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Article

Ground Loss and Static Soil–Structure Interaction during Urban Tunnel Excavation: Evidence from the Excavation of the Athens Metro

1
Hellenic Survey for Geology and Mineral Exploration (HSGME—former IGME), Sp. Loui 1, Olympic Village, 13677 Acharnes, Greece
2
Department of Civil Engineering, Patras University, 26500 Patras, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 June 2020 / Revised: 21 July 2020 / Accepted: 28 July 2020 / Published: 31 July 2020
Ground settlement above urban tunnels is a threat for nearby buildings, because it may lead to their differential settlement, tilting, and damage, depending on their structural characteristics, on ground conditions, and on the excavation procedure. Still, for few cases only details on ground settlement are known. In this article we analyze ground subsidence data during the excavation of Lines 2 and 3 of the Athens Metro. Based on this evidence, and in comparison with previous studies, we show that observations of elevation changes and of tilting of buildings may underestimate the amount of ground loss; this is because part of the ground deformation may be compensated by the stiffness of buildings or accommodated by internal deformation of sizeable buildings hosting measuring benchmarks. This effect can be described as static soil–structure interaction (sSSI), in analogy to the dynamic SSI produced during earthquakes. sSSI can produce bias in monitoring data above an advancing tunnel front, leading to skew and not to symmetric subsidence curves if observations are made on one side on buildings and on the other side in open spaces (‘greenfields’). Furthermore, we show that ‘bowls’ of increased subsidence are observed along subsidence troughs during excavation; such ‘bowls’, not infrequently underestimated because of sSSI, may conceal a potential for sinkholes and other types of failure. Isolated towers on the contrary describe well ground subsidence and tilting. View Full-Text
Keywords: ground settlement; geodetic monitoring; tunnel excavation; building damage; soil structure interaction ground settlement; geodetic monitoring; tunnel excavation; building damage; soil structure interaction
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kontogianni, V.; Stiros, S.C. Ground Loss and Static Soil–Structure Interaction during Urban Tunnel Excavation: Evidence from the Excavation of the Athens Metro. Infrastructures 2020, 5, 64. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/infrastructures5080064

AMA Style

Kontogianni V, Stiros SC. Ground Loss and Static Soil–Structure Interaction during Urban Tunnel Excavation: Evidence from the Excavation of the Athens Metro. Infrastructures. 2020; 5(8):64. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/infrastructures5080064

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kontogianni, Villy, and Stathis C. Stiros 2020. "Ground Loss and Static Soil–Structure Interaction during Urban Tunnel Excavation: Evidence from the Excavation of the Athens Metro" Infrastructures 5, no. 8: 64. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/infrastructures5080064

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