >50% of playing time throughout the entire season. The remaining 17 were reserves (R). Goalkeepers were excluded. A one-way ANOVA was used to determine the extent of differences in accumulated training load throughout the season by player status. Results: Accumulated training load and total distance covered for starters were greater than reserves ((S: 9431 ± 1471 vs. R: 6310 ± 2263 AU; p < 0.001) and (S: 401.7 ± 31.9 vs. R: 272.9 ± 51.4 km; p < 0.001), respectively) throughout the season. Conclusions: Starters covered a much greater distance throughout the season, resulting in almost double the training load compared to reserves. It is unknown if the high workloads experienced by starters or the low workloads of the reserves is more problematic. Managing player workloads in soccer may require attention to address potential imbalances that emerge between starters and reserves throughout a season. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription-2nd Edition)
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Review
Negative Effects of Mental Fatigue on Performance in the Yo-Yo Test, Loughborough Soccer Passing and Shooting Tests: A Meta-Analysis
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2022, 7(1), 10; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfmk7010010 - 13 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 987
Abstract
We aimed to examine the effects of mental fatigue on the Yo-Yo test and Loughborough soccer passing and shooting tests performance using a meta-analysis. The search for studies was performed through eight bibliographic databases (Academic Search Elite, AUSPORT, Cochrane Library, PsycInfo, PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, [...] Read more.
We aimed to examine the effects of mental fatigue on the Yo-Yo test and Loughborough soccer passing and shooting tests performance using a meta-analysis. The search for studies was performed through eight bibliographic databases (Academic Search Elite, AUSPORT, Cochrane Library, PsycInfo, PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science). The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed using the PEDro checklist. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed for data analysis. After reviewing 599 search results, seven studies with a total of ten groups were included in the review. All studies were classified as being of good methodological quality. Mental fatigue reduced the distance covered in the Yo-Yo test (Cohen’s d: −0.49; 95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.66, −0.32). In the Loughborough soccer passing test, mental fatigue increased the original time needed to complete the test (Cohen’s d: −0.24; 95% CI: −0.46, −0.03), increased penalty time (Cohen’s d: −0.39; 95% CI: −0.46, −0.31), and decreased performance time (Cohen’s d: −0.52; 95% CI: −0.80, −0.24). In the Loughborough soccer shooting test, mental fatigue decreased points per shot (Cohen’s d: −0.37; 95% CI: −0.70, −0.04) and shot speed (Cohen’s d: −0.35; 95% CI: −0.64, −0.06). Overall, the findings presented in this review demonstrated that mental fatigue negatively impacts endurance-based running performance as well as soccer passing and shooting skills. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription-2nd Edition)
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Article
The Effects of Body Tempering on Force Production, Flexibility and Muscle Soreness in Collegiate Football Athletes
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2022, 7(1), 9; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfmk7010009 - 11 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1209
Abstract
There has been limited research to explore the use of body tempering and when the use of this modality would be most appropriate. This study aimed to determine if a body tempering intervention would be appropriate pre-exercise by examining its effects on perceived [...] Read more.
There has been limited research to explore the use of body tempering and when the use of this modality would be most appropriate. This study aimed to determine if a body tempering intervention would be appropriate pre-exercise by examining its effects on perceived soreness, range of motion (ROM), and force production compared to an intervention of traditional stretching. The subjects for this study were ten Division 1 (D1) football linemen from Sacred Heart University (Age: 19.9 ± 1.5 years, body mass: 130.9 ± 12.0 kg, height: 188.4 ± 5.1 cm, training age: 8.0 ± 3.5 years). Subjects participated in three sessions with the first session being baseline testing. The second and third sessions involved the participants being randomized to receive either the body tempering or stretching intervention for the second session and then receiving the other intervention the final week. Soreness using a visual analog scale (VAS), ROM, counter movement jump (CMJ) peak force and jump height, static jump (SJ) peak force and jump height, and isometric mid-thigh pull max force production were assessed. The results of the study concluded that body tempering does not have a negative effect on muscle performance but did practically reduce perceived muscle soreness. Since body tempering is effective at reducing soreness in athletes, it can be recommended for athletes as part of their pre-exercise warmup without negatively effecting isometric or dynamic force production. Full article
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Article
The Best of Two Different Visual Instructions in Improving Precision Ball-Throwing and Standing Long Jump Performances in Primary School Children
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2022, 7(1), 8; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfmk7010008 - 10 Jan 2022
Viewed by 810
Abstract
Two observational learning approaches have been shown to be successful in improving children’s motor performances: one is “technique-focused”, another is “goal-focused”. In this study, we sought to compare the effectiveness of these two strategies, thus testing for the more efficient method of observational [...] Read more.
Two observational learning approaches have been shown to be successful in improving children’s motor performances: one is “technique-focused”, another is “goal-focused”. In this study, we sought to compare the effectiveness of these two strategies, thus testing for the more efficient method of observational learning to enhance motor skills in primary school children. To this end, two experiments were designed. Experiment 1 involved a precision ball throwing task. Experiment 2 involved a standing long jump task. A total of 792 subjects (aged 6–11) participated in this study and were divided into technique-focus (Experiment 1 n = 200; Experiment 2 n = 66), goal-focus (Experiment 1 n = 195; Experiment 2 n = 68), and control groups (Experiment 1 n = 199; Experiment 2 n = 64). The experiments were divided into pretest, practice, and retention phases. During the practice phase, the technique-focus and goal-focus groups were given different visual instructions on how to perform the task. The results showed that children aged 10–11 belonging to the technique-focus group performed significantly better in the practice phase than both the goal-focus and the control group (p < 0.001), but only for the precision ball throwing task. These findings could be useful for training adaptation in the context of motor learning and skills acquisition. Full article
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Review
Coronal Shear Fractures of the Distal Humerus
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2022, 7(1), 7; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfmk7010007 - 06 Jan 2022
Viewed by 733
Abstract
Coronal shear fractures of the distal humerus are rare, frequently comminuted, and are without consensus for treatment. The aim of this paper is to review the current concepts on the diagnosis, classification, treatment options, surgical approaches, and complications of capitellar and trochlear fractures. [...] Read more.
Coronal shear fractures of the distal humerus are rare, frequently comminuted, and are without consensus for treatment. The aim of this paper is to review the current concepts on the diagnosis, classification, treatment options, surgical approaches, and complications of capitellar and trochlear fractures. Computed Tomography (CT) scans, along with the Dubberley classification, are extremely helpful in the decision-making process. Most of the fractures necessitate open reduction and internal fixation, although elbow arthroplasty is an option for comminuted fractures in the elderly low-demand patient. Stiffness is the most common complication after fixation, although reoperation is infrequent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fractures Management in Upper and Lower Limbs)
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Case Report
Lower Limb Kinematic Coordination during the Running Motion of Stroke Patient: A Single Case Study
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2022, 7(1), 6; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfmk7010006 - 06 Jan 2022
Viewed by 672
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to clarify the lower limb joint motor coordination of para-athletes during running motion from frequency characteristics and to propose this as a method for evaluating their performance. The subject used was a 43-year-old male para-athlete who had [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the lower limb joint motor coordination of para-athletes during running motion from frequency characteristics and to propose this as a method for evaluating their performance. The subject used was a 43-year-old male para-athlete who had suffered a left cerebral infarction. Using a three-dimensional motion analysis system, the angles of the hip, knee, and ankle joints were measured during 1 min of running at a speed of 8 km/h on a treadmill. Nine inter- and intra-limb joint angle pairs were analyzed by coherence and phase analyses. The main characteristic of the stroke patient was that there were joint pairs with absent or increased coherence peaks in the high-frequency band above 4 Hz that were not found in healthy subjects. Interestingly, these features were also observed on the non-paralyzed side. Furthermore, a phase analysis showed different phase differences between the joint motions of the stroke patient and healthy subjects in some joint pairs. Thus, we concluded there was a widespread functional impairment of joint motion in the stroke patient that has not been revealed by conventional methods. The coherence analysis of joint motion may be useful for identifying joint motion problems in para-athletes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Neurodegenerative Disease 2.0)
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Article
Mildly Impaired Foot Control in Long-Term Treated Patients with Wilson’s Disease
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2022, 7(1), 5; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfmk7010005 - 31 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 618
Abstract
Abnormal gait is a common initial symptom of Wilson’s disease, which responds well to therapy, but has not been analyzed in detail so far. In a pilot study, a mild gait disturbance could be detected in long-term treated Wilson patients. The question still [...] Read more.
Abnormal gait is a common initial symptom of Wilson’s disease, which responds well to therapy, but has not been analyzed in detail so far. In a pilot study, a mild gait disturbance could be detected in long-term treated Wilson patients. The question still is what the underlying functional deficit of this gait disturbance is and how this functional deficit correlates with further clinical and laboratory findings. In 30 long-term treated Wilson patients, the vertical component of foot ground reaction forces (GRF-curves) was analyzed during free walking without aid at the preferred gait speed over a distance of 40 m. An Infotronic® gait analysis system, consisting of soft tissue shoes with solid, but flexible plates containing eight force transducers, was used to record the pressure of the feet on the floor. Parameters of the GRF-curves were correlated with clinical scores as well as laboratory findings. The results of Wilson patients were compared to those of an age- and sex-matched control group. In 24 out of 30 Wilson patients and all controls, two peaks could be distinguished: the first “heel-on” and the second “push-off” peak. The heights of these peaks above the midstance valley were significantly reduced in the patients (p < 0.05). The time differences between peaks 1 or 2 and midstance valley were significantly negatively correlated with the total impairment score (p < 0.05). Gait speed was significantly correlated with the height of the “push-off” peak above the midstance valley (p < 0.045). The GRF-curves of free walking, long-term treated patients with Wilson’s disease showed a reduced “push-off” peak as an underlying deficit to push the center of mass of the body to the contralateral side with the forefoot, explaining the reduction in gait speed during walking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Human Posture and Movement 2021)
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Article
Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Knee in the Presence of Bridging External Fixation: A Comparative Experimental Evaluation of Four External Fixators, Including Dolphix®
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2022, 7(1), 4; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfmk7010004 - 30 Dec 2021
Viewed by 702
Abstract
Performing MR investigation on patients instrumented with external fixators is still controversial. The aim of this study is to evaluate the quality of MR imaging of the knee structures in the presence of bridging external fixators. Different cadaveric lower limbs were instrumented with [...] Read more.
Performing MR investigation on patients instrumented with external fixators is still controversial. The aim of this study is to evaluate the quality of MR imaging of the knee structures in the presence of bridging external fixators. Different cadaveric lower limbs were instrumented with the MR-conditional external fixators Hofmann III (Stryker, Kalamazoo, MI, USA), Large external Fixator (DePuy Synthes, Raynham, MA, USA), XtraFix (Zymmer, Warsaw, IN, USA) and a newer implant of Ketron Peek CA30 and ERGAL 7075 pins, Dolphix®, (Citieffe, Bologna, Italy). The specimens were MR scanned before and after the instrumentation. The images were subjectively judged by a pool of blinded radiologists and then quantitatively evaluated calculating signal intensity, signal to noise and contrast to noise in the five regions of interest. The area of distortion due to the presence of metallic pins was calculated. All the images were considered equally useful for diagnosis with no differences between devices (p > 0.05). Only few differences in the quantification of images have been detected between groups while the presence of metallic components was the main limit of the procedure. The mean length of the radius of the area of distortion of the pins were 53.17 ± 8.19 mm, 45.07 ± 4.33 mm, 17 ± 5.4 mm and 37.12 ± 10.17 mm per pins provided by Zimmer, Synthes, Citieffe and Stryker, respectively (p = 0.041). The implant of Ketron Peek CA30 and ERGAL 7075 pins showed the smallest distortion area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fractures Management in Upper and Lower Limbs)
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Review
Low Molecular Weight Hyaluronic Acid (500–730 Kda) Injections in Tendinopathies—A Narrative Review
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2022, 7(1), 3; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfmk7010003 - 29 Dec 2021
Viewed by 825
Abstract
Tendinopathies are common causes of pain and disability in general population and athletes. Conservative treatment is largely preferred, and eccentric exercise or other modalities of therapeutic exercises are recommended. However, this approach requests several weeks of consecutive treatment and could be discouraging. In [...] Read more.
Tendinopathies are common causes of pain and disability in general population and athletes. Conservative treatment is largely preferred, and eccentric exercise or other modalities of therapeutic exercises are recommended. However, this approach requests several weeks of consecutive treatment and could be discouraging. In the last years, injections of different formulations were evaluated to accelerate functional recovery in combination with usual therapy. Hyaluronic acid (HA) preparations were proposed, in particular LMW-HA (500–730 kDa) for its unique molecular characteristics in favored extracellular matrix homeostasis and tenocyte viability. The purpose of our review is to evaluate the state-of-the-art about the role of 500–730 kDa in tendinopathies considering both preclinical and clinical findings and encourage further research on this emerging topic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders—4th Edition)
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Article
Application and Surgical Technique of ACL Reconstruction Using Worldwide Registry Datasets: What Can We Extract?
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2022, 7(1), 2; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfmk7010002 - 27 Dec 2021
Viewed by 903
Abstract
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are among the most common knee injuries. The purpose of this study was to compare surgical reconstruction of the ACL between different countries and regions in order to describe differences regarding epidemiological data, reconstruction frequency, and graft choice. [...] Read more.
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are among the most common knee injuries. The purpose of this study was to compare surgical reconstruction of the ACL between different countries and regions in order to describe differences regarding epidemiological data, reconstruction frequency, and graft choice. A systematic literature search was performed using the ACL study group website in order to identify the relevant knee ligament registers. Four national registries were included, comprising those from Sweden, the UK, New Zealand, and Norway. A large variation was found concerning the total number of primary ACL reconstructions with a reported range from 4.1 to 51.3 per 100,000 inhabitants. The country-specific delay between injury and reconstruction varied between an average of 6.0 months and 17.6 months. The leading sports activities resulting in ACL injury included soccer, alpine skiing, handball, rugby, and netball. Moreover, a strong variability in graft choice for primary reconstruction was found. The comparison of ACL registers revealed large differences, indicating different clinical implications regarding conservative or surgical therapy and choice of the preferable graft. ACL registers offer a real-world clinical perspective with the aim to improve quality and patient safety by investigating factors associated with subsequent surgical outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders—4th Edition)
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Article
Influence of COVID-19 Restrictions on Training and Physiological Characteristics in U23 Elite Cyclists
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2022, 7(1), 1; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jfmk7010001 - 21 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1197
Abstract
PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic and its associated mobility restrictions caused many athletes to adjust or reduce their usual training load. The aim of this study was to investigate how the COVID-19 restrictions affected training and performance physiology measures in U23 elite cyclists. METHODS: [...] Read more.
PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic and its associated mobility restrictions caused many athletes to adjust or reduce their usual training load. The aim of this study was to investigate how the COVID-19 restrictions affected training and performance physiology measures in U23 elite cyclists. METHODS: Twelve U23 elite cyclists (n = 12) participated in this study (mean ± SD: Age 21.2 ± 1.2 years; height 182.9 ± 4.7 cm; body mass 71.4 ± 6.5 kg). Training characteristics were assessed between 30 days pre, during, and post COVID-19 restrictions, respectively. The physiological assessment in the laboratory was 30 days pre and post COVID-19 restrictions and included maximum oxygen uptake (V̇O2max), peak power output for sprint (SprintPmax), and ramp incremental graded exercise (GXTPmax), as well as power output at ventilatory threshold (VT) and respiratory compensation point (RCP). RESULTS: Training load characteristics before, during, and after the lockdown remained statistically unchanged (p > 0.05) despite large effects (>0.8) with mean reductions of 4.7 to 25.0% during COVID-19 restrictions. There were no significant differences in maximal and submaximal power outputs, as well as relative and absolute V̇O2max between pre and post COVID-19 restrictions (p > 0.05) with small to moderate effects. DISCUSSION: These results indicate that COVID-19 restrictions did not negatively affect training characteristics and physiological performance measures in U23 elite cyclists for a period of <30 days. In contrast with recent reports on professional cyclists and other elite level athletes, these findings reveal that as long as athletes are able to maintain and/or slightly adapt their training routine, physiological performance variables remain stable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription-2nd Edition)
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