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Article

Parents’ Perceived Neighborhood Safety and Children’s Cognitive Performance: Complexities by Race, Ethnicity, and Cognitive Domain

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Department of Family Medicine, Charles R Drew University of Medicine and Science, Los Angeles, CA 90059, USA
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Department of Urban Public Health, Charles R Drew University of Medicine and Science, Los Angeles, CA 90059, USA
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Department of Pediatrics, Charles R Drew University of Medicine and Science, Los Angeles, CA 90059, USA
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Department of Health Behavior and Health Education, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029, USA
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Department of Human Development and Family Studies, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA
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Sociology and Criminology, Law & Society, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-7330, USA
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Department of Sociology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
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Department of Community Health, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155, USA
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Amherst H. Wilder Foundation, Wilder Research, Saint Paul, MN 55104, USA
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Department of Family Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
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Center for Research on Ethnicity, Culture and Health, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029, USA
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Department of Philosophy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9JS, UK
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Prevention Research Center, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Tan Yigitcanlar
Received: 6 March 2021 / Revised: 21 May 2021 / Accepted: 22 May 2021 / Published: 1 June 2021
Background:Aim: To examine racial/ethnic variations in the effect of parents’ subjective neighborhood safety on children’s cognitive performance. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 10,027 children from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study. The exposure variable was parents’ subjective neighborhood safety. The outcomes were three domains of children’s cognitive performance: general cognitive performance, executive functioning, and learning/memory. We used mixed-effects regression models for data analysis. Results: Overall, parents’ subjective neighborhood safety was positively associated with children’s executive functioning, but not general cognitive performance or learning/memory. Higher parents’ subjective neighborhood safety had a more positive influence on the executive functioning of non-Hispanic White than Asian American children. Higher parents’ subjective neighborhood safety was associated with higher general cognitive performance and learning/memory for non-White children relative to non-Hispanic White children. Conclusion: The race/ethnicity of children moderates the association between neighborhood safety and cognitive performance. This becomes more complicated, as the patterns seem to differ across ethnicity and cognitive domains. It is unknown whether the observed racial/ethnic variations in the effect of neighborhood safety on cognitive performance are neighborhood characteristics such as residential segregation. Addressing neighborhood inequalities is needed if we wish to reduce racial/ethnic inequities in the cognitive development of children. View Full-Text
Keywords: race; ethnicity; population groups; children; cognition; cognitive performance race; ethnicity; population groups; children; cognition; cognitive performance
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MDPI and ACS Style

Assari, S.; Boyce, S.; Mistry, R.; Thomas, A.; Nicholson, H.L., Jr.; Cobb, R.J.; Cuevas, A.G.; Lee, D.B.; Bazargan, M.; Caldwell, C.H.; Curry, T.J.; Zimmerman, M.A. Parents’ Perceived Neighborhood Safety and Children’s Cognitive Performance: Complexities by Race, Ethnicity, and Cognitive Domain. Urban Sci. 2021, 5, 46. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/urbansci5020046

AMA Style

Assari S, Boyce S, Mistry R, Thomas A, Nicholson HL Jr., Cobb RJ, Cuevas AG, Lee DB, Bazargan M, Caldwell CH, Curry TJ, Zimmerman MA. Parents’ Perceived Neighborhood Safety and Children’s Cognitive Performance: Complexities by Race, Ethnicity, and Cognitive Domain. Urban Science. 2021; 5(2):46. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/urbansci5020046

Chicago/Turabian Style

Assari, Shervin, Shanika Boyce, Ritesh Mistry, Alvin Thomas, Harvey L. Nicholson Jr., Ryon J. Cobb, Adolfo G. Cuevas, Daniel B. Lee, Mohsen Bazargan, Cleopatra H. Caldwell, Tommy J. Curry, and Marc A. Zimmerman 2021. "Parents’ Perceived Neighborhood Safety and Children’s Cognitive Performance: Complexities by Race, Ethnicity, and Cognitive Domain" Urban Science 5, no. 2: 46. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/urbansci5020046

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