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Article

Resolving Energy Losses Caused by End-Users in Electrical Grid Systems

1
Entrepreneurship, Commercialisation & Innovation Centre, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia
2
Faculty of the Professions, Adelaide Business School, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 February 2021 / Revised: 13 March 2021 / Accepted: 16 March 2021 / Published: 22 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Electrical Engineering)
This study utilises the Pareto approach to highlight the energy losses that mainly originate from the phenomena of tiny, initiated events created by end-users of electricity in Australia. Simulation modelling was applied through two stages to examine residential households’ electricity consumption behaviour in New South Wales, Australia. Stage one analysis applied Hierarchical agglomerative clustering and a dendrogram to denote the respective Euclidean distance between the different clusters. Heat maps and threshold value area charts were used to compare the mean power demand for six respective clusters. Stage two used ‘sensitivity analysis’ to investigate how uncertainty in the electricity demand can be allocated to the uncertainty of energy losses. The findings envision practical solutions to dealing with the variability of energy losses and the proposal to set new demand-side strategies associated with individuals. Retail prices of electricity in Australia have risen by roughly 60% since 2007. The research contributes to knowledge about the roots of energy losses in Australia, creating a $210M cost value. Energy losses are of significant economic value, while also impacting energy security. The first limitation of this study is using approaches from complexity theory to grasp the philosophical issues behind the research design and clarifying which insights suit what kind of evidence, thus identifying the data that needed to be collected. The second limitation is that this study’s methodology used a mostly quantitative approach that describes and explains a complex phenomenon in depth more than exploring and confirming that phenomenon. The third and final limitation is that this study’s context is also limited regarding selected sample criteria. The context is limited to a particular demographic area in New South Wales (NSW) in Australia and is also limited to residential houses (not industrial or commercial), which was opposed by data availability and access. The research draws on ‘peak and off-peak’ scales of electricity demand cause energy losses. The research shows the role of the phenomena of spontaneous emergence as a non-linked constraint which is the main issue that splits the optimal solution into pieces and significantly complicates the solution task. Demand side management (DSM) of electricity can be improved from this to construct new demand-side strategies. The study is structured around understanding the consequences of the scalability of events and the clustering dynamic of non-linearity through relevance complexity concepts exclusive to spontaneous emergence (SE), power laws (PLs), Paretian approach (PA), and tiny initiated events (TIEs). We examined the issues of the spontaneous emergence of non-linear, dynamic behaviour involved in the electricity demand of end-users on the basis of pushing individual systems of end-users to the edge of self-organised criticality (SOC). Revising the demand system’s complexity has value in constituting a core domain of interest in what is new in the field of demand side management (DSM), thus contributing to understanding end-users’ behaviour-driven energy losses from both theoretical and empirical perspectives. View Full-Text
Keywords: tiny initiated events; power laws; spontaneous emergence tiny initiated events; power laws; spontaneous emergence
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zaghwan, A.; Gunawan, I. Resolving Energy Losses Caused by End-Users in Electrical Grid Systems. Designs 2021, 5, 23. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/designs5010023

AMA Style

Zaghwan A, Gunawan I. Resolving Energy Losses Caused by End-Users in Electrical Grid Systems. Designs. 2021; 5(1):23. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/designs5010023

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zaghwan, Ashraf; Gunawan, Indra. 2021. "Resolving Energy Losses Caused by End-Users in Electrical Grid Systems" Designs 5, no. 1: 23. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/designs5010023

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