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Urban Sci., Volume 8, Issue 2 (June 2024) – 50 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): When analysing vehicle fleet data, classification of driving style and driving domain is essential to add context to the measured signals. Highway classification can be implemented by matching the driven trajectory to highway roads in a digital map. This paper presents a method for the remaining classification task, i.e., to distinguish urban from extra urban areas. First, potential urban areas are identified based on urban land-use density, which is determined based on land-use categories from OpenStreetMap. Subsequently, two road network scaling models are used to divide the potential urban areas into urban and extra-urban domains. Finally, statistics of domain features are analysed for the classified urban and extra-urban areas. View this paper
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17 pages, 10425 KiB  
Article
The Hidden Connections of Urban Crime: A Network Analysis of Victims, Crime Types, and Locations in Rio de Janeiro
by Fernanda C. Ventorim and Vinicius M. Netto
Urban Sci. 2024, 8(2), 72; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/urbansci8020072 (registering DOI) - 20 Jun 2024
Abstract
Urban crime is a pressing issue in socially unequal regions like Brazil. We investigate the complex relationships between crime, victims, and urban situations in Rio de Janeiro. We analyze the connections between specific types of crime, victim characteristics, and crime locations through complex [...] Read more.
Urban crime is a pressing issue in socially unequal regions like Brazil. We investigate the complex relationships between crime, victims, and urban situations in Rio de Janeiro. We analyze the connections between specific types of crime, victim characteristics, and crime locations through complex network analysis. In a large-scale empirical study, we examine 5000 randomly selected crime incidents in Rio between 2007 and 2018. Our analysis reveals a strong association between sex, race, location, and income inequality in the risk of exposure to crime. The results suggest that specific social groups, notably black and brown women, face a higher-than-average vulnerability to particular types of crime in Rio. Our investigation confirms our hypothesis that crime incidents are not random occurrences. Instead, we have discovered meaningful connections between specific types of crime, victim characteristics, and crime locations. These findings indicate a pattern of underlying factors shaping the distribution of crime and vulnerable social groups. Full article
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21 pages, 3127 KiB  
Article
Embracing Urban Micromobility: A Comparative Study of E-Scooter Adoption in Washington, D.C., Miami, and Los Angeles
by Mostafa Jafarzadehfadaki and Virginia P. Sisiopiku
Urban Sci. 2024, 8(2), 71; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/urbansci8020071 (registering DOI) - 18 Jun 2024
Viewed by 156
Abstract
E-scooters have emerged as a popular micromobility option for short trips, with many cities embracing shared e-scooters to enhance convenience for travelers and reduce reliance on automobiles. Despite their rising popularity, there is a lack of clear understanding of how user preferences and [...] Read more.
E-scooters have emerged as a popular micromobility option for short trips, with many cities embracing shared e-scooters to enhance convenience for travelers and reduce reliance on automobiles. Despite their rising popularity, there is a lack of clear understanding of how user preferences and adoption practices vary by location. This study aims to explore user and non-user attitudes towards e-scooter use in diverse urban settings. A meta-analysis of data from three surveys (N = 1197) conducted in Washington, D.C., Miami, FL, and Los Angeles, CA, was performed to compare e-scooter users and non-user profiles, mode choice factors, and attitudes and preferences towards e-scooter use. Additionally, machine learning (ML) and SHAP (SHapley Additive exPlanations) analysis were utilized to identify influential factors in predicting e-scooter use in each city. The results reveal that the majority of e-scooter users are 25 to 39 of age, male, with higher income and a bachelor’s degree, and 92% possess a driver’s license. Significant differences in attitudes between e-scooter users and non-users highlight the complexity of perceptions towards e-scooter usage. The ML model indicates that employment status negatively impacts the prediction of e-scooter users, while factors such as living without a car and using non-motorized modes positively influence e-scooter use. Educational background is a significant e-scooter mode choice factor in Washington, D.C. and Miami, whereas attitudinal questions on car and technology usage are influential in Los Angeles. These findings provide valuable insights into the factors shaping e-scooter adoption, informing urban transportation planning and policymaking and enhancing understanding of shared micromobility and its impact on urban mobility. Full article
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25 pages, 13109 KiB  
Article
Impact of Neighborhood Urban Morphologies on Walkability Using Spatial Multi-Criteria Analysis
by Sara Ibrahim, Ahmed Younes and Shahira Assem Abdel-Razek
Urban Sci. 2024, 8(2), 70; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/urbansci8020070 - 17 Jun 2024
Viewed by 227
Abstract
With the increase in car domination, air pollution, traffic congestion, and urban sprawl, sustainable, livable, creative, and walkable cities are critical, now more than ever, for improving quality of life. The effect of neighborhood urban morphologies on walkability has received much attention in [...] Read more.
With the increase in car domination, air pollution, traffic congestion, and urban sprawl, sustainable, livable, creative, and walkable cities are critical, now more than ever, for improving quality of life. The effect of neighborhood urban morphologies on walkability has received much attention in recent years. In this vein, the main research question is: how do different neighborhood urban morphologies impact the level of walkability in urban environments, and what are the essential elements impacting the walkability index? Thus, this research aims to determine the impact of urban morphology on walkability in the city of Alexandria, Egypt, as a case study by utilizing multi-spatial analysis. In particular, the study focused on assessing the walkability of four different study areas that vary according to their urban morphology: Kafr–Abdo, Smouha, Latin Quarter, and Roushdy areas. The analysis utilized GIS to calculate a number of indicators to reach the final walkability index for each study area. Results helped to identify the neighborhoods characterized by the lowest level of pedestrian walkability in relation to the area’s urban morphology in an attempt to help decision-makers suggest the appropriate interventions for those areas. The aggregated index results showed that the highest walkability index was that of the gridiron morphology, followed by the linear morphology, with the radial and organic morphologies coming in behind them, respectively. The composite walkability index values were 0.364, 0.247, 0.232 and 0.225, respectively. The reason for this is mainly the presence of the commercial density, intersection density, street density, services density, BCR, and residential density. Full article
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25 pages, 1595 KiB  
Article
Exploring Community Readiness to Adopt Mobility as a Service (MaaS) Scheme in the City of Thessaloniki
by Panagiota Mavrogenidou and Apostolos Papagiannakis
Urban Sci. 2024, 8(2), 69; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/urbansci8020069 - 17 Jun 2024
Viewed by 292
Abstract
Mobility as a Service (MaaS) is a new mobility solution that brings together different modes of transportation, such as car-sharing, public transport, taxis, and bicycles, to create personalized service packages for commuters. The present study aims to identify key factors affecting the adoption [...] Read more.
Mobility as a Service (MaaS) is a new mobility solution that brings together different modes of transportation, such as car-sharing, public transport, taxis, and bicycles, to create personalized service packages for commuters. The present study aims to identify key factors affecting the adoption of a Mobility as a Service system, and to explore the extent to which a local community is ready to accept the implementation of MaaS. The case study investigates the city of Thessaloniki, which is the second largest urban agglomeration in Greece. This study applies a triangulation approach by combining quantitative and qualitative analysis, providing a comprehensive understanding of the opportunities and the challenges arising with the implementation of a MaaS system in the city of Thessaloniki. Furthermore, the utilization of MaaS as a tool for vulnerable people, a crucial aspect that has not been analyzed properly in the existing literature, is examined. A quantitative survey analysis was conducted, inferential statistics were applied, and a binary logistic regression model was developed to determine the significant characteristics that most affect citizens’ willingness to use a MaaS system. In addition, stakeholders were interviewed to examine their readiness to promote and collaborate for the development of a MaaS system. Results showed that age, driving license, daily time spent on urban trips, the frequency of commuting as car passenger or by public transport (PT), previous usage of a MaaS system, and the number of family members seem to be the most influential factors of citizens’ choice to adopt MaaS. For stakeholders, the quality of service provided, and the user friendliness of the system are necessary prerequisites. The findings reveal that the views of residents and stakeholders provide some positive foundations for the development of a MaaS system in the city. Full article
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21 pages, 15381 KiB  
Article
Emerging Residential Trends within Socially Heterogeneous Settings: The Case of Jabal Al-Hussein Amman
by Lubna Alawneh, Maram Tawil, Katrin Bäumer and Christa Reicher
Urban Sci. 2024, 8(2), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci8020068 - 13 Jun 2024
Viewed by 242
Abstract
This research focuses on the residential patterns that were traced in Amman in the last decades due to the constant influx of migrants. Therefore, mapping the residential patterns that are emerging was seen important to understand the morphology of the area. A mixed-methods [...] Read more.
This research focuses on the residential patterns that were traced in Amman in the last decades due to the constant influx of migrants. Therefore, mapping the residential patterns that are emerging was seen important to understand the morphology of the area. A mixed-methods approach was used to identify the typologies emerging into the setting. New residential patterns that called for new strategic thinking were captured and analyzed. Enhancing the new image of “celebrated character” that urges new perception of heterogeneous communities and attracting more sustainable residential attributes towards the neighborhood were the two main outcomes of the study. Full article
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28 pages, 2706 KiB  
Article
A Systematic Assessment of Greening Interventions for Developing Best Practices for Urban Heat Mitigation—The Case of Huế, Vietnam
by Sebastian Scheuer, Luca Sumfleth, Long Dac Hoang Nguyen, Ylan Vo, Thi Binh Minh Hoang and Jessica Jache
Urban Sci. 2024, 8(2), 67; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/urbansci8020067 - 13 Jun 2024
Viewed by 206
Abstract
The health of urban populations is increasingly at risk due to the amplification and chronification of urban heat stress by climate change. This is particularly true for urban environments in humid tropical climates, including many cities in Southeast Asia. It is also in [...] Read more.
The health of urban populations is increasingly at risk due to the amplification and chronification of urban heat stress by climate change. This is particularly true for urban environments in humid tropical climates, including many cities in Southeast Asia. It is also in these locations where increasing climatic risks may be exacerbated by urban growth, underscoring the need to develop effective mitigation strategies for strengthening urban resilience and supporting climate change adaptation. Conservation and widespread implementation of green infrastructure (GI) are regarded as one means to counter heat as a public health threat. However, for lower-income countries across Southeast Asia, such as Vietnam, knowledge gaps remain with respect to the effectiveness of greening interventions for heat mitigation. To address this gap, in the context of urban expansion in the humid tropical city of Huế, Vietnam, diurnal cooling potential and regulation of outdoor thermal comfort (OTC) within a wide, shallow street canyon were systematically assessed for selected elements of GI along a quantitative and qualitative dimension using ENVI-met. Tree-based interventions were found to be most effective, potentially decreasing UTCI by −1.9 K at the domain level. Although lower in magnitude, green verges and green facades were also found to contribute to OTC, with green verges decreasing UTCI by up to −1.7 K and green facades by up to −1.4 K locally. Potential synergistic cooling impacts were identified through a combination of GI elements. However, no scenario was found to decrease heat stress to zero or moderate levels. Substantially reducing heat stress may thus require further measures and a closer consideration of local morphological characteristics. Full article
15 pages, 1409 KiB  
Article
Factories of the Future in Digitization of Industrial Urban Areas
by Nikolai Bolshakov, Alberto Celani, Vladimir Badenko and Rafael Magdalena Benedicto
Urban Sci. 2024, 8(2), 66; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/urbansci8020066 - 11 Jun 2024
Viewed by 348
Abstract
This paper delves into the integration of Factories of the Future (FoF) and digital twin technologies within urban contexts, marking a significant leap in Smart Cities development. We present a thorough exploration of the principles and a scientifically grounded framework designed for seamlessly [...] Read more.
This paper delves into the integration of Factories of the Future (FoF) and digital twin technologies within urban contexts, marking a significant leap in Smart Cities development. We present a thorough exploration of the principles and a scientifically grounded framework designed for seamlessly blending advanced manufacturing systems with the urban environment’s digital and physical aspects. Our detailed analysis has identified core principles crucial for this integration, focusing on interoperability, sustainability, adaptability, stakeholder collaboration, and strong data governance. We propose a structured framework that puts these principles into action, outlining strategic routes for incorporating digital twin and Building Information Modeling (BIM) technologies into FoF, establishing public-private partnerships, enhancing education and workforce development, and setting up mechanisms for ongoing evaluation and enhancement. The potential of this integration to transform urban development is vast, providing a model for boosting operational efficiency, driving economic growth, and enhancing urban livability. Although challenges exist in realizing this vision, our research offers practical insights and strategies for cities and industries to effectively navigate the complexities of the digital era. This contribution enriches the growing field of urban science, advocating for a harmonious integration of industrial production with urban development in the Smart Cities framework. Full article
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24 pages, 2292 KiB  
Article
Toward Resilient Urban Design: Pedestrians as an Important Element of City Design
by Diego Ros-McDonnell, María Victoria de-la-Fuente-Aragón, Lorenzo Ros-McDonnell and Manuel Cardós
Urban Sci. 2024, 8(2), 65; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/urbansci8020065 - 7 Jun 2024
Viewed by 326
Abstract
Including pedestrians in urban design is vital so that they prefer walking over motorized transport. Motorized mobility, which mainly involves automobiles, has conditioned urban design, pedestrian movement, sustainability, and urban resilience. Studies of walkability in cities have recently been conducted, and they can [...] Read more.
Including pedestrians in urban design is vital so that they prefer walking over motorized transport. Motorized mobility, which mainly involves automobiles, has conditioned urban design, pedestrian movement, sustainability, and urban resilience. Studies of walkability in cities have recently been conducted, and they can be classified into those that use a qualitative observer-perception-based approach and a second approach based on the measurement of observable variables. This work aims to develop a tool that allows for walkability in public spaces to be evaluated based on directly observing reality while considering both approaches: those related to perceiving the environment and physical reality. Walking is one of the main ways of moving around and achieving sustainable urban mobility. The conditions of public spaces are fundamental for people in their preference for moving around by walking. A literature review related to walkability revealed that previous works included a variety of viewpoints, scales, tools, variables, and approaches. This study included a developed tool by modeling a definition of working areas, processing walkability data, and determining the Walkability Index (WI). The reliability of the data observed from the walkability variables was verified, and the tool’s usefulness for urban planning was demonstrated. Pedestrian-centered urban design promotes cities’ sustainable mobility, sustainability, and resilience. People’s conduct reveals how the urban environment is perceived. The developed WI evaluates the existing reality and allows for its evolution to be monitored. Full article
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13 pages, 290 KiB  
Article
Determining the Location of Shared Electric Micro-Mobility Stations in Urban Environment
by Ahmed Jaber, Huthaifa Ashqar and Bálint Csonka
Urban Sci. 2024, 8(2), 64; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/urbansci8020064 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 351
Abstract
Locating shared electric micro-mobility stations in urban environments involves balancing multiple objectives, including accessibility, profitability, sustainability, operational costs, and social considerations. This study investigates traveler preferences regarding shared electric micro-mobility stations, focusing on factors influencing their location decisions. The study used the Analytic [...] Read more.
Locating shared electric micro-mobility stations in urban environments involves balancing multiple objectives, including accessibility, profitability, sustainability, operational costs, and social considerations. This study investigates traveler preferences regarding shared electric micro-mobility stations, focusing on factors influencing their location decisions. The study used the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) model to analyze the criteria and determine their relative importance in influencing the location decisions of shared electric micro-mobility stations as evaluated by experts in transportation fields. The examined criteria are proximity to public transportation, accessibility to key destinations, demographics (e.g., age, and income), safety, land use, and pedestrian and cyclist infrastructure. Using the AHP model, the importance and ranking of each criterion were established. Results indicate that the availability and quality of sidewalks and bike lanes in the vicinity, along with the proximity to popular destinations like shopping centers and tourist attractions, emerge as the most influential criteria. The least important criteria were the demographics such as the young age percentage in the area and the average income of the surrounding population. These findings underscore the critical importance of well-maintained infrastructure for pedestrian and cyclist mobility, as well as the need for convenient access to high-traffic areas. Such insights provide valuable guidance for informed decision making regarding the optimal placement of shared electric micro-mobility stations. Full article
26 pages, 9675 KiB  
Article
Improving Green Literacy and Environmental Culture Associated with Youth Participation in the Circular Economy: A Case Study of Vietnam
by Phuong Mai Tran, Thuy Nguyen, Huu-Dung Nguyen, Nguyen An Thinh, Nguyen Duc Lam, Nguyen Thi Huyen and Van Quy Khuc
Urban Sci. 2024, 8(2), 63; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/urbansci8020063 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 610
Abstract
The circular economy (CE), a sustainability concept that promotes resource efficiency and waste reduction, has garnered significant popularity in recent years due to its potential to address pressing environmental and economic challenges. This study applies the Bayesian Mindsponge Mindspongeconomics (BMM) framework/analytic method, based [...] Read more.
The circular economy (CE), a sustainability concept that promotes resource efficiency and waste reduction, has garnered significant popularity in recent years due to its potential to address pressing environmental and economic challenges. This study applies the Bayesian Mindsponge Mindspongeconomics (BMM) framework/analytic method, based on the Bayesian Mindsponge Framework (BMF), to the factors influencing young adults’ pro-environmental behavior and their purchases of green products at different price levels. The findings indicate that young adults who are knowledgeable about the CE and who value environmental protection and energy conservation are more likely to engage in waste sorting, while the factors that affect their willingness to pay (WTP) more for green and energy-saving products vary at different price tiers. This study demonstrates that knowledge of the CE, daily waste sorting habits, and environmental concern positively impact young adults’ WTP for products that are priced 5%, 10%, and 15% higher, respectively. Furthermore, this study also highlights the potential of educational programs and cultural influences in nurturing a generation that prioritizes environmental value. This research integrates multidisciplinary perspectives and offers practical implications for policymakers, educators, and businesses seeking to promote green literacy and foster an environmental culture among the youth, contributing to the broader goals of green transformation and sustainable development associated with the CE and the green economy, especially in the urban areas of emerging countries and beyond. Full article
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11 pages, 281 KiB  
Article
Introducing a Scale for Measuring Attachment to Urban Green
by Daniela Haluza, Ina Meyer, Anke Strüver and Andreas Exner
Urban Sci. 2024, 8(2), 62; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/urbansci8020062 - 4 Jun 2024
Viewed by 419
Abstract
Urban green contributes to enhanced well-being and overall quality of life in urban populations. The concept of place attachment provides an established avenue for exploring the intricate connections between urban environments and personal experiences. Building on the notion of place attachment, we investigated [...] Read more.
Urban green contributes to enhanced well-being and overall quality of life in urban populations. The concept of place attachment provides an established avenue for exploring the intricate connections between urban environments and personal experiences. Building on the notion of place attachment, we investigated the perceptions of horizontal and vertical urban green by introducing a novel Urban Green Attachment (UGA) scale. A cross-sectional study using an online survey in German, measuring emotional, cognitive, and behavioral relations to urban vegetation, was conducted among 164 adult inhabitants of the Volkert quarter in Vienna, Austria. Using principal component analysis, we found that the UGA scale was a reliable measure of attachment to urban green, with ten items within the “attachment” factor. Study participants highly valued vertical green, but did not differentiate their attachment to it from horizontal greenery within the specific local context and by design of the measures we used. Thus, further studies and ethnographic investigations, preferentially accompanied by methods such as walking interviews, are needed to test the scale for other populations and settings. The UGA scale emerges as a valuable tool for advancing understanding in this critical area, given the current climate change-driven transformations of cities, building on the creation of green infrastructure. Full article
15 pages, 3495 KiB  
Article
Innovative Approach to Promoting Walkability in Lisbon
by Jorge T. Ribeiro, Alexandra R. Vieira, Susana Rosado and Francisco Serdoura
Urban Sci. 2024, 8(2), 61; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/urbansci8020061 - 1 Jun 2024
Viewed by 270
Abstract
The increases in both the elderly population and urbanization present new problems for planning new cities and managing old cities. To solve this challenge, innovative ideas/proposals that encourage walkability and reduce fossil energy motor transport are needed, in line with the actions advocated [...] Read more.
The increases in both the elderly population and urbanization present new problems for planning new cities and managing old cities. To solve this challenge, innovative ideas/proposals that encourage walkability and reduce fossil energy motor transport are needed, in line with the actions advocated by Sustainable Development Goal #11 (SDG11), Sustainable Cities and Communities. Opening passages that cross blocks, creating connections between the streets, is the proposal discussed in this paper, as seen in cities like Paris, Prague, Milan, and Juíz de Fora, which have passages in their urban fabric. These can be implemented in a building’s rehabilitation or when a new building replaces it. New architectural project designs should have several characteristics that promote walkability in the city, including passages and galleries. Although previous research has obtained promising results, extending the research to different urban fabrics and block sizes is needed. Using space syntax and data analysis, we simulated and quantitatively assessed the walkability of three neighborhoods in Lisbon, Portugal. The comparison of all simulations and the discussion of the results show that the passages improve walkability. It is also noticeable that there is higher walkability in orthogonal urban fabrics than in non-orthogonal fabrics. The results for block size are inconclusive. Full article
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19 pages, 5044 KiB  
Article
Does Shrinking Population in Small Towns Equal Economic and Social Decline? A Romanian Perspective
by Cristiana Vîlcea, Liliana Popescu and Alin Clincea
Urban Sci. 2024, 8(2), 60; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/urbansci8020060 - 30 May 2024
Viewed by 391
Abstract
Sustainable development has been a global concern worldwide for the last decades now, but only recently have the challenges faced by small towns, especially in regions experiencing population contraction been addressed. (1) Background: This article delves into the case of Romania, a country [...] Read more.
Sustainable development has been a global concern worldwide for the last decades now, but only recently have the challenges faced by small towns, especially in regions experiencing population contraction been addressed. (1) Background: This article delves into the case of Romania, a country in Eastern Europe that has witnessed significant demographic, social and economic changes in recent decades. Population contraction in small towns can significantly impact their future development. (2) Methods: The research was conducted in three stages: first, we selected relevant demographic, economic, financial and social indices (16 in total), then we analysed their changes over time, and forecast their values based on statistical data to assess economic development sustainability for 215 small towns with less than 20,000 inhabitants. (3) Results: Following the aggregation of the quantitative indicators and the demographic changes, we identified four categories of small towns. (4) Conclusions: the study underlines the importance of adopting proper policies targeting small towns in Romania to ensure their long-term viability by implementing targeted policies and strategies such as incentives for local businesses, improving educational and healthcare facilities, and promoting entrepreneurship. The ultimate goal is to mitigate the adverse effects of population contraction and pave the way for more sustainable and resilient communities. Full article
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15 pages, 2580 KiB  
Article
Utilizing Mobility Data to Investigate Seasonal Hourly Visiting Behavior for Downtown Parks in Dallas
by Yang Song, Zipeng Guo, Ruiqi Yang and Na Wang
Urban Sci. 2024, 8(2), 59; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/urbansci8020059 - 30 May 2024
Viewed by 376
Abstract
Urban parks serve as vital spaces for leisure, social interaction, and nature engagement. At the same time, climate change disproportionately impacts densely populated megacities. While extensive research exists on climate change’s effects on mortality, agriculture, and economic activities, less is known about its [...] Read more.
Urban parks serve as vital spaces for leisure, social interaction, and nature engagement. At the same time, climate change disproportionately impacts densely populated megacities. While extensive research exists on climate change’s effects on mortality, agriculture, and economic activities, less is known about its impact on urban park usage. Understanding their temporal usage and how temperature changes affect park visitation is crucial for maximizing park benefits and building resiliency. This study analyzes long-term, hourly park visitation data on Dallas, Texas, using digital trace data from SafeGraph (San Francisco, CA, USA), which covers mobile records from approximately 10% of U.S. devices. We focus on five established parks in Dallas and examine their historical temperature data from 2018 to 2022. Descriptive statistics and scatter graphs are utilized to analyze temperature- and demographic-specific visitation patterns. The results of the study highlight the impact of climate change on park visitation and reveal how extreme temperatures influence visitation patterns across parks in Dallas. Additionally, this study explores the differences in visitation based on weekdays versus weekends and highlights demographic disparities. Notably, we examine the implications of nighttime park usage during extreme heat conditions. Our work is informative for urban planners seeking to improve park facilities and comfort amid climate change, ultimately enhancing the resilience and well-being of urban communities. Full article
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24 pages, 4000 KiB  
Article
Identifying the Impact Factors on the Land Market in Nepal from Land Use Regulation
by Nab Raj Subedi, Kevin McDougall and Dev Raj Paudyal
Urban Sci. 2024, 8(2), 58; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/urbansci8020058 - 28 May 2024
Viewed by 1485
Abstract
Measuring the impact of land use regulation on the land market involves identifying and classifying relevant impact factors related to the land market. The objective of this study was to identify land market impact factors in the context of the introduction of land [...] Read more.
Measuring the impact of land use regulation on the land market involves identifying and classifying relevant impact factors related to the land market. The objective of this study was to identify land market impact factors in the context of the introduction of land use regulation in Nepal. Through a combination of desktop review and the incorporation of stakeholder perspectives, the paper presents a new approach for determining land market impact factors due to land use regulation where both generic and country issues are considered. A desktop review was carried out to identify a preliminary set of impact factors, which were reclassified through intuitive analysis based on the degree of thematic closeness. Perspective-based impact factors were identified through the qualitative analysis of primary data collected through semi-structured interviews with the Nepalese land market stakeholders. These independently derived impact factors were compared with the desktop literature review impact factors, resulting in 14 land market impact factors across four dimensions, including transaction cost, valuation, mortgage availability, taxation, and compensation across the economic dimension; lot size, subdivision restrictions, and coordination across the institutional dimension; awareness, expectation, and proximity across the social dimension; and risk reduction, quality of residential land, and suitability of zoning classification across the environmental dimension. There was significant overlap and commonality across factors identified from both the literature review and semi-structured interviews. The land market impact factors determined in this study may be adapted and generalized across other countries and could be utilized to better understand the impacts of land policy decisions on urban planning and development. Further research is recommended on the process to operationalize the use of these factors to quantify the impact of land use regulation on different land markets. Full article
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13 pages, 959 KiB  
Article
Measuring the Effects of an Anti-Food-Waste Digital Application from the Operators’ Perspective in Urban Contexts
by Alexandra Lagorio and Giulio Mangano
Urban Sci. 2024, 8(2), 57; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/urbansci8020057 - 28 May 2024
Viewed by 432
Abstract
This paper presents an empirical study focused on the use of TooGoodToGo smartphone applications by urban food retailers and HoReCa sector owners, evaluating their satisfaction levels with using this app and identifying the most relevant business levers that might convince other operators to [...] Read more.
This paper presents an empirical study focused on the use of TooGoodToGo smartphone applications by urban food retailers and HoReCa sector owners, evaluating their satisfaction levels with using this app and identifying the most relevant business levers that might convince other operators to adopt anti-waste programs and more sustainable behaviors. To this end, a survey questionnaire is administered to a sample of respondents. Data are statistically analyzed using the Kruskal–Wallis test to consider the different perspectives of the identified subsamples. The results reveal that business operators claim to have a high level of satisfaction with exploiting the service provided by the app and that it is a lever for increasing the number of customers served, even if there is not a high positive effect on revenue. However, retailers with more years of operations, who can be considered more experienced, can better exploit the opportunities of the TGTG business. This study contributes to a better understanding of the benefits of using web application services to decrease waste from urban food retailers. Consequently, levers for convincing new operators to adopt the service and their role in increasing customer awareness are identified and discussed. Full article
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19 pages, 908 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Shared Mobility Acceptability for Sustainable Transportation in Amman
by Omar Albatayneh, Sherif M. Gaweesh and Mohammad Nadeem Akhtar
Urban Sci. 2024, 8(2), 56; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/urbansci8020056 - 27 May 2024
Viewed by 451
Abstract
Shared mobility services furnish convenient transportation alternatives for individuals without vehicle ownership or a preference against driving. Shared mobility could benefit developing countries by providing a cost-effective alternative, enhancing accessibility, reducing congestion, and creating multiple job opportunities. In this study, a comprehensive analysis [...] Read more.
Shared mobility services furnish convenient transportation alternatives for individuals without vehicle ownership or a preference against driving. Shared mobility could benefit developing countries by providing a cost-effective alternative, enhancing accessibility, reducing congestion, and creating multiple job opportunities. In this study, a comprehensive analysis to assess shared mobility options as an avenue to sustainable transportation in Amman, Jordan, is presented. The study employs a multifaceted methodology, including a survey questionnaire, preliminary analysis, Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA), Confirmatory Factor Analysis, and Structural Equation Model (SEM). The data were collected from a diverse group of Amman residents using a survey composed of 29 questions. The survey included demographic information, travel behavior, willingness to adopt shared mobility, perceived benefits, and possible barriers. These data were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), providing an in-depth understanding of the interrelationships among the variables studied. This study concludes by contributing to the ongoing discussion on sustainable urban transportation in Jordan and providing a road map for policymakers, urban planners, and transportation service providers. The presented findings provide an empirical basis for guiding future strategies and interventions toward sustainable urban development in Amman and potentially other urban contexts with comparable characteristics. Key findings reveal a significant potential for shared mobility to enhance urban transportation sustainability. Specifically, a notable positive perception among Amman residents was observed, with an average willingness to switch to shared mobility for daily commuting scoring 4.68 on a 7-point Likert scale. Moreover, a statistical analysis indicates that factors such as reduced costs, improved service reliability, and better environmental sustainability, notably influence the adoption of shared mobility services. Full article
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18 pages, 1058 KiB  
Article
Tackling Carbon Footprints: Sustainability Challenges of Hosting the Final Four in Kaunas, Lithuania
by Dalia Perkumienė, Ahmet Atalay and Gintautas Labanauskas
Urban Sci. 2024, 8(2), 55; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/urbansci8020055 - 24 May 2024
Viewed by 450
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to calculate the carbon footprint of the 2023 EuroLeague Men’s Final Four competition and identify the sources of the carbon footprint in sports. This study also aims to predict possible solutions to reduce this footprint. Mixed research [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to calculate the carbon footprint of the 2023 EuroLeague Men’s Final Four competition and identify the sources of the carbon footprint in sports. This study also aims to predict possible solutions to reduce this footprint. Mixed research methods were used in this study. Firstly, carbon footprint calculations related to the teams and fan travel were carried out. In the second step, interviews were conducted with the managers of the teams that won the basketball Final Four. The interviews were conducted using a semi-structured interview. The total carbon footprint of the four teams participating in the competitions was calculated as 4560.25 kg, and the average of the total carbon footprint of the teams per person was calculated as 189.74 kg. The total carbon footprint of the fans of the four teams was calculated as 4065.686 kg, and the average of the total carbon footprint per capita of the fans was calculated as 3.003 kg. According to the interview findings, the carbon footprint sources in sports were identified as traveling, energy consumption, and waste generation. Turning to renewable energy sources, waste management and sustainable transport alternatives were identified as effective solutions for reducing the carbon footprint. Analysis of the research results showed that the interest and participation in the Final Four and other international organizations are increasing. Due to increasing carbon footprint, these events and competitions should be planned and conducted in accordance with the goals of environmental sustainability. For this purpose, managers and policy makers should turn to clean energy sources, including waste management and recycling strategies, the preparation of sustainable transportation projects, and integrating all these processes into organization activities. Full article
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18 pages, 8347 KiB  
Article
New Year Fireworks Influence on Air Quality in Case of Stagnant Foggy Conditions
by Audrė Kalinauskaitė, Lina Davulienė, Julija Pauraite, Agnė Minderytė and Steigvilė Byčenkienė
Urban Sci. 2024, 8(2), 54; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/urbansci8020054 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 666
Abstract
Urban science plays a pivotal role in understanding the complex interactions between fireworks, air quality, and urban environments. Dense firework smoke worsens air quality and poses a health hazard to the public. In this study, we show a situation where extremely foggy meteorological [...] Read more.
Urban science plays a pivotal role in understanding the complex interactions between fireworks, air quality, and urban environments. Dense firework smoke worsens air quality and poses a health hazard to the public. In this study, we show a situation where extremely foggy meteorological conditions coincided with intense anthropogenic emissions, including fireworks, in an urban area. For the first time, the chemical composition and sources of non-refractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1) in outdoor and indoor air were characterized in Vilnius (Lithuania) using an aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM) and Positive Matrix Factorization for the period before the fireworks, on New Year’s Eve, and after the fireworks in 2020/2021; thus, typical changes were assessed. Due to stagnant weather conditions and increased traffic, the highest concentrations of black carbon (BC) (13.8 μg/m3) were observed before the fireworks display. The contribution of organic (Org) fraction to the total NR-PM1 mass concentration, in the comparison of the values of a typical night and New Year’s Eve (from 9 p.m. to 6 a.m.), increased from 43% to 70% and from 47% to 60% in outdoor and indoor air, respectively. Biomass-burning organic aerosol (BBOA, 48% (44%)) and hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA, 35% (21%)) dominated the organic fraction indoors and outdoors, respectively. HOA was likely linked to increased traffic during the event, while BBOA may have been related to domestic heating and fireworks. Full article
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15 pages, 1355 KiB  
Article
Building Urban Climate Resilience: Assessing Awareness, Perception, and Willingness regarding Nature-Based Solutions and Climate Change among Stakeholders in Iligan City, Philippines
by Audrey Rose A. Velayo, Peter D. Suson, Maricar M. Aguilos and Hernando P. Bacosa
Urban Sci. 2024, 8(2), 53; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/urbansci8020053 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 917
Abstract
Iligan City has been the heart of major industries in steel, cement, and hydropower and is one of the highly urbanized coastal cities in Mindanao, Philippines. Due to its geological state, environmental challenges like flooding, natural disasters, and environmental degradation have been experienced [...] Read more.
Iligan City has been the heart of major industries in steel, cement, and hydropower and is one of the highly urbanized coastal cities in Mindanao, Philippines. Due to its geological state, environmental challenges like flooding, natural disasters, and environmental degradation have been experienced by the city. With the climate crisis, these risks are being magnified. Recently, nature-based solutions (NBS) have gained significant attention worldwide, viewed as a key solution to the consequences of climate change. Yet implementation of strategies and policies regarding NBS, especially in developing countries, has received poor attention. Hence, this study aims to assess the awareness and perceptions of stakeholders in Iligan City regarding climate change, NBS, and willingness to engage in actions involving NBS. Stakeholder mapping and surveys were conducted through purposive sampling. A total of 187 respondents were interviewed from different sectors (LGUs, NGOs, the private sector, and academia) in Iligan City. Results revealed significant differences in awareness and perceptions across the distinct socio-economic backgrounds of stakeholders, where respondents with higher education and income have greater levels of awareness, perception, and willingness. The study recommends future targeted approaches and increased campaigns for climate change and sustainable solutions such as integrating NBS in adaptation strategies and mitigation plans to foster multi-level stakeholder collaboration. Full article
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33 pages, 2629 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Sustainable Mobility Initiatives Developed in Montevideo, Uruguay
by Sergio Nesmachnow and Silvina Hipogrosso
Urban Sci. 2024, 8(2), 52; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/urbansci8020052 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 844
Abstract
This article presents an assessment of sustainable mobility initiatives developed in Montevideo, Uruguay, in the period from 2020 to 2023. The significance of sustainable mobility is underscored due to its far-reaching implications for the environment, energy efficiency, and the overall quality of life [...] Read more.
This article presents an assessment of sustainable mobility initiatives developed in Montevideo, Uruguay, in the period from 2020 to 2023. The significance of sustainable mobility is underscored due to its far-reaching implications for the environment, energy efficiency, and the overall quality of life of citizens. This study focuses on crucial aspects of four initiatives deployed in Montevideo in 2020–2023: electric mobility solutions using scooters, the development of infrastructure and services for urban cycling, the development of electric public transportation, and private electric transportation. Important results are obtained and commented on for each of the studied initiatives, regarding efficiency, environmental impact, accessibility, the quality of the service, and other relevant indicators. Based on the analysis, valuable knowledge is acquired to guide the future development of efficient and sustainable transportation modes in Montevideo, Uruguay. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Agenda)
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14 pages, 694 KiB  
Article
Research on Port Risk Assessment Based on Various Meteorological Disasters
by Tianni Wang, Zongjie Ding, Mark Ching-Pong Poo and Yui-Yip Lau
Urban Sci. 2024, 8(2), 51; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/urbansci8020051 - 14 May 2024
Viewed by 533
Abstract
Within the framework of economic globalisation, ports serve as critical junctures in international trade and play a vital role. However, as infrastructure is closely linked to the natural environment, ports are highly susceptible to the impacts of meteorological disasters. Therefore, a comprehensive assessment [...] Read more.
Within the framework of economic globalisation, ports serve as critical junctures in international trade and play a vital role. However, as infrastructure is closely linked to the natural environment, ports are highly susceptible to the impacts of meteorological disasters. Therefore, a comprehensive assessment of the risks posed by meteorological hazards to ports, establishing corresponding early warning mechanisms, and adopting reasonable response and recovery strategies, is paramount in ensuring the safe operation of ports and maintaining the stability of international trade. This study has comprehensively analysed historical data and identified the pre-established loss stratification system, improving the theoretical construct of “expected loss”. Additionally, this research has innovatively integrated the idea of preventative factors aligned with risk indicators. A quantitative algorithm was used to factor in the preventative factors within the computational procedure, deriving the weights pertinent to each risk indicator. This research aimed to reduce the subjectivity inherent in the weighting assignment process through such an approach, thereby enhancing disaster risk assessment’s scientific rigour and reliability. Moreover, it underscores the critical role of adaptive urban planning in enhancing the resilience of crucial economic nodes like ports, thereby contributing to the broader objectives of sustainable urban development. Full article
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22 pages, 2326 KiB  
Article
Multidimensional Evaluation Framework for Assessing Cultural Heritage Adaptive Reuse Projects: The Case of the Seminary in Sant’Agata de’ Goti (Italy)
by Mariarosaria Angrisano, Francesca Nocca and Anna Scotto Di Santolo
Urban Sci. 2024, 8(2), 50; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/urbansci8020050 - 13 May 2024
Viewed by 567
Abstract
As climate change accelerates, urban areas are becoming increasingly inhospitable, with rising heat island effects and overall unhealthy environmental conditions. In this context, historic villages, due to their proximity to nature and lower population density, can represent a valuable alternative to unsustainable urban [...] Read more.
As climate change accelerates, urban areas are becoming increasingly inhospitable, with rising heat island effects and overall unhealthy environmental conditions. In this context, historic villages, due to their proximity to nature and lower population density, can represent a valuable alternative to unsustainable urban areas, providing better quality of life (i.e., through healthier environment, better work–life balance). They are “populated” by historic buildings characterized by high cultural value but are often in a state of abandonment. Nowadays, the adaptive reuse of cultural heritage represents an efficient strategy to adapt it to new needs/requirements and, at the same time, to preserve its historical and intrinsic values for present and future generations. In this framework, this study proposes a multidimensional evaluation framework for assessing cultural heritage adaptive reuse projects, covering all sustainability dimensions and capturing both tangible and intangible values. This framework, consisting of multiple criteria and multidimensional indicators, has been applied to evaluate alternative scenarios related to the regeneration of the abandoned Seminary in Sant’Agata de’ Goti (historic village), Benevento, Italy. In particular, three different scenarios have been evaluated by the SOCRATES (SOcial multi Criteria Assessment of European policies) method, a multicriteria decision method developed by the Joint Research Center (JRC) of the European Commission. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Urban Conservation)
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21 pages, 749 KiB  
Systematic Review
Evaluating the Environmental Impact of Anthropogenic Activities on Human Health: A Systematic Review
by Luigi Cofone, Marise Sabato, Enrico Di Rosa, Chiara Colombo and Lorenzo Paglione
Urban Sci. 2024, 8(2), 49; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/urbansci8020049 - 11 May 2024
Viewed by 624
Abstract
Due to major global urbanisation, a careful evaluation of plans (town planning and mobility) and projects (industrial and development) is required in order to measure their impact on health and environmental matrices. In Italy, Legislative Decree No 152/06 introduced two procedures: the EIA [...] Read more.
Due to major global urbanisation, a careful evaluation of plans (town planning and mobility) and projects (industrial and development) is required in order to measure their impact on health and environmental matrices. In Italy, Legislative Decree No 152/06 introduced two procedures: the EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment) and SIA (Strategic Impact Assessment). Their focus, however, does not consider human health. Recently, the Integrated Environmental and Health Impact Assessment (IEHIA) was introduced; this defines the parameters necessary to provide an EIA that includes human health as a factor. This systematic review was conducted, including both the population impacted by new facilities and the method used to define their impact. Our database search produced 724 articles, of which 33 were eligible. Studies included landfill plans, manufacturing industries, mobility policies, energy production, and the environmental health of an area. All studies show how an approach encompassing multiple parameters can analyse the impact of a new facility in a comprehensive manner. This review shows that the use of health-related environmental impact parameters is essential for the integration of a project into a community, and can allow a wider understanding of the possible impacts on human health, both direct and indirect. Full article
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19 pages, 8020 KiB  
Article
Driving Domain Classification Based on Kernel Density Estimation of Urban Land Use and Road Network Scaling Models
by Gerrit Brandes, Christian Sieg, Marcel Sander and Roman Henze
Urban Sci. 2024, 8(2), 48; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/urbansci8020048 - 9 May 2024
Viewed by 707
Abstract
Current research on automated driving systems focuses on Level 4 automated driving (AD) in specific operational design Domains (ODD). Measurement data from customer fleet operation are commonly used to extract scenarios and ODD features (road infrastructure, etc.) for the testing of AD functions. [...] Read more.
Current research on automated driving systems focuses on Level 4 automated driving (AD) in specific operational design Domains (ODD). Measurement data from customer fleet operation are commonly used to extract scenarios and ODD features (road infrastructure, etc.) for the testing of AD functions. To ensure data relevance for the vehicle use case, driving domain classification of the data is required. Generally, classification into urban, extra-urban and highway domains provides data with similar ODD features. Highway classification can be implemented using global navigation satellite system coordinates of the driving route, map-matching algorithms, and road classes stored in digital maps. However, the distinction between urban and extra-urban driving domains is more complex, as settlement taxonomies and administrative-level hierarchies are not globally consistent. Therefore, this paper presents a map-based method for driving domain classification. First, potential urban areas (PUA) are identified based on urban land-use density, which is determined based on land-use categories from OpenStreetMap (OSM) and then spatially smoothed by kernel density estimation. Subsequently, two road network scaling models are used to distinguish between urban and extra-urban domains for the PUA. Finally, statistics of ODD feature distribution are analysed for the classified urban and extra-urban areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Urban Land Use and Spatial Analysis)
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17 pages, 14934 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Relationship between the Dynamics of the Urban–Rural Interface and Regional Development in a Post-Socialist Transition
by Ioan Ianoș, Radu-Matei Cocheci and Alexandru-Ionuț Petrișor
Urban Sci. 2024, 8(2), 47; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/urbansci8020047 - 9 May 2024
Viewed by 877
Abstract
This study offers, by an empirical analysis, another perspective on post-socialist development, highlighting the role of the urban–rural interface in regional dynamics. The current literature on the relationships between both issues is not too rich and our paper analyzes the relationships between core [...] Read more.
This study offers, by an empirical analysis, another perspective on post-socialist development, highlighting the role of the urban–rural interface in regional dynamics. The current literature on the relationships between both issues is not too rich and our paper analyzes the relationships between core cities, their peri-urban areas, and their regions, through a comparative overview of their growth over the last three decades. Romania, as a special case study for a contradictory transition, due to the great step from a drastic dictatorial regime to a democracy and a market economy, is a good example to test these complex relationships. Considering the new development trend at the urban–rural interfaces, our key idea was to depict their contribution to regional development (NUTS 3) compared to city cores. The second question was how this differentiated contribution can be measured, using the simplest tool. The starting point was the fact that population dynamics reflect all changes in the city core and at the urban–rural interface, and less so at a regional level. Consequently, we selected the dynamics of the number of inhabitants for the first two, as well as the dynamics of GDP per capita at the regional level. We found higher and significant correlations between GDP per capita and urban–rural interfaces, but no significant correlations in the case of city cores. Our conclusion is that, in the transition period, the dynamics of urban–rural interfaces influenced more regional development dynamics, than those of city cores. This means that urban–rural interfaces amplify the development coming from cities, adding their own contribution and then dissipating it regionally. Future research should identify what the urban–rural interface offers to regions, in addition to the city core. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rural–Urban Transformation and Regional Development)
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19 pages, 3560 KiB  
Article
Functional or Neglected Border Regions? Analysis of the Integrated Development Plans of Borderland Municipalities in South Africa
by Thato L. Maila and Klára Czimre
Urban Sci. 2024, 8(2), 46; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/urbansci8020046 - 7 May 2024
Viewed by 715
Abstract
The mainstream approach of regional integration impact assessments is mainly limited to assessing cross-border development projects/programmes. There is still a lack of critical assessment of how stakeholders at different institutional levels conceptualise the border. Local (municipal) strategic plans provide a reflection of the [...] Read more.
The mainstream approach of regional integration impact assessments is mainly limited to assessing cross-border development projects/programmes. There is still a lack of critical assessment of how stakeholders at different institutional levels conceptualise the border. Local (municipal) strategic plans provide a reflection of the spatial imaginaries of stakeholders, perception planners, institutional power structures, and, to some extent meaning of the border to the local people. Integrated Development Plans (IDPs) in South Africa were adopted as an important development planning strategy in the post-apartheid era. IDPs of 49 borderland municipalities were systematically reviewed using the Key-Word-in-Context (KWIC) content analysis technique of the keyword ‘border’ to determine the importance of state borders in light of regional integration. Border security and management is one of the most common themes associated with the border. This suggested that borders were mainly perceived as threats and barely considered as a potential resource for cross-border cooperation or integration. Full article
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29 pages, 4148 KiB  
Review
Decoding Near Synonyms in Pedestrianization Research: A Numerical Analysis and Summative Approach
by Hisham Abusaada and Abeer Elshater
Urban Sci. 2024, 8(2), 45; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/urbansci8020045 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 1009
Abstract
Pedestrianization is a significant discourse focus within urban planning and design research. However, the need for more clarity from the inconsistent use of near-synonym concepts or terms necessitates attention. This review article addresses this issue through a comprehensive analysis of synonym proliferation in [...] Read more.
Pedestrianization is a significant discourse focus within urban planning and design research. However, the need for more clarity from the inconsistent use of near-synonym concepts or terms necessitates attention. This review article addresses this issue through a comprehensive analysis of synonym proliferation in pedestrian research, culminating in developing a robust “near synonymous toolkit” and “synonym selection framework”. Employing a linear snowball sampling technique, numerical analysis, and a qualitative content analysis-based summative approach, we examined sixteen peer-reviewed articles from 11 scientific journals. Through systematic classification based on consistency and variability, the summative review identifies three primary groups of near synonyms: dominant and widely utilized conceptual or terminological near synonymy in pedestrianization in the urban planning and design literature, near synonyms directly associated with a pedestrian, pedestrianize, and those indirectly linked to another conceptual or terminological synonymy. Further analysis delves into the nature of near-synonym concepts or terms, revealing three discernible patterns: the use of distinct, precise concepts or terms with near-synonym meanings, similar concepts or terms conveying divergent meanings, and the juxtaposition of unrelated vocabulary lacking semantic resemblance. These insights illuminate semantic relationships within the studied vocabulary, underscoring the importance of addressing inconsistency for clarity, precision, and coherence in scientific discourse. By offering practical guidance through the proposed framework, this study empowers academic researchers to navigate synonym selection adeptly, thereby enhancing the caliber of scholarly writing in urban planning and design. Full article
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17 pages, 7550 KiB  
Article
Principles of Sustainable Development of Georesources as a Way to Reduce Urban Vulnerability
by Cheynesh Kongar-Syuryun, Roman Klyuev, Vladimir Golik, Armine Oganesyan, Danila Solovykh, Marat Khayrutdinov and Danila Adigamov
Urban Sci. 2024, 8(2), 44; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/urbansci8020044 - 6 May 2024
Viewed by 981
Abstract
Humanity development is associated with higher spiritual and social behaviour and financial shape, which is an undeniable factor of urbanisation. Previously, in areas of georesource concentration, cities and settlements were formed with people exploiting these georesources. However, imperfect technologies lead to rapid depletion [...] Read more.
Humanity development is associated with higher spiritual and social behaviour and financial shape, which is an undeniable factor of urbanisation. Previously, in areas of georesource concentration, cities and settlements were formed with people exploiting these georesources. However, imperfect technologies lead to rapid depletion of reserves and industrial and environmental disasters, which affect the vulnerability of cities and the people living in them. The analysis of applied technologies has demonstrated that potash extraction is accompanied by a low recovery ratio, high mine accidents, and environmental problems. The principles of sustainable development of geo-resources for the creation of mining technologies that ensure industrial safety, environmental sustainability, and extending the life of the mining enterprise to save working places will reduce the vulnerability of cities. This article proposes the use of the room-and-pillar mining method with the replacement of natural supports with artificial ones. Three-stage stoping with backfill is considered. Numerical modelling has shown stabilisation of mining and geomechanical processes, which confirms the prospectivity of the method with backfill. For these purposes, this research presents a new backfill composition based on local industrial waste. Schemes of backfill preparation and feeding into the mined-out space are proposed. The proposed technology, based on the principles of sustainable development of georesources, is the foundation for an economically profitable, environmentally friendly, and socially responsible mining enterprise. The implementation of the principles of sustainable development of georesources will allow for the preservation of cities and reduce their vulnerability. Full article
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17 pages, 19155 KiB  
Article
Enhancing Urban Resilience: Strategic Management and Action Plans for Cyclonic Events through Socially Constructed Risk Processes
by Raúl Pérez-Arévalo, Juan Jiménez-Caldera, José Luis Serrano-Montes, Jesús Rodrigo-Comino, Kevin Therán-Nieto and Andrés Caballero-Calvo
Urban Sci. 2024, 8(2), 43; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/urbansci8020043 - 1 May 2024
Viewed by 1322
Abstract
Cities will face increasing challenges due to the impacts of global climate change, particularly in the form of cyclonic events, necessitating a deeper understanding and the establishment of effective response mechanisms at both institutional and citizen levels. In this research, we tested the [...] Read more.
Cities will face increasing challenges due to the impacts of global climate change, particularly in the form of cyclonic events, necessitating a deeper understanding and the establishment of effective response mechanisms at both institutional and citizen levels. In this research, we tested the efficiency of crowdsourcing in fostering participatory resilience and improving urban management. The main aim was to design novel and accurate proactive response strategies and mitigate the adverse effects of cyclonic wind events through volunteerism, citizen science, and urban science. To achieve this goal, as a case study, the municipality of Soledad, Colombia was used. This research employed a two-phase methodological approach: (i) initially evaluating the spatial distribution of emergency response resources, and (ii) developing a geo-referenced survey to map, systematize, and categorize data and outcomes. A total of three hundred and seventy-eight residents across five neighborhoods in Soledad, which have experienced a high frequency of atmospheric wind phenomena over the past two decades, were surveyed. The results indicate that the crowdsourcing mechanism effectively enhanced the empirical understanding of atmospheric wind events in Soledad, facilitating the establishment of a geo-referenced volunteer network for real-time responses. Additionally, this study shed light on previously undocumented challenges, in terms of reducing the number of people affected, and the actions that would lead to improved urban development to reduce the impacts of cyclonic events, emphasizing the significance of citizen science in the social construction of risk and disaster risk reduction (DDR) efforts. Full article
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