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Vision, Volume 5, Issue 1 (March 2021) – 15 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Choriocapillaris alteration is a hallmark of central serous chorioretinopathy. However, the impact of retinal pigment epithelium and neurosensory retina alterations on the optical coherence tomography angiography imaging of the choriocapillaris should not be underestimated. Subtraction of these altered areas from the analysis emphasizes the global changes of the choriocapillaris in eyes with central serous chorioretinopathy. View this paper.
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Article
Efficacy of Perceptual Learning-Based Vision Training as an Adjuvant to Occlusion Therapy in the Management of Amblyopia: A Pilot Study
Vision 2021, 5(1), 15; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vision5010015 - 23 Mar 2021
Viewed by 821
Abstract
A retrospective study was conducted to evaluate preliminarily the efficacy of perceptual learning (PL) visual training in medium-term follow-up with a specific software (Amblyopia iNET, Home Therapy Systems Inc., Gold Canyon, AZ, USA) for visual acuity (VA) and contrast sensitivity (CS) recovering in [...] Read more.
A retrospective study was conducted to evaluate preliminarily the efficacy of perceptual learning (PL) visual training in medium-term follow-up with a specific software (Amblyopia iNET, Home Therapy Systems Inc., Gold Canyon, AZ, USA) for visual acuity (VA) and contrast sensitivity (CS) recovering in a sample of 14 moderate to severe amblyopic subjects with a previously unsuccessful outcome or failure with patching (PL Group). This efficacy was compared with that achieved in a patching control group (13 subjects, Patching 2). At one-month follow-up, a significant VA improvement in the amblyopic eye (AE) was observed in both groups, with no significant differences between them. Additionally, CS was measured in PL Group and exhibited a significant improvement in the AE one month after the beginning of treatment for 3, 6, 12, and 18 cycles/º (p = 0.003). Both groups showed long-lasting retention of visual improvements. A combined therapy of PL-based visual training and patching seems to be effective for improving VA in children with amblyopia who did not recover vision with patching alone or had a poor patching compliance. This preliminary outcome should be confirmed in future clinical trials. Full article
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Article
Effects of Audiovisual Memory Cues on Working Memory Recall
Vision 2021, 5(1), 14; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vision5010014 - 19 Mar 2021
Viewed by 633
Abstract
Previous studies have focused on topics such as multimodal integration and object discrimination, but there is limited research on the effect of multimodal learning in memory. Perceptual studies have shown facilitative effects of multimodal stimuli for learning; the current study aims to determine [...] Read more.
Previous studies have focused on topics such as multimodal integration and object discrimination, but there is limited research on the effect of multimodal learning in memory. Perceptual studies have shown facilitative effects of multimodal stimuli for learning; the current study aims to determine whether this effect persists with memory cues. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect that audiovisual memory cues have on memory recall, as well as whether the use of multiple memory cues leads to higher recall. The goal was to orthogonally evaluate the effect of the number of self-generated memory cues (one or three), and the modality of the self-generated memory-cue (visual: written words, auditory: spoken words, or audiovisual). A recall task was administered where participants were presented with their self-generated memory cues and asked to determine the target word. There was a significant main effect for number of cues, but no main effect for modality. A secondary goal of this study was to determine which types of memory cues result in the highest recall. Self-reference cues resulted in the highest accuracy score. This study has applications to improving academic performance by using the most efficient learning techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensory and Working Memory: Stimulus Encoding, Storage, and Retrieval)
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Article
Color Can Shorten Breakthrough Times in Continuous Flash Suppression through Increased Salience and Task Relevance
Vision 2021, 5(1), 13; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vision5010013 - 16 Mar 2021
Viewed by 710
Abstract
Color can enhance the perception of relevant stimuli by increasing their salience and guiding visual search towards stimuli that match a task-relevant color. Using Continuous Flash Suppression (CFS), the current study investigated whether color facilitates the discrimination of targets that are difficult to [...] Read more.
Color can enhance the perception of relevant stimuli by increasing their salience and guiding visual search towards stimuli that match a task-relevant color. Using Continuous Flash Suppression (CFS), the current study investigated whether color facilitates the discrimination of targets that are difficult to perceive due to interocular suppression. Gabor patterns of two or four cycles per degree (cpd) were shown as targets to the non-dominant eye of human participants. CFS masks were presented at a rate of 10 Hz to the dominant eye, and participants had the task to report the target’s orientation as soon as they could discriminate it. The 2-cpd targets were robustly suppressed and resulted in much longer response times compared to 4-cpd targets. Moreover, only for 2-cpd targets, two color-related effects were evident. First, in trials where targets and CFS masks had different colors, targets were reported faster than in trials where targets and CFS masks had the same color. Second, targets with a known color, either cyan or yellow, were reported earlier than targets whose color was randomly cyan or yellow. The results suggest that the targets’ entry to consciousness may have been speeded by color-mediated effects relating to increased (bottom-up) salience and (top-down) task relevance. Full article
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Communication
Do Grading Gray Stimuli Help to Encode Letter Position?
Vision 2021, 5(1), 12; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vision5010012 - 04 Mar 2021
Viewed by 563
Abstract
Numerous experiments in the past decades recurrently showed that a transposed-letter pseudoword (e.g., JUGDE) is much more wordlike than a replacement-letter control (e.g., JUPTE). Critically, there is an ongoing debate as to whether this effect arises at a perceptual level (e.g., perceptual uncertainty [...] Read more.
Numerous experiments in the past decades recurrently showed that a transposed-letter pseudoword (e.g., JUGDE) is much more wordlike than a replacement-letter control (e.g., JUPTE). Critically, there is an ongoing debate as to whether this effect arises at a perceptual level (e.g., perceptual uncertainty at assigning letter position of an array of visual objects) or at an abstract language-specific level (e.g., via a level of “open bigrams” between the letter and word levels). Here, we designed an experiment to test the limits of perceptual accounts of letter position coding. The stimuli in a lexical decision task were presented either with a homogeneous letter intensity or with a graded gray intensity, which indicated an unambiguous letter order. The pseudowords were either transposed-letter pseudowords or replaced-letter pseudowords (e.g., jugde vs. jupte). The results showed much longer response times and substantially more errors in the transposed-letter pseudowords than in the replacement-letter pseudowords, regardless of visual format. These findings favor the idea that language-specific orthographic element factors play an essential role when encoding letter position during word recognition. Full article
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Case Report
An Atypical Presentation of Sympathetic Ophthalmia in an Intact Globe Following Mechanical Fall: A Case Report and Literature Review
Vision 2021, 5(1), 11; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vision5010011 - 21 Feb 2021
Viewed by 703
Abstract
Purpose: To describe an atypical case of sympathetic ophthalmia presenting after blunt trauma causing disinsertion of the iris in an intact globe. Methods: Case report. Results: A 71-year-old lady presented to the Emergency Department following a mechanical fall. On examination, she was noted [...] Read more.
Purpose: To describe an atypical case of sympathetic ophthalmia presenting after blunt trauma causing disinsertion of the iris in an intact globe. Methods: Case report. Results: A 71-year-old lady presented to the Emergency Department following a mechanical fall. On examination, she was noted to have periocular haematoma, subconjunctival haemorrhage, hyphaema, and vitreous haemorrhage in the left eye, but there was no evidence of globe rupture. The presenting visual acuity was 6/18. As the hyphaema and vitreous haemorrhage settled, a complete loss of the iris was noted with normal fundus. She was re-admitted a month later under the medical team with urinary tract infection and reduced vision in both eyes. On examination, there was mild conjunctival injection, keratic precipitates, anterior chamber flare, 180-degree posterior synechiae, and vitritis with no fundal view of the right eye. She was diagnosed with sympathetic ophthalmia and was treated with topical and systemic corticosteroid. Her vision improved gradually with treatment and was stable at 6/6 on the right (sympathising) eye and 6/9 on the left (excited) eye at final follow-up. Conclusion: Sympathetic ophthalmia may result from non-penetrating ocular trauma. Comprehensive history of mechanism of injury and ophthalmic examination is essential so that prompt treatment can be given to improve the visual prognosis of affected patients. Full article
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Article
Theoretical Treatment of Limitations Inherent in Simple 3D Stimuli: Triangles and the P3P Problem
Vision 2021, 5(1), 10; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vision5010010 - 17 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 781
Abstract
Understanding the visual stimulus in a psychophysical experiment, theoretically, is critical for controlling the experiment, for interpreting the empirical results of the experiment, and for discussing the mechanisms the visual system used to get these results. This fact encourages visual scientists to use [...] Read more.
Understanding the visual stimulus in a psychophysical experiment, theoretically, is critical for controlling the experiment, for interpreting the empirical results of the experiment, and for discussing the mechanisms the visual system used to get these results. This fact encourages visual scientists to use “simple” visual stimuli in their experiments. A triangle is one of the simplest stimuli that has been used by psychophysicists to study 3D perception. It has also been used to compose the polygonal meshes that represent complex 3D surfaces in computer graphics. The relationship between the shape, orientation, and retinal image of a triangle has also been studied as the Perspective-3-Point problem (P3P). In this study, the statistical properties of this relationship between the 2D retinal image of a triangle and its recovered 3D orientation were tested in a simulation experiment whose results showed that a triangle is qualitatively different from more complex shapes that have been used to recover 3D information from their retinal images. This raises an important question, namely, how many, if any, inferences about our visual system can be generalized to our perceptions in everyday life when they are based on psychophysical experiments that used very simple visual stimuli such as triangles. Full article
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Review
Angle Surgery in Pediatric Glaucoma Following Cataract Surgery
Vision 2021, 5(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision5010009 - 05 Feb 2021
Viewed by 770
Abstract
Glaucoma is a common and sight-threatening complication of pediatric cataract surgery Reported incidence varies due to variability in study designs and length of follow-up. Consistent and replicable risk factors for developing glaucoma following cataract surgery (GFCS) are early age at the time of [...] Read more.
Glaucoma is a common and sight-threatening complication of pediatric cataract surgery Reported incidence varies due to variability in study designs and length of follow-up. Consistent and replicable risk factors for developing glaucoma following cataract surgery (GFCS) are early age at the time of surgery, microcornea, and additional surgical interventions. The exact mechanism for GFCS has yet to be completely elucidated. While medical therapy is the first line for treatment of GFCS, many eyes require surgical intervention, with various surgical modalities each posing a unique host of risks and benefits. Angle surgical techniques include goniotomy and trabeculotomy, with trabeculotomy demonstrating increased success over goniotomy as an initial procedure in pediatric eyes with GFCS given the success demonstrated throughout the literature in reducing IOP and number of IOP-lowering medications required post-operatively. The advent of microcatheter facilitated circumferential trabeculotomies lead to increased success compared to traditional <180° rigid probe trabeculotomy in GFCS. The advent of two-site rigid-probe trabeculotomy indicated that similar results could be attained without the use of the more expensive microcatheter system. Further studies of larger scale, with increased follow-up, and utilizing randomization would be beneficial in determining optimum surgical management of pediatric GFCS. Full article
Article
Transepithelial Photorefractive Keratektomy after a Clear Lens Exchange
Vision 2021, 5(1), 8; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vision5010008 - 03 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 683
Abstract
Purpose: We evaluated the refractive visual outcomes and efficacy of Transepithelial Photorefractive Keratectomy (TransPRK) using Smart Pulse Technology with static and dynamic cyclotorsion and the AMARIS 1050 Hz RS laser platform from Schwind in the eyes after a refractive lens exchange. Setting/Venue: Aurelios [...] Read more.
Purpose: We evaluated the refractive visual outcomes and efficacy of Transepithelial Photorefractive Keratectomy (TransPRK) using Smart Pulse Technology with static and dynamic cyclotorsion and the AMARIS 1050 Hz RS laser platform from Schwind in the eyes after a refractive lens exchange. Setting/Venue: Aurelios Augenlaserzentrum, Recklinghausen. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the data of 552 consecutive eyes treated with refractive lens exchange between 2016 and 2019. A total of 47 eyes (8.5%) required a touch up after the clear lens exchange. From 43 eyes of 43 patients, we obtained a minimum follow up of 3 months. In all cases, we performed a TransPRK with a minimum optical zone of 7.2 mm, centering the ablation on the vertex of the cornea. Results: The average age of the treated eyes was 57 years old, with a range between 48 and 68 years. The mean treated sphere was 0.42 diopters (D), with a range between −1.0 and +1.75 D. The mean astigmatism was 1.06 D. Postoperatively, after laser vision correction, we reduced the sphere to a mean of 0.11 D (range −0.5 to +0.75 D), and, postoperatively, the mean astigmatism was 0.25 D (range −0.75 to 0 D). The predictability for a spheric equivalent (SEQ) of 0.5 D was 91%, and for 1 D it was 100% of the cases. No eye lost more than one Snellen line. Conclusions: TransPRK with smart pulse was predictable for correcting ametropia after Clear Lens Surgery. Full article
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Article
Incidence of Clinically Significant Aniseikonia Following Encircling Scleral Buckle Surgery: An Evaluation of Refractive and Axial Length Changes Requiring Intervention
Vision 2021, 5(1), 7; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vision5010007 - 03 Feb 2021
Viewed by 769
Abstract
To evaluate the incidence of symptomatic anisometropia and aniseikonia requiring intervention following surgery with combined pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) and broad 276 style encircling scleral buckle (ESB) for the repair of rhegmatogenous retinal detachments (RRD) and to report axial length (AL) and keratometry [...] Read more.
To evaluate the incidence of symptomatic anisometropia and aniseikonia requiring intervention following surgery with combined pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) and broad 276 style encircling scleral buckle (ESB) for the repair of rhegmatogenous retinal detachments (RRD) and to report axial length (AL) and keratometry changes, a retrospective review of consecutive RRD patients treated with combined PPV and ESB between June 2016 until September 2019 was performed. All patients with symptomatic optically induced aniseikonia requiring additional interventions or surgical procedures including clear lens exchanges, secondary intraocular lens implants or contact lenses were documented. Keratometry and AL measurements were recorded for each eye and changes calculated. In total, 100 patients underwent combined PPV, ESB and endotamponade with mean age of 59.47 years (SD 11.49). AL was significantly increased (25.39 mm [SD 1.27] to 26.54 mm [SD 1.16], p = 0.0001), with a mean change of 1.15 mm (SD 0.67). Mean corneal astigmatism increased by –0.95 D (SD 0.51) in control eyes preoperatively and –1.33 (SD 0.87) postoperatively (p = 0.03). Over half of phakic patients (39/61; 64%) developed a visually significant cataract, subsequently undergoing surgery. Six of 100 patients developed symptomatic anisometropia with aniseikonia postoperatively (6%). Four proceeded with clear lens exchange despite absence of visually significant cataract (4%). Two of these initially trialled contact lenses (2%). One was intolerant, while the other decided to proceed with clear lens exchange for convenience. Only one patient (1%), being pseudophakic in both eyes, had persistent anisometropia/aniseikonia. AL and keratometry changes induced by encirclement with broad solid silicone rubber buckles are acceptable and similar to those reported previously using narrow encircling components, being unlikely to induce troublesome symptomatic anisometropia/aniseikonia. Many patients are phakic and develop visually significant cataracts, allowing correction of changes induced with the aim of visual restoration. A minority require more prolonged methods of visual rehabilitation, such as contact lens wear or clear lens exchanges. Caution and appropriate consent should be made in patients that are pseudophakic in both eyes at presentation. Full article
Review
Critical Review of Visual Models for Police Use of Force Decision-Making
Vision 2021, 5(1), 6; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vision5010006 - 28 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1088
Abstract
Recent calls for widespread police reform include re-examination of existing training and practice surrounding the use of force (UOF, e.g., verbal and non-verbal communication, physical tactics, firearms). Visual models representing police UOF decision-making are used for both police training and public communication. However, [...] Read more.
Recent calls for widespread police reform include re-examination of existing training and practice surrounding the use of force (UOF, e.g., verbal and non-verbal communication, physical tactics, firearms). Visual models representing police UOF decision-making are used for both police training and public communication. However, most models have not been empirically developed or assessed in either the applied police or vision science literatures, representing significant gaps in knowledge. The purpose of the current review is to provide a novel, relevant, and practical analysis of the visual components of three common police UOF decision-making model types (circular, cyclical, staircase). We begin with a critical evaluation of the visual features specific to each model type (i.e., shape), followed by critical reviews of common visual features, including colour, implied motion, text, and clarity. The insights provided by the current work afford scientists from visual disciplines a unique opportunity to contribute meaningfully to the improvement of existing police UOF practices, with the goal of promoting public and occupational safety. To this end, we conclude with evidence-based recommendations for designing visual models that effectively promote training of police and communication of police UOF decision-making to the public. Full article
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Editorial
Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Vision in 2020
Vision 2021, 5(1), 5; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vision5010005 - 26 Jan 2021
Viewed by 599
Abstract
Peer review is the driving force of journal development, and reviewers are gatekeepers who ensure that Vision maintains its standards for the high quality of its published papers [...] Full article
Article
A Comparative Study of Corneal Topography in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Cross-Sectional Study
Vision 2021, 5(1), 4; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vision5010004 - 15 Jan 2021
Viewed by 655
Abstract
Purpose: To investigate the corneal characteristics in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and age-matched typical development (TD) participants. Methods: This cross-sectional, clinically based study compared children with ASD to age-matched TD participants. Corneal topography was measured with a portable EyeSys Vista system. [...] Read more.
Purpose: To investigate the corneal characteristics in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and age-matched typical development (TD) participants. Methods: This cross-sectional, clinically based study compared children with ASD to age-matched TD participants. Corneal topography was measured with a portable EyeSys Vista system. The distance visual acuity (VA) and the contrast sensitivity (CS) were determined. The refractive error (RE) was assessed using a 2WIN autorefractometer. Results: A total of 31 children with ASD (mean age: 12.78 ± 4.49 years), and 60 participants with TD (mean age: 13.65 ± 3.56 years) were recruited. The two groups were similar in age (t = −2.084, p = 0.075) and VA (t = −0.35, p = 0.32). Most of the children with ASD had a significant amount of refractive errors (REs; range: +5.25 to −5.50 DS), and astigmatism was dominant (range: −0.25 to −4.50 DC). There was no statistically significant difference between both groups in terms of average corneal power (t = 1.12, p = 0.39). The children with ASD and participants with TD also did not differ significantly in terms of corneal shape descriptors (p > 0.05), such as corneal asphericity, inferior superior index, opposite sector index, and differential sector index. The spherical equivalent did not differ significantly between the ASD participants and participants with TD (t = 1.15, p = 0.15). There was a significant difference (p < 0.05) in the astigmatism component between the ASD participants and the participants with TD. Full article
Article
Artifact-Free Evaluation of Choriocapillaris Perfusion in Central Serous Chorioretinopathy
Vision 2021, 5(1), 3; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vision5010003 - 28 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 920
Abstract
In this study, using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) we evaluated choriocapillaris perfusion in eyes with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) after excluding all possible artifacts caused by alterations of neurosensory retina or retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). We have included 22 unilateral acute CSC [...] Read more.
In this study, using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) we evaluated choriocapillaris perfusion in eyes with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) after excluding all possible artifacts caused by alterations of neurosensory retina or retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). We have included 22 unilateral acute CSC patients (18 males and four females, 41.8 ± 5.7 years) and 18 healthy subjects (13 males and five females, 40.9 ± 9.7 years). The number of flow voids per 1 mm2 of scan area and percentage of flow signal area was calculated based on choriocapillaris slab of 3 × 3 mm2 OCTA scans after excluding all possible artifacts caused by alterations of neurosensory retina or RPE. The percentage of flow signal area after the exclusion of neurosensory retina and RPE alterations in the eyes of healthy individuals was higher than in CSC eyes (p = 0.006) and fellow unaffected eyes of CSC patients (p = 0.02). The number of flow voids larger than 25,000 µm2 in eyes of healthy individuals was lower than in the CSC eyes (p = 0.0006). There were no statistically significant differences in study parameters between CSC eyes and fellow eyes of CSC patients (p > 0.05). The general decrease of choriocapillaris perfusion in both eyes of CSC patients exists independently of the presence of acute disease or asymptomatic structural RPE changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Imaging the Choroid)
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Article
Further Empirical Evidence on Patrick Hughes’ Reverspectives: A Pilot Study
Vision 2021, 5(1), 2; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vision5010002 - 26 Dec 2020
Viewed by 901
Abstract
Reverspectives are paintings created by the English artist Patrick Hughes. They are 3D structures, for example, pyramids or prisms, which elicit an illusory depth perception that corresponds to the reverse of the physical depth layout. Rogers and Gyani state that “the perspective [...] Read more.
Reverspectives are paintings created by the English artist Patrick Hughes. They are 3D structures, for example, pyramids or prisms, which elicit an illusory depth perception that corresponds to the reverse of the physical depth layout. Rogers and Gyani state that “the perspective information provided by a simple grid of vertical and horizontal lines on a slanting surface can be just as powerful as the information provided by a rich, naturalistic scene”. The present experiment was aimed to further investigate this perspective reversal. Three independent variables were manipulated: (1) texture components (i.e., vertical, horizontal, and oblique lines components), (2) texture spatial arrangement (i.e., Hughes-type “perspective” grid vs. equidistant “no perspective” grid), and (3) illumination direction (i.e., homogeneous illumination, light from above, and light from below). The dependent variable was the “critical distance”, namely, the distance between an approaching observer and the stimulus at which the illusory depth perception of concavity/convexity switched to the actual perception of convexity/concavity. The results showed that a stronger illusion is elicited by: (a) a Hughes-type texture spatial arrangement; (b) a complete grid texture composition, having both vertical and horizontal, and oblique components; and (c) illumination from below, as opposed to the condition in which light is coming from above. Full article
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Article
Intracorneal Ring Segment Implantation for the Management of Keratoconus in Children
Vision 2021, 5(1), 1; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/vision5010001 - 23 Dec 2020
Viewed by 995
Abstract
The short-term safety and efficacy of intracorneal ring segment (ICRS) implantation in keratoconus eyes of children are investigated in this study. A retrospective interventional case series study including a total of 33 keratoconus eyes (age 8 to 17 years) that had undergone ICRS [...] Read more.
The short-term safety and efficacy of intracorneal ring segment (ICRS) implantation in keratoconus eyes of children are investigated in this study. A retrospective interventional case series study including a total of 33 keratoconus eyes (age 8 to 17 years) that had undergone ICRS (Keraring segments, Mediphacos) implantation was conducted. Information about visual, refractive, pachymetric, corneal topographic and aberrometric, and corneal endothelial changes during a 3-month follow-up were extracted and analysed. A significant improvement was observed in logMAR corrected distance visual acuity (p = 0.005), combined with a statistically significant reduction in keratometric readings (p < 0.001). A reduction in the magnitude of corneal astigmatism of ≥1 D was observed in 52.8% of eyes. No significant changes were observed in corneal endothelial density (p = 0.317). Significant changes were found in the anterior vertical coma component (p = 0.002) as well as in the spherical aberration of the posterior corneal surface (p = 0.004). Only two relevant complications were described: one corneal microperforation with penetration of the ring segment into the anterior chamber (1 eye, 2.8%), and a case of ring extrusion (1 eye, 2.8%). ICRS implantation in children keratoconus eyes allows a reduction of corneal astigmatism, irregularity, and aberrations, leading to a significant visual improvement. Full article
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