A three-part mechanism is proposed for the induction of Alzheimer’s disease: (1) decreased blood lactic acid; (2) increased blood ceramide and adipokines; (3) decreased blood folic acid. The age-related nature of these mechanisms comes from age-associated decreased muscle mass, increased visceral fat and changes in diet. This mechanism also explains why many people do not develop Alzheimer’s disease. Simple changes in lifestyle and diet can prevent Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s disease is caused by a cascade of events that culminates in damage to the blood–brain barrier and damage to neurons. The blood–brain barrier keeps toxic molecules out of the brain and retains essential molecules in the brain. Lactic acid is a nutrient to the brain and is produced by exercise. Damage to endothelial cells and pericytes by inadequate lactic acid leads to blood–brain barrier damage and brain damage. Inadequate folate intake and oxidative stress induced by activation of transient receptor potential cation channels and endothelial nitric oxide synthase damage the blood–brain barrier. NAD depletion due to inadequate intake of nicotinamide and alterations in the kynurenine pathway damages neurons. Changes in microRNA levels may be the terminal events that cause neuronal death leading to Alzheimer’s disease. A new mechanism of Alzheimer’s disease induction is presented involving lactic acid, ceramide, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor α, folate, nicotinamide, kynurenine metabolites and microRNA.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited