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Infrastructures, Volume 6, Issue 11 (November 2021) – 18 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The intermittent energy supply from distributed resources and the coupling of different energy and application sectors play an important role for future digitized energy systems. This paper presents an approach that focuses on the development of an innovative operational concept for a Smart Integrated Energy System consisting of physical architecture, ICT, and energy management strategies. The cellular approach provides the architecture of the physical system in combination with Transactive Control as the energy management framework. Independent models for each component are combined in a co-simulation platform to create a holistic model of the integrated energy system. To verify the operational concept, energy system scenarios are derived and evaluation criteria are suggested. View this paper
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Article
Experimental Study on the Out-of-Plane Behavior of Brick Masonry Walls Strengthened with Mortar and Wire Mesh: A Pioneer Study
Infrastructures 2021, 6(11), 165; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/infrastructures6110165 - 22 Nov 2021
Viewed by 303
Abstract
In the past, fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites have been extensively used to modify the structural response of masonry brick walls. The promising advantages of FRP composites are easy application, lightweight, and very high tensile strength. However, FRP composites are very expensive, and their [...] Read more.
In the past, fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites have been extensively used to modify the structural response of masonry brick walls. The promising advantages of FRP composites are easy application, lightweight, and very high tensile strength. However, FRP composites are very expensive, and their availability is an issue, especially in developing countries. The use of bricks is widespread in developing countries due to their low price and easy availability. Recent earthquakes and research results have demonstrated the vulnerability of existing masonry structures. In this study, we aimed to investigate the use of low-cost and readily available strengthening materials, i.e., cement-sand mortar and wire mesh, to enhance the flexural capacity of cement-clay interlocking brick (CCIB) masonry walls. The proposed strengthening materials were applied in different configurations and thicknesses. The experimental results indicated that using CS mortar and wire mesh is promising to enhance the flexural capacity of CCIB masonry walls. The flexural capacity and energy absorption capacity of the CCIB masonry wall (strengthened with 20 mm thick CS mortar and three layers of wire mesh) were 87% and 46% higher than the reference CCIB masonry wall. The results of this study can be used to improve the performance of masonry structures against earthquakes in the developing regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability of Building Materials and Structures)
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Article
Diagnostic Reliability in the Assessment of Degradation in Precast Concrete Elements
Infrastructures 2021, 6(11), 164; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/infrastructures6110164 - 18 Nov 2021
Viewed by 221
Abstract
In the past century, precast reinforced concrete has become the most widely used construction material in infrastructure engineering, especially for long-span structures. Nowadays, a growing research area concerns the assessment of concrete strength degradation due to environmental exposure and reinforcement corrosion. This paper [...] Read more.
In the past century, precast reinforced concrete has become the most widely used construction material in infrastructure engineering, especially for long-span structures. Nowadays, a growing research area concerns the assessment of concrete strength degradation due to environmental exposure and reinforcement corrosion. This paper reports an experimental campaign on some prefabricated concrete elements that were exposed to atmospheric agents for approximately 20 years. The campaign took the uncommon opportunity to access the full inspection and sampling of rebar. The included activities had different invasiveness and encompassed inspections, core sampling, corrosion potential mapping, compressive strength tests, as well as neutralization depth assays on cored surfaces, on chisel-split surfaces, and on drilling powders. The results bring together a global diagnostic picture of very limited degradation and of elements that are fully able to attend their design service life; the latter is estimated to be considerably higher than 20 years and to exceed 75 years if the concrete mix does not show quality issues. Results also permit drawing considerations on a hierarchy of diagnostic reliability in the evaluation of RC degradation, in which concrete core sampling plays the role of golden standard. Full article
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Article
Risk Assessment of Terrestrial Transportation Infrastructures Exposed to Extreme Events
Infrastructures 2021, 6(11), 163; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/infrastructures6110163 - 17 Nov 2021
Viewed by 204
Abstract
Keeping transport links open in adverse conditions and being able to restore connections quickly after extreme events are important and demanding tasks for infrastructure owners/operators. This paper is developed within the H2020 project SAFEWAY, whose main goal is to increase the resilience of [...] Read more.
Keeping transport links open in adverse conditions and being able to restore connections quickly after extreme events are important and demanding tasks for infrastructure owners/operators. This paper is developed within the H2020 project SAFEWAY, whose main goal is to increase the resilience of terrestrial transportation infrastructure. Risk-based approaches are excellent tools to aid in the decision-making process of planning maintenance and implementation of risk mitigation measures with the ultimate goal of reducing risk and increasing resilience. This paper presents a framework for quantitative risk assessment which guides an integrated assessment of the risk components: hazard, exposure, vulnerability and consequences of a malfunctioning transportation infrastructure. The paper guides the identification of failure modes for transportation infrastructure exposed to extreme events (natural and human-made) and provides models for and examples of hazard, vulnerability and risk assessment. Each assessment step must be made in coherence with the other risk components as an integral part of the risk assessment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Critical Infrastructure Resilience Facing Extreme Weather Events)
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Article
Design of an Active Damping System for Vibration Control of Wind Turbine Towers
Infrastructures 2021, 6(11), 162; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/infrastructures6110162 - 11 Nov 2021
Viewed by 332
Abstract
The vibration of wind turbine towers is relevant to the reliability of the wind turbine structure and the quality of power production. It produces both ultimate loads and fatigue loads threatening structural safety. This paper aims to reduce vibration in wind turbine towers [...] Read more.
The vibration of wind turbine towers is relevant to the reliability of the wind turbine structure and the quality of power production. It produces both ultimate loads and fatigue loads threatening structural safety. This paper aims to reduce vibration in wind turbine towers using an active damper named the twin rotor damper (TRD). A single degree of freedom (SDOF) oscillator with the TRD is used to approximate the response of wind turbines under a unidirectional gusty wind with loss of the electrical network. The coincidence between the wind gust and the grid loss is studied to involve the maximum loading on the structure. The performance of the proposed damping system under the maximum loading is then evaluated on the state-of-the-art wind turbine NREL 5 MW. The effectiveness of the TRD is compared to a passive tuned mass damper (TMD) designed with similar requirements. The numerical results reveal that, at the 1st natural mode, the TRD outperforms the passive TMD by three to six times. Moreover, the results show that the TRD is effective in reducing ultimate loads on wind turbine towers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Critical Infrastructure Resilience Facing Extreme Weather Events)
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Article
Experimental Study on Chloride-Induced Corrosion of Soil Nail with Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC) Grout
Infrastructures 2021, 6(11), 161; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/infrastructures6110161 - 10 Nov 2021
Viewed by 227
Abstract
Conventionally, a soil nail is a piece of steel reinforcement installed inside a hole drilled into the slope and filled with cement paste (CP) grout. Chloride penetration is a major deterioration mechanism of conventional soil nails as the CP grout is easy to [...] Read more.
Conventionally, a soil nail is a piece of steel reinforcement installed inside a hole drilled into the slope and filled with cement paste (CP) grout. Chloride penetration is a major deterioration mechanism of conventional soil nails as the CP grout is easy to crack with an uncontrollable crack opening when the soil nail is subject to loading or ground movements. Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC) are a class of fiber-reinforced material exhibiting excellent crack control even when loaded to several percent of strain, and therefore, ECCs have great potential to replace traditional CP grout in soil nails for achieving a long service life. In this study, the chloride ion transport characteristics and electrically accelerated corrosion process of steel rebar in ECC and CP grouts are systematically studied. The rapid chloride ion penetration test results showed a reduction of 76% and 58% passing charges in ECC with 0.15% and 0.3% pre-loading strain, respectively, as compared to that in un-cracked CP. Furthermore, the accelerated corrosion experimental data showed that ECC under pre-loading strain still exhibited a coefficient of chloride ion diffusion that is 20–50% lower than CP grout due to the ability to control crack width. Service life calculations based on experimentally measured parameters showed that the predicted corrosion rate and corrosion depth of soil nails in ECC grout were much lower than those in CP grout. The findings can facilitate the design of soil nails with excellent durability and long service life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Durability of Concrete Infrastructure)
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Article
Effect of Chases with Renovation Techniques on the Load Carrying Capacity of Masonry Walls
Infrastructures 2021, 6(11), 160; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/infrastructures6110160 - 09 Nov 2021
Viewed by 250
Abstract
Infrastructure through the masonry walls (for example, wiring and piping works) are usually installed using chases in different directions. Introducing these chases in a newly built wall will affect its overall load carrying capacity. However, there has thus far been very limited research [...] Read more.
Infrastructure through the masonry walls (for example, wiring and piping works) are usually installed using chases in different directions. Introducing these chases in a newly built wall will affect its overall load carrying capacity. However, there has thus far been very limited research into the effects of chases on the response and load carrying capacity of walls. This study has been undertaken to evaluate the structural behaviour of new masonry walls having chases in both horizontal and vertical directions and subjected to compression load throughout an extensive experimental programme. In addition, two renovation techniques have been proposed to infill the chases created in small scale walls (wallettes). The first technique involved the use of plastic wire mesh and cement mortar, while the second incorporated using galvanized steel channel together with the plastic wire mesh and cement mortar. Furthermore, a reference case of wallette without chases has been considered to enable reasonable comparisons to check the effect of the chases and the efficiency of the proposed renovation techniques. The outcomes of this study were used to modify the design equations proposed in the relevant codes of practice. The obtained results showed a notable reduction in the load carrying capacity of the masonry wall due to the introduction of the chases with a reduction percentage of 29% compared to the masonry wall without chase. The percentage decrease depends on the depth of the chase and the inclination angle of the load flow. The walls with horizontal chases exhibited more reduction in the load carrying capacity compared to those with vertical chases. The adopted renovation techniques using galvanized steel channel and/or plastic wire mesh with cement mortar recovered 55% and 93% of the lost load carrying capacity due to the presence of the chase and the failure was due to the de-bonded phenomena of the infill materials. Suitable factors of safety have been proposed to be incorporated in the compressive strength and modulus of elasticity formulas of the masonry walls of the BS EN codes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Rehabilitation, Retrofitting and Strengthening)
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Article
Mortars with CDW Recycled Aggregates Submitted to High Levels of CO2
Infrastructures 2021, 6(11), 159; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/infrastructures6110159 - 05 Nov 2021
Viewed by 310
Abstract
Construction and demolition wastes (CDW) are generated at a large scale and have a diversified potential in the construction sector. The replacement of natural aggregates (NA) with CDW recycled aggregates (RA) in construction materials, such as mortars, has several environmental benefits, such as [...] Read more.
Construction and demolition wastes (CDW) are generated at a large scale and have a diversified potential in the construction sector. The replacement of natural aggregates (NA) with CDW recycled aggregates (RA) in construction materials, such as mortars, has several environmental benefits, such as the reduction in the natural resources used in these products and simultaneous prevention of waste landfill. Complementarily, CDW have the potential to capture CO2 since some of their components may carbonate, which also contributes to a decrease in global warming potential. The main objective of this research is to evaluate the influence of the exposure of CDW RA to CO2 produced in cement factories and its effect on mortars. Several mortars were developed with a volumetric ratio of 1:4 (cement: aggregate), with NA (reference mortar), CDW RA and CDW RA exposed to high levels of CO2 (CRA). The two types of waste aggregate were incorporated, replacing NA at 50% and 100% (in volume). The mortars with NA and non-carbonated RA and CRA from CDW were analysed, accounting for their performance in the fresh and hardened states in terms of workability, mechanical behaviour and water absorption by capillarity. It was concluded that mortars with CDW (both CRA and non-carbonated RA) generally present a good performance for non-structural purposes, although they suffer a moderate decrease in mechanical performance when NA is replaced with RA. Additionally, small improvements were found in the performance of the aggregates and mortars with CRA subjected to a CO2 curing for a short period (5 h), while a long carbonation period (5 d) led to a decrease in performance, contrary to the results obtained in the literature that indicate a significant increase in such characteristics. This difference could be because the literature focused on made-in-laboratory CDW aggregates, while, in this research, the wastes came from real demolition activities, and were thus older and more heterogeneous. Full article
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Review
gPCE-Based Stochastic Inverse Methods: A Benchmark Study from a Civil Engineer’s Perspective
Infrastructures 2021, 6(11), 158; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/infrastructures6110158 - 05 Nov 2021
Viewed by 235
Abstract
In civil and mechanical engineering, Bayesian inverse methods may serve to calibrate the uncertain input parameters of a structural model given the measurements of the outputs. Through such a Bayesian framework, a probabilistic description of parameters to be calibrated can be obtained; this [...] Read more.
In civil and mechanical engineering, Bayesian inverse methods may serve to calibrate the uncertain input parameters of a structural model given the measurements of the outputs. Through such a Bayesian framework, a probabilistic description of parameters to be calibrated can be obtained; this approach is more informative than a deterministic local minimum point derived from a classical optimization problem. In addition, building a response surface surrogate model could allow one to overcome computational difficulties. Here, the general polynomial chaos expansion (gPCE) theory is adopted with this objective in mind. Owing to the fact that the ability of these methods to identify uncertain inputs depends on several factors linked to the model under investigation, as well as the experiment carried out, the understanding of results is not univocal, often leading to doubtful conclusions. In this paper, the performances and the limitations of three gPCE-based stochastic inverse methods are compared: the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), the polynomial chaos expansion-based Kalman Filter (PCE-KF) and a method based on the minimum mean square error (MMSE). Each method is tested on a benchmark comprised of seven models: four analytical abstract models, a one-dimensional static model, a one-dimensional dynamic model and a finite element (FE) model. The benchmark allows the exploration of relevant aspects of problems usually encountered in civil, bridge and infrastructure engineering, highlighting how the degree of non-linearity of the model, the magnitude of the prior uncertainties, the number of random variables characterizing the model, the information content of measurements and the measurement error affect the performance of Bayesian updating. The intention of this paper is to highlight the capabilities and limitations of each method, as well as to promote their critical application to complex case studies in the wider field of smarter and more informed infrastructure systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inspection, Assessment and Retrofit of Transport Infrastructure)
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Article
Fuel Consumption Prediction for Construction Trucks: A Noninvasive Approach Using Dedicated Sensors and Machine Learning
Infrastructures 2021, 6(11), 157; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/infrastructures6110157 - 05 Nov 2021
Viewed by 269
Abstract
Decision support and optimization tools to be used in construction often require an accurate estimation of the cost variables to maximize their benefit. Heavy machinery is traditionally one of the greatest costs to consider mainly due to fuel consumption. These typically diesel-powered machines [...] Read more.
Decision support and optimization tools to be used in construction often require an accurate estimation of the cost variables to maximize their benefit. Heavy machinery is traditionally one of the greatest costs to consider mainly due to fuel consumption. These typically diesel-powered machines have a great variability of fuel consumption depending on the scenario of utilization. This paper describes the creation of a framework aiming to estimate the fuel consumption of construction trucks depending on the carried load, the slope, the distance, and the pavement type. Having a more accurate estimation will increase the benefit of these optimization tools. The fuel consumption estimation model was developed using Machine Learning (ML) algorithms supported by data, which were gathered through several sensors, in a specially designed datalogger with wireless communication and opportunistic synchronization, in a real context experiment. The results demonstrated the viability of the method, providing important insight into the advantages associated with the combination of sensorization and the machine learning models in a real-world construction setting. Ultimately, this study comprises a significant step towards the achievement of IoT implementation from a Construction 4.0 viewpoint, especially when considering its potential for real-time and digital twins applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Artificial Intelligence in Infrastructure Geotechnics)
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Article
Explicitly Assessing the Durability of RC Structures Considering Spatial Variability and Correlation
Infrastructures 2021, 6(11), 156; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/infrastructures6110156 - 03 Nov 2021
Viewed by 328
Abstract
The durability design of reinforced concrete (RC) structures that are exposed to aggressive environmental attacks (e.g., corrosion due to chloride ingress in marine environment) plays a vital role in ensuring the structural serviceability within a reference period of interest. Existing approaches for the [...] Read more.
The durability design of reinforced concrete (RC) structures that are exposed to aggressive environmental attacks (e.g., corrosion due to chloride ingress in marine environment) plays a vital role in ensuring the structural serviceability within a reference period of interest. Existing approaches for the durability design and assessment of RC structures have, for the most part, not considered the spatial distribution of corrosion-related structural properties. In this paper, a closed-form approach is developed for durability assessment of RC structures, where the structural dimension, spatial variability, and correlation of structural properties such as the concrete cover thickness and the chloride diffusion coefficient are taken into account. The corrosion and crack initiations of an emerged tube tunnel segment that was used in the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau bridge project were assessed to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed approach. The accuracy of the method was verified through a comparison with Monte Carlo simulation results based on two-dimensional random field modeling. The proposed method can be used to efficiently assess the durability performance of RC structures in the marine environment and has the potential to become an efficient tool to guide the durability design of RC structures subjected to corrosion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reliability-Based Service-Life Assessment of Aging Bridges)
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Article
Development of Concrete Incorporating Recycled Aggregates, Hydrated Lime and Natural Volcanic Pozzolan
Infrastructures 2021, 6(11), 155; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/infrastructures6110155 - 02 Nov 2021
Viewed by 328
Abstract
Recycling of construction and demolition waste is a central point of discussion throughout the world. The application of recycled concrete as partial replacement of mineral aggregates in concrete mixes is one of the alternatives in the reduction of pollution and savings in carbon [...] Read more.
Recycling of construction and demolition waste is a central point of discussion throughout the world. The application of recycled concrete as partial replacement of mineral aggregates in concrete mixes is one of the alternatives in the reduction of pollution and savings in carbon emissions. The combined influence of the recycled crushed concrete, lime, and natural pozzolana on the mechanical and sustainable properties of concrete materials is firstly proposed in this study. In this research, unconventional construction materials are employed to produce concrete: the recycled crushed concrete is used as coarse aggregate, while lime and natural pozzolana are used as a partial replacement for cement. Substitutions of 10%, 20%, 50% of gravel are made with recycled aggregates, and 2%, 5%, 10% of cement with lime and natural pozzolan. Tests on the fresh and hardened properties, destructive (compressive strength) and non-destructive tests (sclerometer rebound and ultrasound) of mixtures are carried out. It is shown that the use of recycled materials can provide an increase in compressive strength of up to 34% with respect to conventional concrete. Life cycle cost and sustainability assessments indicate that concrete materials incorporating recycled aggregate possess good economic and environmental impacts. Full article
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Article
Observed Risk and User Perception of Road Infrastructure Safety Assessment for Cycling Mobility
Infrastructures 2021, 6(11), 154; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/infrastructures6110154 - 26 Oct 2021
Viewed by 283
Abstract
The opportunities for data collection in smart cities and communities provide new approaches for assessing risk of roadway components. This paper presents and compares two different methodological approaches for cycling safety assessment of objective and perceived risk. Objective risk was derived from speed [...] Read more.
The opportunities for data collection in smart cities and communities provide new approaches for assessing risk of roadway components. This paper presents and compares two different methodological approaches for cycling safety assessment of objective and perceived risk. Objective risk was derived from speed and direction profiles collected with Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and camera installed on an instrumented bicycle. Safety critical events between cyclists and other road users were identified and linked to five different roadway components. A panel of experts was asked to score the severity of the safety critical events using a Delphi process to reach consensus. To estimate the perceived risk, a web-based survey was provided to the city bicyclist community asking them to score the same five roadway components with a 4-point Likert scale. A comparison between perceived and objective risk classification of the roadway components showed a good agreement when only higher severity conflicts were considered. The research findings support the notion that it is possible to collect information from bicycle probe data that match and user perceptions and thus, utilizing them to take advantage of such data in advancing the goals of in smart cities and communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solutions for the Infrastructure and Transport of Smart City 4.0)
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Article
Citizens’ Perceptions in Relation to Transport Systems and Infrastructures: A Nationwide Study in the Dominican Republic
Infrastructures 2021, 6(11), 153; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/infrastructures6110153 - 25 Oct 2021
Viewed by 350
Abstract
One of the challenges currently faced by emerging countries is to get their citizens to decide to use sustainable transport for their regular trips, in order to reduce the current vehicular pollution rates. The objective of this descriptive research is to examine the [...] Read more.
One of the challenges currently faced by emerging countries is to get their citizens to decide to use sustainable transport for their regular trips, in order to reduce the current vehicular pollution rates. The objective of this descriptive research is to examine the perceptions of Dominicans regarding the state of the country’s transport systems and road infrastructure. For this purpose, a nationwide survey procedure was performed. This cross-sectional research used the data retrieved from a sample of 1260 citizens aged over 18, proportional in gender, age, habitat, and province of the Dominican Republic. The results showed how Dominicans believe that, compared to other road features, pedestrian roads and public transport vehicles remain in a very poor condition. Further, citizens report to be more interested about the improvement of road infrastructures than in the implementation of any other set of measures performed to promote sustainable road mobility, including those related with alternative transport means. Finally, this study claims for the need of fostering educational, communicative and participative actions and measures aimed at increasing the value given to sustainable transportation, and the relevance of integrate potential structural and vehicular improvements with those related to human behavior in mobility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transport Systems: Safety Modeling, Visions and Strategies)
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Article
A Machine Learning Framework for Predicting Bridge Defect Detection Cost
Infrastructures 2021, 6(11), 152; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/infrastructures6110152 - 23 Oct 2021
Viewed by 372
Abstract
Evaluating the cost of detecting bridge defects is a difficult task, but one that is vital to the lifecycle cost analysis of bridges. In this study, a detection cost sample database was established based on practical engineering data, and a bridge defect detection [...] Read more.
Evaluating the cost of detecting bridge defects is a difficult task, but one that is vital to the lifecycle cost analysis of bridges. In this study, a detection cost sample database was established based on practical engineering data, and a bridge defect detection cost prediction model and software were developed using machine learning. First, the random forest method was adopted to evaluate the importance of the seven main factors affecting the detection cost. The most important indicators were selected, and the recent GDP growth rate was employed to account for the impact of social and economic developments on the detection cost. Combining a genetic algorithm with a multilayer neural network, a detection cost prediction model was established. The predictions given by this model were found to have an average relative error of 3.41%. Finally, an intelligent prediction software for bridge defect detection costs was established, providing a reliable reference for bridge lifecycle cost analysis and the evaluation of defect detection costs during the operation period. Full article
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Article
Improvement of Pavement Subgrade by Adding Cement and Fly Ash to Natural Desert Sand
Infrastructures 2021, 6(11), 151; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/infrastructures6110151 - 23 Oct 2021
Viewed by 436
Abstract
Soil characteristics are paramount to design pavements and to assess the economic viability of a road. In the desert, such as that found in southern Libya, the very poor quality of soils leads to important pavement distress such as cracks, rutting, potholes, and [...] Read more.
Soil characteristics are paramount to design pavements and to assess the economic viability of a road. In the desert, such as that found in southern Libya, the very poor quality of soils leads to important pavement distress such as cracks, rutting, potholes, and lateral shear failure on the edges. To improve the strength of desert sand, an innovative approach is proposed, consisting of adding manufactured sand, ordinary Portland cement (OPC), and fly ash (FA) as a binder. OPC and FA improve the characteristics of mixes of crushed fine aggregate (CFA) and natural desert sand (NDS). These results are based on a gradation of two sand sources to determine the particle distribution and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) to determine their chemical and physical properties, respectively. This research assesses the effect of cement and fly ash on the geotechnical behavior of two mixtures of fine desert and manufactured sands (30:70% and 50:50%). The mix composed of 26% of CFA, 62% of NDS, 5% of OPC, and 7% of FA shows optimal results in terms of strength, compaction, and bearing capacity characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nontraditional Stabilization of Base Course and Subgrade Soils)
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Article
Holistic Simulation Approach for Optimal Operation of Smart Integrated Energy Systems under Consideration of Resilience, Economics and Sustainability
Infrastructures 2021, 6(11), 150; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/infrastructures6110150 - 23 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 373
Abstract
The intermittent energy supply from distributed resources and the coupling of different energy and application sectors play an important role for future energy systems. Novel operational concepts require the use of widespread and reliable Information and Communication Technology (ICT). This paper presents the [...] Read more.
The intermittent energy supply from distributed resources and the coupling of different energy and application sectors play an important role for future energy systems. Novel operational concepts require the use of widespread and reliable Information and Communication Technology (ICT). This paper presents the approach of a research project that focuses on the development of an innovative operational concept for a Smart Integrated Energy System (SIES), which consists of a physical architecture, ICT and energy management strategies. The cellular approach provides the architecture of the physical system in combination with Transactive Control (TC) as the system’s energy management framework. Independent dynamic models for each component, the physical and digital system, operational management and market are suggested and combined in a newly introduced co-simulation platform to create a holistic model of the integrated energy system. To verify the effectiveness of the operational concept, energy system scenarios are derived and evaluation criteria are suggested which can be employed to evaluate the future system operations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resilient Strategies in Cyber-Physical Energy Systems)
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Article
Modification of Variance-Based Sensitivity Indices for Stochastic Evaluation of Monitoring Measures
Infrastructures 2021, 6(11), 149; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/infrastructures6110149 - 23 Oct 2021
Viewed by 303
Abstract
In complex engineering models, various uncertain parameters affect the computational results. Most of them can only be estimated or assumed quite generally. In such a context, measurements are interesting to determine the most decisive parameters accurately. While measurements can reduce parameters’ variance, structural [...] Read more.
In complex engineering models, various uncertain parameters affect the computational results. Most of them can only be estimated or assumed quite generally. In such a context, measurements are interesting to determine the most decisive parameters accurately. While measurements can reduce parameters’ variance, structural monitoring might improve general assumptions on distributions and their characteristics. The decision on variables being measured often relies on experts’ practical experience. This paper introduces a method to stochastically estimate the potential benefits of measurements by modified sensitivity indices. They extend the established variance-based sensitivity indices originally suggested by Sobol’. They do not quantify the importance of a variable but the importance of its variance reduction. The numerical computation is presented and exemplified on a reference structure, a 50-year-old pre-stressed concrete bridge in Germany, where the prediction of the fatigue lifetime of the pre-stressing steel is of concern. Sensitivity evaluation yields six important parameters (e.g., shape of the S–N curve, temperature loads, creep, and shrinkage). However, taking into account individual monitoring measures and suited measurements identified by the modified sensitivity indices, creep and shrinkage, temperature loads, and the residual pre-strain of the tendons turn out to be most efficient. They grant the highest gains of accuracy with respect to the lifetime prediction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Health Monitoring of Civil Infrastructures)
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Article
BIM-Based Pavement Management Tool for Scheduling Urban Road Maintenance
Infrastructures 2021, 6(11), 148; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/infrastructures6110148 - 20 Oct 2021
Viewed by 401
Abstract
The latest advancements in road asphalt materials and construction technologies have increased the difficulty for engineers to select the appropriate pavement design solution with consideration of proper timing for maintenance planning. On the other hand, Building Information Modeling (BIM) tools allow practitioners to [...] Read more.
The latest advancements in road asphalt materials and construction technologies have increased the difficulty for engineers to select the appropriate pavement design solution with consideration of proper timing for maintenance planning. On the other hand, Building Information Modeling (BIM) tools allow practitioners to efficiently store and manage large amounts of data, supporting decision making in road asphalt pavement design and management. The present work focused on the elaboration of a BIM-based maintenance analysis tool for the specific evaluation of several condition indicators and the selection of proper maintenance solutions designed to include alternative materials and advanced recycling technologies. A traditional BIM workflow was integrated with additional user-defined property sets to investigate the need for maintenance at the present date and predict the degradation curve of the condition indicators through the least square interpolation of time series of data. The analysis tool also provided the selection of available pavement alternatives from a library of designed solutions based on their compliance with project-specific constraints (maximum budget, minimum useful life, and availability of secondary raw materials and in-place recycling technologies). The proposed BIM tool aims to be a practical and dynamic way to integrate maintenance planning considerations into road pavement design, encouraging the use of digital tools in the road industry and ultimately supporting a pavement maintenance decision-making process oriented towards a circular economy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Practices into Road Pavement Maintenance Management)
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