To ensure the sustainable development of the water and wastewater (WSS) sectors, new and more investments are needed. However, private financing in these sectors has not been successfully leveraged. This study conducted a systematic literature review of peer-reviewed papers in this field, to provide an overview of how researchers have been studying the financing endeavors of the WSS sectors. A three-part framework was carried out: retrieval of papers from search engines (Scopus and ASCE Library), focused on the title, abstract, and keywords; process of elimination of papers; and analysis of the selected papers based on the hybrid method combining a systematic quantitative review, a semantic network analysis, and a narrative analysis. This research resulted in the identification of four most studied areas: sustainable development; water management and public finance; project financing; and public policy. Future research should focus on existing financing instruments and how these can specifically be applied in the WSS sectors successfully. This paper makes several contributions to the literature because it addresses and emphasizes the most important financing issues in WSS, reviews the insights found, and discusses the future research needs. In addition, it demonstrates the benefits of using a hybrid methodology that could be adopted in other literature review studies.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited