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Quantum Beam Sci., Volume 4, Issue 3 (September 2020) – 7 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The combination of synchrotron X-ray tomography and diffraction allows probing the co-evolving internal stress state we refer to as Osteodynamic Equilibrium (OsteodynE) that regulates the load transfer and accommodation of deformation within the organic and mineral parts of the bone. View this paper
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Article
In Situ Observation for Deformation-Induced Martensite Transformation (DIMT) during Tensile Deformation of 304 Stainless Steel Using Neutron Diffraction. PART I: Mechanical Response
Quantum Beam Sci. 2020, 4(3), 31; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/qubs4030031 - 11 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1284
Abstract
304 stainless steel is one of the most common stainless steels due to its excellent corrosion resistance and mechanical properties. Typically, a good balance between ductility and strength derives from deformation-induced martensite transformation (DIMT), but this mechanism has not been fully explained. In [...] Read more.
304 stainless steel is one of the most common stainless steels due to its excellent corrosion resistance and mechanical properties. Typically, a good balance between ductility and strength derives from deformation-induced martensite transformation (DIMT), but this mechanism has not been fully explained. In this study, we conducted in situ neutron diffraction measurements during the tensile deformation of commercial 304 stainless steel (at room temperature) by means of a Time-Of-Flight type neutron diffractometer, iMATERIA (BL20), at J-PARC MLF (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex, Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility), Japan. The fractions of α′-(BCC) and ε-(HCP) martensite were quantitatively determined by Rietveld-texture analysis, as well as the anisotropic microstrains. The strain hardening behavior corresponded well to the microstrain development in the austenite phase. Hence, the authors concluded that the existence of martensite was not a direct cause of hardening, because the dominant austenite phase strengthened to equivalent values as in the martensite phase. Moreover, the transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) mechanism in austenitic steels is different from that of low-alloy bainitic TRIP steels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of Strain, Stress and Texture with Quantum Beams)
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Article
Optical Absorption Cross-Section of DNA Bases—Thymine and Guanine—in the Energy Region from 3.1 to 250 eV (5–400 nm)
Quantum Beam Sci. 2020, 4(3), 30; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/qubs4030030 - 03 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1176
Abstract
(1) Background: Optical absorption cross-section—the absolute absorption intensity specific to each molecule—of nucleic acid bases enables us to estimate the reaction yields of DNA lesions induced by the exposure to not only photons but also ionizing radiations. However, it was unknown in the [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Optical absorption cross-section—the absolute absorption intensity specific to each molecule—of nucleic acid bases enables us to estimate the reaction yields of DNA lesions induced by the exposure to not only photons but also ionizing radiations. However, it was unknown in the energy region exceeding ~10 eV (wavelength < ~120 nm). (2) Methods: Thin films of DNA bases—thymine and guanine—were prepared using a vacuum sublimation technique. Absorption spectra of these films were measured in the energy region from 3.1 to 250 eV (5–400 nm) at the synchrotron radiation facility UVSOR. (3) Results: The absorption spectra of both bases exhibited prominent absorption peaks around 20 eV and smaller peaks in the energy region below 10 eV. The determined optical oscillator strength distribution was verified to be reasonable based on the Thomas–Reiche–Kuhn oscillator strength sum rule. (4) Conclusion: Most of the oscillator strength distribution was positioned in the measured energy region, and therefore the absorption spectra significantly contributed to the quantitative study for the photo and radiation-chemical reactions of DNA. Full article
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Article
Ovine Bone Morphology and Deformation Analysis Using Synchrotron X-ray Imaging and Scattering
Quantum Beam Sci. 2020, 4(3), 29; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/qubs4030029 - 09 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1198
Abstract
Bone is a natural hierarchical composite tissue incorporating hard mineral nano-crystals of hydroxyapatite (HAp) and organic binding material containing elastic collagen fibers. In the study, we investigated the structure and deformation of ovine bone by the combination of high-energy synchrotron X-ray tomographic imaging [...] Read more.
Bone is a natural hierarchical composite tissue incorporating hard mineral nano-crystals of hydroxyapatite (HAp) and organic binding material containing elastic collagen fibers. In the study, we investigated the structure and deformation of ovine bone by the combination of high-energy synchrotron X-ray tomographic imaging and scattering. X-ray experiments were performed prior to and under three-point bending loading by using a specially developed in situ load cell constructed from aluminium alloy frame, fast-drying epoxy resin for sample fixation, and a titanium bolt for contact loading. Firstly, multiple radiographic projection images were acquired and tomographic reconstruction was performed using SAVU software, following segmentation using Avizo. Secondly, Wide Angle X-ray Scattering (WAXS) and Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) 2D scattering patterns were collected from HAp and collagen. Both sample shape and deformation affect the observed scattering. Novel combined tomographic and diffraction analysis presented below paves the way for advanced characterization of complex shape samples using the Dual Imaging and Diffraction (DIAD) paradigm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of Strain, Stress and Texture with Quantum Beams)
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Article
Phase Stress Measurement of Centrifugally Cast Duplex Stainless Steel by Neutron Diffraction
Quantum Beam Sci. 2020, 4(3), 28; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/qubs4030028 - 29 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1147
Abstract
Residual stress can be easily generated during material processing and affect the performance of structural components. Phase stress distribution in austenitic-ferritic duplex stainless steels (DSSs) is complicated due to the different material properties between the two phases. In this study, residual phase stress [...] Read more.
Residual stress can be easily generated during material processing and affect the performance of structural components. Phase stress distribution in austenitic-ferritic duplex stainless steels (DSSs) is complicated due to the different material properties between the two phases. In this study, residual phase stress distribution along the thickness direction of centrifugally cast DSS hollow cylinder was measured by pulsed neutron diffraction with the time-of-flight (TOF) method. The triaxial phase stress distribution along the thickness direction shows that the phase stress of austenitic phase is generally in tension and higher than that of ferrite phase. From the outer surface to the inner surface, the macro-stress distributes from −400 MPa to 200 MPa. The mechanism of macro-stress formation was deduced by taking into consideration the thermal shrinkage behavior during the cooling process of water quench after the solution heat treatment. Furthermore, the lattice strain and phase stress evolution under the uniaxial tensile loading was evaluated by in-situ neutron diffraction measurement. The results indicated that the magnitude of phase stress could be affected by plastic working as well. All these measurements were conducted at Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of Strain, Stress and Texture with Quantum Beams)
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Editorial
Quantum Beams Applying to Innovative Industrial Materials
Quantum Beam Sci. 2020, 4(3), 27; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/qubs4030027 - 27 Jul 2020
Viewed by 1036
Abstract
Welcome to this Special Issue of Quantum Beam Science entitled “Quantum Beams Applying to Innovative Industrial Materials” [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quantum Beams Applying to Innovative Industrial Materials)
Article
Analysis of Ion-Irradiation Induced Lattice Expansion and Ferromagnetic State in CeO2 by Using Poisson Distribution Function
Quantum Beam Sci. 2020, 4(3), 26; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/qubs4030026 - 24 Jul 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1110
Abstract
The lattice constant and the magnetic state of CeO2 are modified by the irradiation with 200 MeV Xe ions. Under the assumption that these modifications are induced in the narrow one-dimensional region (the ion track) along the ion beam path, the dependence [...] Read more.
The lattice constant and the magnetic state of CeO2 are modified by the irradiation with 200 MeV Xe ions. Under the assumption that these modifications are induced in the narrow one-dimensional region (the ion track) along the ion beam path, the dependence of the lattice constant and the saturation magnetization of CeO2 on the Xe ion fluence was analyzed by using the Poisson distribution function. The analysis reveals that the lattice constant inside the ion track, which is larger than that outside the ion track, is not affected by the overlapping of the ion track. On the other hand, the ferromagnetic state is induced inside the ion track, but the analysis shows that this ferromagnetic state is gradually destroyed due to the overlapping of the ion track. The present result implies that the Poisson distribution function is useful for describing the effect of the ion track overlapping on the ion irradiation-induced ferromagnetic state in CeO2. Full article
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Article
Double-Exposure Method with Synchrotron White X-ray for Stress Evaluation of Coarse-Grain Materials
Quantum Beam Sci. 2020, 4(3), 25; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/qubs4030025 - 09 Jul 2020
Viewed by 1234
Abstract
Stress measurements of coarse-grained material are difficult using synchrotron X-ray diffraction because the diffraction patterns of coarse-grained materials are spotty. In addition, the center of the diffraction pattern is unknown for the transmitted X-ray beam. Here, a double-exposure method is proposed as the [...] Read more.
Stress measurements of coarse-grained material are difficult using synchrotron X-ray diffraction because the diffraction patterns of coarse-grained materials are spotty. In addition, the center of the diffraction pattern is unknown for the transmitted X-ray beam. Here, a double-exposure method is proposed as the countermeasure against this issue. In the experiment, we introduce a CdTe pixel detector. The detector is a newly developed area detector and can resolve high-energy X-rays. The strains of the coarse-grained material can be measured using a combination of the double-exposure method, white synchrotron X-ray, and the CdTe pixel detector. The bending stress in an austenitic stainless steel plate was measured using the proposed technique. As a result, the measured stress corresponded to the applied bending stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of Strain, Stress and Texture with Quantum Beams)
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