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Article

Portable XRF Quick-Scan Mapping for Potential Toxic Elements Pollutants in Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems: A Methodological Approach

1
Geological Survey of Norway, P.O. Box 6315 Torgarden, 7491 Trondheim, Norway
2
NoorderRuimte, Centre of Applied Research and Innovation on Area Development, Hanze University of Applied Sciences, Zernikeplein 7, P.O. Box 3037, 9701 DA Groningen, The Netherlands
3
Deltares, Daltonlaan 600, 3584 BK, 85467 3508 AL Utrecht, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 November 2019 / Accepted: 20 January 2020 / Published: 14 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Open Innovation)
Sustainable urban drainage systems (SuDS) such as swales are designed to collect, store and infiltrate a large amount of surface runoff water during heavy rainfall. Stormwater is known to transport pollutants, such as particle-bound Potential Toxic Elements (PTE), which are known to often accumulate in the topsoil. A portable XRF instrument (pXRF) is used to provide in situ spatial characterization of soil pollutants, specifically lead (Pb), zink (Zn) and copper (Cu). The method uses pXRF measurements of PTE along profiles with set intervals (1 m) to cover the swale with cross-sections, across the inlet, the deepest point and the outlet. Soil samples are collected, and the In-Situ measurements are verified by the results from laboratory analyses. Stormwater is here shown to be the transporting media for the pollutants, so it is of importance to investigate areas most prone to flooding and infiltration. This quick scan method is time and cost-efficient, easy to execute and the results are comparable to any known (inter)national threshold criteria for polluted soils. The results are of great importance for all stakeholders in cities that are involved in climate adaptation and implementing green infrastructure in urban areas. However, too little is still known about the long-term functioning of the soil-based SuDS facilities. View Full-Text
Keywords: portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (pXRF); Potential Toxic Elements (PTE); lead (Pb), zinc (Zn); copper (Cu); topsoil; sustainable urban drainage systems; SuDS; LID; BMPs; WSUD; GI; SCMs portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (pXRF); Potential Toxic Elements (PTE); lead (Pb), zinc (Zn); copper (Cu); topsoil; sustainable urban drainage systems; SuDS; LID; BMPs; WSUD; GI; SCMs
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MDPI and ACS Style

Venvik, G.; Boogaard, F.C. Portable XRF Quick-Scan Mapping for Potential Toxic Elements Pollutants in Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems: A Methodological Approach. Sci 2020, 2, 64. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sci2030064

AMA Style

Venvik G, Boogaard FC. Portable XRF Quick-Scan Mapping for Potential Toxic Elements Pollutants in Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems: A Methodological Approach. Sci. 2020; 2(3):64. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sci2030064

Chicago/Turabian Style

Venvik, Guri, and Floris C. Boogaard. 2020. "Portable XRF Quick-Scan Mapping for Potential Toxic Elements Pollutants in Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems: A Methodological Approach" Sci 2, no. 3: 64. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sci2030064

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