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Trop. Med. Infect. Dis., Volume 6, Issue 2 (June 2021) – 67 articles

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Review
Severe Odontogenic Infections during Pregnancy and Related Adverse Outcomes. Case Report and Systematic Literature Review
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2021, 6(2), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed6020106 - 21 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1775
Abstract
Odontogenic infections have the potential to develop into deep-space infections and may cause severe diseases with possible life-threatening complications. Dental infections during pregnancy require special attention in terms of possible complications and treatments due to the potential to affect the lives of two [...] Read more.
Odontogenic infections have the potential to develop into deep-space infections and may cause severe diseases with possible life-threatening complications. Dental infections during pregnancy require special attention in terms of possible complications and treatments due to the potential to affect the lives of two individuals. A case of a 36-year-old pregnant patient with a submandibular abscess caused by an odontogenic infection is reported, followed by a comprehensive systematic review of the literature in order to retrieve information regarding severe odontogenic infections and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The review was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines using PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases. A total of 69 cases were included in the qualitative analysis. The mean age was 27.72 years. Patients were managed with surgery in combination with antibiotics. Nine infectious-related cesarean sections were detected, and preterm birth was associated in 3 cases, low birth weight in 2 cases, death of the fetus in 9 cases (13%), and maternal death in 4 cases (5.8%). The possible compromise of oral health during pregnancy is well known; however, severe odontogenic infections are rarely considered in the literature, and they may be associated with severe and life-threatening complications for both mother and the fetus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infection Prevention and Control: Practical and Educational Advances)
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Article
Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Escherichia coli in River Waters Collected from Two Cities in Ghana, 2018–2020
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2021, 6(2), 105; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/tropicalmed6020105 - 20 Jun 2021
Viewed by 2809
Abstract
Infections by Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-Ec) are on the increase in Ghana, but the level of environmental contamination with this organism, which may contribute to growing Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR), is unknown. Using the WHO OneHealth Tricycle Protocol, we investigated the contamination [...] Read more.
Infections by Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-Ec) are on the increase in Ghana, but the level of environmental contamination with this organism, which may contribute to growing Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR), is unknown. Using the WHO OneHealth Tricycle Protocol, we investigated the contamination of E. coli (Ec) and ESBL-Ec in two rivers in Ghana (Odaw in Accra and Okurudu in Kasoa) that receive effluents from human and animal wastewater hotspots over a 12-month period. Concentrations of Ec, ESBL-Ec and percent ESBL-Ec/Ec were determined per 100 mL sample. Of 96 samples, 94 (98%) were positive for ESBL-Ec. concentrations per 100 mL (MCs100) of ESBL-Ec and %ESBL-Ec from both rivers were 4.2 × 104 (IQR, 3.1 × 103–2.3 × 105) and 2.79 (IQR, 0.96–6.03), respectively. MCs100 were significantly lower in upstream waters: 1.8 × 104 (IQR, 9.0 × 103–3.9 × 104) as compared to downstream waters: 1.9 × 106 (IQR, 3.7 × 105–5.4 × 106). Both human and animal wastewater effluents contributed to the increased contamination downstream. This study revealed high levels of ESBL-Ec in rivers flowing through two cities in Ghana. There is a need to manage the sources of contamination as they may contribute to the acquisition and spread of ESBL-Ec in humans and animals, thereby contributing to AMR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue AMR in Low and Middle Income Countries)
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Article
Larvicidal Activities against Aedes aegypti of Supernatant and Pellet Fractions from Cultured Bacillus spp. Isolated from Amazonian Microenvironments
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2021, 6(2), 104; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/tropicalmed6020104 - 17 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1987
Abstract
The Aedes aegypti mosquito is the primary vector of Dengue, Chikungunya and Zika causing major problems for public health, which requires new strategies for its control, like the use of entomopathogenic microorganisms. In this study, bacteria from various Amazonian environments were isolated and [...] Read more.
The Aedes aegypti mosquito is the primary vector of Dengue, Chikungunya and Zika causing major problems for public health, which requires new strategies for its control, like the use of entomopathogenic microorganisms. In this study, bacteria from various Amazonian environments were isolated and tested for their pathogenicity to A. aegypti larvae. Following thermal shock to select sporulated Bacillus spp., 77 bacterial strains were isolated. Molecular identification per 16S RNA sequences revealed that the assembled strains contained several species of the genus Bacillus and one species each of Brevibacillus, Klebsiella, Serratia, Achromobacter and Brevundimonas. Among the isolated Bacillus sp. strains, 19 showed larvicidal activity against A. aegypti. Two strains of Brevibacillus halotolerans also displayed larvicidal activity. For the first time, larvicidal activity against A. aegypti was identified for a strain of Brevibacillus halotolerans. Supernatant and pellet fractions of bacterial cultures were tested separately for larvicidal activities. Eight strains contained isolated fractions resulting in at least 50% mortality when tested at a concentration of 5 mg/mL. Further studies are needed to characterize the active larvicidal metabolites produced by these microorganisms and define their mechanisms of action. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spatial Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases)
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Article
High Levels of Antibiotic Resistance Patterns in Two Referral Hospitals during the Post-Ebola Era in Free-Town, Sierra Leone: 2017–2019
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2021, 6(2), 103; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/tropicalmed6020103 - 16 Jun 2021
Viewed by 2204
Abstract
The Post-Ebola era (2017–2019) presented an opportunity for laboratory investments in Sierra Leone. US CDC supported the Ministry of Health and Sanitation to establish a microbiological unit for routine antimicrobial sensitivity testing in two referral (pediatric and maternity) hospitals in Freetown. This study [...] Read more.
The Post-Ebola era (2017–2019) presented an opportunity for laboratory investments in Sierra Leone. US CDC supported the Ministry of Health and Sanitation to establish a microbiological unit for routine antimicrobial sensitivity testing in two referral (pediatric and maternity) hospitals in Freetown. This study describes resistance patterns among patients’ laboratory samples from 2017 to 2019 using routine data. Samples included urine, stool, cerebrospinal fluid, pus-wound, pleural fluid, and high vaginal swabs. Selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Of 200 samples received by the laboratory, 89 returned positive bacterial isolates with urine and pus-wound swabs accounting for 75% of positive isolates. The number of positive isolates increased annually from one in 2017 to 42 in 2018 and 46 in 2019. Resistance of the cultures to at least one antibiotic was high (91%), and even higher in the pediatric hospital (94%). Resistance was highest with penicillin (81%) for Gram-positive bacteria and lowest with nitrofurantoin (13%). Gram-negative bacteria were most resistant to ampicillin, gentamycin, streptomycin, tetracycline, cephalothin and penicillin (100%) and least resistant to novobiocin (0%). Antibiotic resistance for commonly prescribed antibiotics was high in two referral hospitals, highlighting the urgent need for antimicrobial stewardship and access to reserve antibiotics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue AMR in Low and Middle Income Countries)
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Article
Screening People with Tuberculosis for High Risk of Severe Illness at Notification: Programmatic Experience from Karnataka, India
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2021, 6(2), 102; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/tropicalmed6020102 - 15 Jun 2021
Viewed by 2131
Abstract
Due to limited availability of diagnostics and capacity, people with tuberculosis do not always undergo systematic assessment for severe illness (requiring inpatient care). In Karnataka (south India), para-medical programme staff used a screening tool to identify people at ‘high risk of severe illness’, [...] Read more.
Due to limited availability of diagnostics and capacity, people with tuberculosis do not always undergo systematic assessment for severe illness (requiring inpatient care). In Karnataka (south India), para-medical programme staff used a screening tool to identify people at ‘high risk of severe illness’, defined using indicators of very severe undernutrition, abnormal vital signs and poor performance status (any one): (i) body mass index (BMI) ≤ 14.0 kg/m2 (ii) BMI ≤ 16.0 kg/m2 with bilateral leg swelling (iii) respiratory rate > 24/min (iv) oxygen saturation < 94% (v) inability to stand without support. Of 3020 adults notified from public facilities (15 October to 30 November 2020) in 16 districts, 1531 (51%) were screened (district-wise range: 13–90%) and of them, 538 (35%) were classified as ‘high risk of severe illness’. Short median delays in screening from notification (five days), and all five indicators being collected for 88% of patients, suggests the feasibility of using this tool in programme settings. However, districts with poor screening coverage require further attention. To end tuberculosis deaths, screening should be followed by referral to higher facilities for comprehensive clinical evaluation, to assess the need for inpatient care. Future studies should assess the validity (especially sensitivity in picking severely ill patients) of this screening tool. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Omics Technologies Applied to Tuberculosis Research)
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Article
Natural Infection and Vertical Transmission of Zika Virus in Sylvatic Mosquitoes Aedes albopictus and Haemagogus leucocelaenus from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2021, 6(2), 99; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/tropicalmed6020099 - 11 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2040
Abstract
Zika virus (ZIKV) was recently introduced into the Western Hemisphere, where it is suspected to be transmitted mainly by Aedes aegypti in urban environments. ZIKV represents a public health problem as it has been implicated in congenital microcephaly in South America since 2015. [...] Read more.
Zika virus (ZIKV) was recently introduced into the Western Hemisphere, where it is suspected to be transmitted mainly by Aedes aegypti in urban environments. ZIKV represents a public health problem as it has been implicated in congenital microcephaly in South America since 2015. Reports of ZIKV transmission in forested areas of Africa raises the possibility of its dispersal to non-human-modified environments in South America, where it is now endemic. The current study aimed to detect arboviruses in mosquitoes collected from areas with low human interference in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Using a sensitive pan-flavivirus RT-PCR, designed to detect the NS5 region, pools of Ae. albopictus and Haemagogus leucocelaenus, were positive for both ZIKV and yellow fever (YFV). Virus RNA was detected in pools of adult males and females reared from field-collected eggs. Findings presented here suggest natural vertical transmission and infection of ZIKV in Hg. leucocelaenus and Ae.albopitcus in Brazil. Full article
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Article
Modeling the Cost-Effectiveness of Interventions to Prevent Plague in Madagascar
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2021, 6(2), 101; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/tropicalmed6020101 - 11 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2054
Abstract
Plague (Yersinia pestis) remains endemic in certain parts of the world. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of plague control interventions recommended by the World Health Organization with particular consideration to intervention coverage and timing. We developed a dynamic model of the spread [...] Read more.
Plague (Yersinia pestis) remains endemic in certain parts of the world. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of plague control interventions recommended by the World Health Organization with particular consideration to intervention coverage and timing. We developed a dynamic model of the spread of plague between interacting populations of humans, rats, and fleas and performed a cost-effectiveness analysis calibrated to a 2017 Madagascar outbreak. We assessed three interventions alone and in combination: expanded access to antibiotic treatment with doxycycline, mass distribution of doxycycline prophylaxis, and mass distribution of malathion. We varied intervention timing and coverage levels. We calculated costs, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios from a healthcare perspective. The preferred intervention, using a cost-effectiveness threshold of $1350/QALY (GDP per capita in Madagascar), was expanded access to antibiotic treatment with doxycycline with 100% coverage starting immediately after the first reported case, gaining 543 QALYs at an incremental cost of $1023/QALY gained. Sensitivity analyses support expanded access to antibiotic treatment and leave open the possibility that mass distribution of doxycycline prophylaxis or mass distribution of malathion could be cost-effective. Our analysis highlights the potential for rapid expansion of access to doxycycline upon recognition of plague outbreaks to cost-effectively prevent future large-scale plague outbreaks and highlights the importance of intervention timing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infection Prevention and Control: Practical and Educational Advances)
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Article
Low Prevalence of Cysticercosis and Trichinella Infection in Pigs in Rural Cambodia
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2021, 6(2), 100; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/tropicalmed6020100 - 11 Jun 2021
Viewed by 2025
Abstract
Cysticercosis and Trichinella spp. infection are parasitic zoonoses prevalent among pigs in Southeast Asia, where pork is the most important source of meat. In rural Cambodia, many pigs are raised extensively in family backyards, and information regarding the prevalence in rural small-scale pig [...] Read more.
Cysticercosis and Trichinella spp. infection are parasitic zoonoses prevalent among pigs in Southeast Asia, where pork is the most important source of meat. In rural Cambodia, many pigs are raised extensively in family backyards, and information regarding the prevalence in rural small-scale pig production is very limited. This study was conducted in four provinces in north-eastern Cambodia to determine the seroprevalence of porcine cysticercosis and Trichinella spp. infection in rural villages, and to identify possible risk factors. Only households with less than 10 pigs above three months old were eligible. In total, 139 households participated, and 242 blood samples were collected. Farmers were interviewed about food and hygiene habits, disease knowledge and practices. The serum samples were analysed by ELISA to determine antigens to Taenia spp. cysticerci or antibodies to Trichinella spp. muscle larvae. Positivity among the pigs was 11.2% (95% CI 7.5–15.8) for Taenia spp. cysts and 2.5% (95% CI 0.9–5.4) for Trichinella spp. Cysticerci were more common in the province Preah Vihear (p < 0.001) than in the other provinces. Risk factors associated with porcine cysticercosis were management systems for the pigs and access to human faeces (p < 0.001). Trichinella spp. infection in pigs was more common in the province Ratanakiri (p = 0.001). The main risk factor associated with Trichinella spp. transmission was feeding pigs with food waste (p = 0.048). More men had heard about cysticercosis than women (p = 0.002), and men also consumed undercooked pork meat to a greater extent (p = 0.004). Although the present study is relatively small, several risk factors could be identified for porcine infection with Taenia spp. and Trichinella spp., which can be used to guide future interventions to improve both porcine and human health in these provinces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Zoonoses in Tropical Countries)
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Article
Evolution of Rabies in South America and Inter-Species Dynamics (2009–2018)
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2021, 6(2), 98; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/tropicalmed6020098 - 09 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2387
Abstract
Rabies is listed as one of the World Health Organisation’s (WHO) Neglected Tropical Diseases Worldwide, with a significant impact in South America. This paper explores the dynamics of rabies cases in humans, pets (dogs and cats), livestock and wildlife (bats in particular) in [...] Read more.
Rabies is listed as one of the World Health Organisation’s (WHO) Neglected Tropical Diseases Worldwide, with a significant impact in South America. This paper explores the dynamics of rabies cases in humans, pets (dogs and cats), livestock and wildlife (bats in particular) in South America during the period 2009–2018. The data used in this study were derived from the two main databases for rabies in South America: the OIE-WAHIS from the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and PANAFTOSA’s Regional Information System for the Epidemiological Surveillance of Rabies (SIRVERA). Being a neglected disease with possible underreporting in some areas, the reported rabies cases may not always represent the real disease burden. The analysis focuses on the evolution of the number of cases in time and their spatial distribution, as well as on the main source of infections in humans, determined by laboratory assays of the antigenic variant or through epidemiological investigations. Additionally, Generalised Linear Mixed Models (GLMM) were used to evaluate the risk factors associated with the occurrence of human cases. Our results show that the highest impact of the disease in terms of number of cases was reported on livestock, while the overall number of cases (in animals and humans) progressively decreased along the study period. The spatial distribution of rabies in livestock showed two main clusters in the north-western (mainly Colombia) and in the south-eastern part of the affected area (Brazil), and a third smaller cluster in Peru. A cluster in dogs was observed in Bolivia. Out of the 192 human cases reported during the study period, 70% of them were transmitted by bats. The number of human cases reported during the study period were significantly associated with the number of rabies cases reported in livestock, pets and wildlife. Despite the overall decreasing case report rate, the disease still represents a major animal and public health concern in South America, and new strategies for compiling systematic information, networking and education are needed, as well as the education and training of veterinary staff. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infection Prevention and Control: Practical and Educational Advances)
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Perspective
Real-Time Operational Research: Case Studies from the Field of Tuberculosis and Lessons Learnt
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2021, 6(2), 97; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/tropicalmed6020097 - 08 Jun 2021
Viewed by 2071
Abstract
Real-time operational research can be defined as research on strategies or interventions to assess if they are feasible, working as planned, scalable and effective. The research involves primary data collection, periodic analysis during the conduct of the study and dissemination of the findings [...] Read more.
Real-time operational research can be defined as research on strategies or interventions to assess if they are feasible, working as planned, scalable and effective. The research involves primary data collection, periodic analysis during the conduct of the study and dissemination of the findings to policy makers for timely action. This paper aims to illustrate the use of real-time operational research and discuss how to make it happen. Four case studies are presented from the field of tuberculosis. These include (i) mis-registration of recurrent tuberculosis in Malawi; (ii) HIV testing and adjunctive cotrimoxazole to reduce mortality in TB patients in Malawi; (iii) screening TB patients for diabetes mellitus in India; and (iv) mitigating the impact of COVID-19 on TB case detection in capital cities in Kenya, Malawi and Zimbabwe. The important ingredients of real-time operational research are sound ethics; relevant research; adherence to international standards of conducting and reporting on research; consideration of comparison groups; timely data collection; dissemination to key stakeholders; capacity building; and funding. Operational research can improve the delivery of established health interventions and ensure the deployment of new interventions as they become available, irrespective of diseases. This is particularly important when public health emergencies, including pandemics, threaten health services. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19: Current Challenges and Future Perspectives)
Review
New Developments in PCR-Based Diagnostics for Bacterial Pathogens Causing Gastrointestinal Infections—A Narrative Mini-Review on Challenges in the Tropics
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2021, 6(2), 96; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/tropicalmed6020096 - 02 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2389
Abstract
The application of modern PCR approaches for the diagnosis of bacterial gastrointestinal pathogens is on the rise due to their rapidly available results combined with high sensitivity. While multiple studies describe the ongoing implementation of this technique for routine diagnostic purposes in laboratories [...] Read more.
The application of modern PCR approaches for the diagnosis of bacterial gastrointestinal pathogens is on the rise due to their rapidly available results combined with high sensitivity. While multiple studies describe the ongoing implementation of this technique for routine diagnostic purposes in laboratories in Western industrialized countries, reports on successful and also sustainable respective approaches in resource-poor tropical settings are still scarce. In order to shed light on potential reasons for this marked discrepancy, this narrative review summarizes identified challenges for the application of diagnostic PCR targeting bacterial gastrointestinal pathogens from stool samples in the tropics. The identified and discussed issues comprise the lack of generally accepted definitions for (1) minimum standards regarding sample acquisition, storage and transport time for diagnostic PCR analyses in the tropics, (2) nucleic acid extraction standards allowing an optimum detection of all types of pathogens which may be responsible for gastroenteritis in the tropics, (3) validation standards to ensure comparable quality of applied diagnostic assays, and (4) cut-offs for a reliable discrimination of infection and mere colonization in areas where semi-immunity due to repeated exposition associated with poor hygiene conditions has to be expected. Further implementation research is needed to solve those issues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diarrheagenic Pathogens and Gastrointestinal Infections)
Perspective
Causes of Phenotypic Variability and Disabilities after Prenatal Viral Infections
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2021, 6(2), 95; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/tropicalmed6020095 - 01 Jun 2021
Viewed by 2070
Abstract
Prenatal viral infection can lead to a spectrum of neurodevelopmental disabilities or fetal demise. These can include microencephaly, global developmental delay, intellectual disability, refractory epilepsy, deafness, retinal defects, and cortical-visual impairment. Each of these clinical conditions can occur on a semi-quantitative to continuous [...] Read more.
Prenatal viral infection can lead to a spectrum of neurodevelopmental disabilities or fetal demise. These can include microencephaly, global developmental delay, intellectual disability, refractory epilepsy, deafness, retinal defects, and cortical-visual impairment. Each of these clinical conditions can occur on a semi-quantitative to continuous spectrum, from mild to severe disease, and often as a collective of phenotypes. Such serious outcomes result from viruses’ overlapping neuropathology and hosts’ common neuronal and gene regulatory response to infections. The etiology of variability in clinical outcomes is not yet clear, but it may be related to viral, host, vector, and/or environmental risk and protective factors that likely interact in multiple ways. In this perspective of the literature, we work toward understanding the causes of phenotypic variability after prenatal viral infections by highlighting key aspects of the viral lifecycle that can affect human disease, with special attention to the 2015 Zika pandemic. Therefore, this work offers important insights into how viral infections and environmental teratogens affect the prenatal brain, toward our ultimate goal of preventing neurodevelopmental disabilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zika in Infants and Children)
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Article
Operational Research to Assess the Real-Time Impact of COVID-19 on TB and HIV Services: The Experience and Response from Health Facilities in Harare, Zimbabwe
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2021, 6(2), 94; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/tropicalmed6020094 - 31 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2469
Abstract
When COVID-19 was declared a pandemic, there was concern that TB and HIV services in Zimbabwe would be severely affected. We set up real-time monthly surveillance of TB and HIV activities in 10 health facilities in Harare to capture trends in TB case [...] Read more.
When COVID-19 was declared a pandemic, there was concern that TB and HIV services in Zimbabwe would be severely affected. We set up real-time monthly surveillance of TB and HIV activities in 10 health facilities in Harare to capture trends in TB case detection, TB treatment outcomes and HIV testing and use these data to facilitate corrective action. Aggregate data were collected monthly during the COVID-19 period (March 2020–February 2021) using EpiCollect5 and compared with monthly data extracted for the pre-COVID-19 period (March 2019–February 2020). Monthly reports were sent to program directors. During the COVID-19 period, there was a decrease in persons with presumptive pulmonary TB (40.6%), in patients registered for TB treatment (33.7%) and in individuals tested for HIV (62.8%). The HIV testing decline improved in the second 6 months of the COVID-19 period. However, TB case finding deteriorated further, associated with expiry of diagnostic reagents. During the COVID-19 period, TB treatment success decreased from 80.9 to 69.3%, and referral of HIV-positive persons to antiretroviral therapy decreased from 95.7 to 91.7%. Declining trends in TB and HIV case detection and TB treatment outcomes were not fully redressed despite real-time monthly surveillance. More support is needed to transform this useful information into action. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19: Current Challenges and Future Perspectives)
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Article
Experiences with Diagnosis and Treatment of Chagas Disease at a United States Teaching Hospital—Clinical Features of Patients with Positive Screening Serologic Testing
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2021, 6(2), 93; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/tropicalmed6020093 - 31 May 2021
Viewed by 2231
Abstract
Chagas disease (CD) is the third most common parasitic infection globally and can cause cardiac and gastrointestinal complications. Around 300,000 carriers of CD live in the U.S., with about 3000 of those in Colorado. We described our experience in diagnosing CD at a [...] Read more.
Chagas disease (CD) is the third most common parasitic infection globally and can cause cardiac and gastrointestinal complications. Around 300,000 carriers of CD live in the U.S., with about 3000 of those in Colorado. We described our experience in diagnosing CD at a Colorado teaching hospital to revise screening eligibility criteria. From 2006 to 2020, we reviewed Trypanosoma cruzi (TC) IgG serology results for 1156 patients in our institution. We identified 23 patients (1.99%) who had a positive test. A total of 14/23 (60%) of positive serologies never had confirmatory testing, and 7 of them were lost to follow up. Confirmatory testing, performed in 9 patients, resulted in being positive in 3. One additional case of CD was identified by positive tissue pathology. All four confirmed cases were among patients born in Latin America. While most of the testing for CD at our institution is part of the pretransplant screening, no confirmed cases of CD derived from this strategy. Exposure risk in this population is not always documented, and initial positive results from screening are not always confirmed. The lack of standardized screening protocols for CD in our institution contributes to underdiagnosis locally and in health systems nationwide. Given a large number of individuals in the U.S. with chronic CD, improved screening is warranted. Full article
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Article
Using Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT) in the Community
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2021, 6(2), 92; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/tropicalmed6020092 - 29 May 2021
Viewed by 2137
Abstract
For ORT to have a maximum impact on public health it should be used in the community, in the home. A number of programs have been developed over the years to extend ORT to home use. One of the most successful approaches was [...] Read more.
For ORT to have a maximum impact on public health it should be used in the community, in the home. A number of programs have been developed over the years to extend ORT to home use. One of the most successful approaches was the Oral Therapy Education Program (OTEP) developed by BRAC, the world’s largest NGO. Mothers were taught in the home by an OTEP worker using seven simple messages and a demonstration. The program, which led to high levels of use and knowledge retention, is described. What the OTEP and other successful home-based programs have demonstrated is that home care of diarrhea using ORS can be effectively implemented and can have a positive impact on the reduction of diarrhea morbidity and mortality. Full article
Viewpoint
Nanotechnology as an Anti-Infection Strategy in Periprosthetic Joint Infections (PJI)
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2021, 6(2), 91; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/tropicalmed6020091 - 28 May 2021
Viewed by 2451
Abstract
Background: Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) represents a devastating consequence of total joint arthroplasty (TJA) because of its high morbidity and its high impact on patient quality of life. The lack of standardized preventive and treatment strategies is a major challenge for arthroplasty surgeons. [...] Read more.
Background: Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) represents a devastating consequence of total joint arthroplasty (TJA) because of its high morbidity and its high impact on patient quality of life. The lack of standardized preventive and treatment strategies is a major challenge for arthroplasty surgeons. The purpose of this article was to explore the potential and future uses of nanotechnology as a tool for the prevention and treatment of PJI. Methods: Multiple review articles from the PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar databases were reviewed in order to establish the current efficacy of nanotechnology in PJI preventive or therapeutic scenarios. Results: As a prevention tool, anti-biofilm implants equipped with nanoparticles (silver, silk fibroin, poly nanofibers, nanophase selenium) have shown promising antibacterial functionality. As a therapeutic tool, drug-loaded nanomolecules have been created and a wide variety of carrier materials (chitosan, titanium, calcium phosphate) have shown precise drug targeting and efficient control of drug release. Other nanotechnology-based antibiotic carriers (lipid nanoparticles, silica, clay nanotubes), when added to common bone cements, enhanced prolonged drug delivery, making this technology promising for the creation of antibiotic-added cement joint spacers. Conclusion: Although still in its infancy, nanotechnology has the potential to revolutionize prevention and treatment protocols of PJI. Nevertheless, extensive basic science and clinical research will be needed to investigate the potential toxicities of nanoparticles. Full article
Article
Molecular Epidemiology of Human Papillomaviruses, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma genitalium among Female Sex Workers in Burkina Faso: Prevalence, Coinfections and Drug Resistance Genes
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2021, 6(2), 90; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/tropicalmed6020090 - 27 May 2021
Viewed by 2257
Abstract
Viral and bacterial infections represent an occupational risk for female sex workers. This study aimed at determining HPV coinfection with genital pathogens among female sex workers in West and Central Africa and identifying antibiotic resistance genes. A total of 182 samples from female [...] Read more.
Viral and bacterial infections represent an occupational risk for female sex workers. This study aimed at determining HPV coinfection with genital pathogens among female sex workers in West and Central Africa and identifying antibiotic resistance genes. A total of 182 samples from female sex workers were analyzed by real-time PCR and classic PCR. For the molecular diagnosis of HPV, the real-time multiplex amplification kit “HPV Genotypes 14 Real-TM Quant” from SACACE Biotechnologies®, detecting 14 high-risk HPV genotypes, was used, while for other pathogens, the real-time multiplex amplification kit N. gonorrhoeae/C. trachomatis/M. genitalium/T. vaginalis Real-TM, allowing their simultaneous detection, was used. The women were aged 17–50 years with an average age of 27.12 ± 6.09 years. The pathogens identified were HPV 54.94% (100/120), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (13.74%), Chlamydia trachomatis (11.54%) and Mycoplasma genitalium (11.54%). The most common HPV genotypes were HPV68, HPV38 and HPV52. The antibiotic resistance genes identified were bla QNR B 24.00%, bla GES 22.00%, bla SHV 17.00%, blaCTX-M 13.00% and bla QNR S 1.00%. This study revealed the presence of various HPV genotypes associated with other pathogens with problems of antibiotic resistance among sex workers of West and Central African origin working in Ouagadougou. Full article
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Article
Gaps in Infection Prevention and Control in Public Health Facilities of Sierra Leone after the 2014–2015 Ebola Outbreak
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2021, 6(2), 89; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/tropicalmed6020089 - 26 May 2021
Viewed by 2189
Abstract
Background: High compliance to infection prevention and control (IPC) is vital to prevent health care-associated infections. In the worst 2014–2015 Ebola-affected district in Sierra Leone (Kenema), we assessed (a) average yearly IPC compliance (2016–2018) using a National IPC assessment tool in the district [...] Read more.
Background: High compliance to infection prevention and control (IPC) is vital to prevent health care-associated infections. In the worst 2014–2015 Ebola-affected district in Sierra Leone (Kenema), we assessed (a) average yearly IPC compliance (2016–2018) using a National IPC assessment tool in the district hospital and peripheral health units (PHUs), and (b) gaps in IPC activities, infrastructure and consumables in 2018. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study using secondary program data. Results: At the district hospital, compliance increased from 69% in 2016 to 73% in 2018 (expected minimal threshold = 70%; desired threshold ≥ 85%). Compliance for screening/isolation facilities and decontamination of medical equipment reached 100% in 2018. The two thematic areas with the lowest compliance were sanitation (44%) and sharps safety (56%). In PHUs (2018), the minimal 70% compliance threshold was not achieved in two (of 10 thematic areas) for Community Health Centers, four for Community Health Posts, and five for Maternal and Child Health Units. The lowest compliance was for screening and isolation facilities (range: 33–53%). Conclusion: This baseline assessment is an eye opener of what is working and what is not, and can be used to galvanize political, financial, and material resources to bridge the existing gaps. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue AMR in Low and Middle Income Countries)
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Review
Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis—Emerging Trends of a Neglected Virus: A Narrative Review
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2021, 6(2), 88; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/tropicalmed6020088 - 25 May 2021
Viewed by 2366
Abstract
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) is a neglected rodent-borne zoonotic virus distributed worldwide. Since serologic assays are limited to several laboratories, the disease has been underreported, often making it difficult to determine incidence and seroprevalence rates. Although human clinical cases are rarely recorded, LCMV [...] Read more.
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) is a neglected rodent-borne zoonotic virus distributed worldwide. Since serologic assays are limited to several laboratories, the disease has been underreported, often making it difficult to determine incidence and seroprevalence rates. Although human clinical cases are rarely recorded, LCMV remains an important cause of meningitis in humans. In addition, a fatal donor-derived LCMV infection in several clusters of solid organ transplant recipients further highlighted a pathogenic potential and clinical significance of this virus. In the transplant populations, abnormalities of the central nervous system were also found, but were overshadowed by the systemic illness resembling the Lassa hemorrhagic fever. LCMV is also an emerging fetal teratogen. Hydrocephalus, periventricular calcifications and chorioretinitis are the predominant characteristics of congenital LCMV infection, occurring in 87.5% of cases. Mortality in congenitally infected children is about 35%, while 70% of them show long-term neurologic sequelae. Clinicians should be aware of the risks posed by LCMV and should consider the virus in the differential diagnosis of aseptic meningitis, especially in patients who reported contact with rodents. Furthermore, LCMV should be considered in infants and children with unexplained hydrocephalus, intracerebral calcifications and chorioretinitis. Despite intensive interdisciplinary research efforts, efficient antiviral therapy for LCMV infection is still not available. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infection Prevention and Control: Practical and Educational Advances)
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Communication
Sexual Transmission of Lyme Borreliosis? The Question That Calls for an Answer
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2021, 6(2), 87; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/tropicalmed6020087 - 24 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4260
Abstract
Transmission of the causative agents of numerous infectious diseases might be potentially conducted by various routes if this is supported by the genetics of the pathogen. Various transmission modes occur in related pathogens, reflecting a complex process that is specific for each particular [...] Read more.
Transmission of the causative agents of numerous infectious diseases might be potentially conducted by various routes if this is supported by the genetics of the pathogen. Various transmission modes occur in related pathogens, reflecting a complex process that is specific for each particular host–pathogen system that relies on and is affected by pathogen and host genetics and ecology, ensuring the epidemiological spread of the pathogen. The recent dramatic rise in diagnosed cases of Lyme borreliosis might be due to several factors: the shifting of the distributional range of tick vectors caused by climate change; dispersal of infected ticks due to host animal migration; recent urbanization; an increasing overlap of humans’ habitat with wildlife reservoirs and the environment of tick vectors of Borrelia; improvements in disease diagnosis; or establishment of adequate surveillance. The involvement of other bloodsucking arthropod vectors and/or other routes of transmission (human-to-human) of the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis, the spirochetes from the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex, has been speculated to be contributing to increased disease burden. It does not matter how controversial the idea of vector-free spirochete transmission might seem in the beginning. As long as evidence of sexual transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi both between vertebrate hosts and between tick vectors exists, this question must be addressed. In order to confirm or refute the existence of this phenomenon, which could have important implications for Lyme borreliosis epidemiology, the need of extensive research is obvious and required. Full article
Review
Efforts to Identify and Combat Antimicrobial Resistance in Uganda: A Systematic Review
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2021, 6(2), 86; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/tropicalmed6020086 - 24 May 2021
Viewed by 2498
Abstract
The global burden of antimicrobial resistance is on the rise, resulting in higher morbidity and mortality in our communities. The spread of antimicrobial resistance in the environment and development of resistant microbes is a challenge to the control of antimicrobial resistance. Approaches, such [...] Read more.
The global burden of antimicrobial resistance is on the rise, resulting in higher morbidity and mortality in our communities. The spread of antimicrobial resistance in the environment and development of resistant microbes is a challenge to the control of antimicrobial resistance. Approaches, such as antimicrobial stewardship programmes and enhanced surveillance, have been devised to curb its spread. However, particularly in lower- and middle-income countries, the overall extent of antimicrobial resistance and knowledge on ongoing surveillance, stewardship or investigation efforts, are often poorly understood. This study aimed to look at the efforts that have been undertaken to detect and combat antimicrobial resistance in Uganda as a means of establishing an overview of the situation, to help inform future decisions. We conducted a systematic literature review of the PubMed database to assess these efforts. A search combining keywords associated with antimicrobial resistance were used to find relevant studies between 1995 and 2020 on surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in Uganda, and susceptibility of microbes to different drugs. The search yielded 430 records, 163 of which met the inclusion criteria for analysis. The studies were categorized according to country and region, the type of antimicrobial resistance, context of the study, study design and outcome of the study. We observed that antibacterial resistance and antimalarial resistance had the most published studies while antiviral and antifungal resistance were represented by very few studies each. Most studies were conducted in humans and hospital settings, with few in veterinary and One Health contexts, and only one that included environmental sampling. The majority of studies have focused on surveillance, susceptibility testing or resistance genes; none of our included papers had a policy or stewardship focus. The results from our work can inform public health policy on antimicrobial stewardship as it contributes to understanding the status of antimicrobial resistance surveillance in Uganda, and can also help to guide future research efforts. Notably, a One Health approach needs to be followed with respect to surveillance of antimicrobial resistance to better understand the mechanisms of resistance transfer across the human-animal–environment interface, including additional investigation in antiviral and antifungal resistance. Full article
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Article
Exposure and Carriage of Pathogenic Leptospira in Livestock in St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2021, 6(2), 85; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/tropicalmed6020085 - 24 May 2021
Viewed by 2317
Abstract
From 2019–2020, the Virgin Islands Department of Health (VIDOH) investigated potential animal reservoirs of Leptospira spp., the pathogenic bacteria that cause leptospirosis. We examined Leptospira exposure and carriage in livestock on the island of St. Croix, United States Virgin Islands (USVI). We utilized [...] Read more.
From 2019–2020, the Virgin Islands Department of Health (VIDOH) investigated potential animal reservoirs of Leptospira spp., the pathogenic bacteria that cause leptospirosis. We examined Leptospira exposure and carriage in livestock on the island of St. Croix, United States Virgin Islands (USVI). We utilized the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) to evaluate the sera, and the fluorescent antibody test (FAT), real time polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR), and bacterial culture to evaluate urine specimens from livestock (n = 126): 28 cattle, 19 goats, 46 pigs, and 33 sheep. Seropositivity was 37.6% (47/125) with agglutinating antibodies to the following serogroups identified: Australis, Djasiman, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Ballum, Sejroe, Cynopteri, Autumnalis, Hebdomadis, Pomona, Canicola, Grippotyphosa, and Pyrogenes. Urine from 4 animals (4.0%, 4/101) was positive by rt-PCR for lipL32: 2 sheep, 1 goat, and 1 bull. Sequencing of secY amplicons identified L. interrogans in 1 sheep and 1 bull. Livestock in USVI harbor pathogenic Leptospira bacteria and could play a role in the zoonotic cycle of leptospirosis. Full article
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Article
Leptospirosis in Ruminants in Yogyakarta, Indonesia: A Serological Survey with Mixed Methods to Identify Risk Factors
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2021, 6(2), 84; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/tropicalmed6020084 - 20 May 2021
Viewed by 2347
Abstract
Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease occurring worldwide with reproductive symptoms and production losses in livestock, while humans can suffer fatal renal failure. In Yogyakarta Special Province, Indonesia, there have been several outbreaks with high case fatality, demonstrating the public health importance, but there [...] Read more.
Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease occurring worldwide with reproductive symptoms and production losses in livestock, while humans can suffer fatal renal failure. In Yogyakarta Special Province, Indonesia, there have been several outbreaks with high case fatality, demonstrating the public health importance, but there is limited understanding of the epidemiology. This study used an EcoHealth approach to ensure transdisciplinarity and community participation. Seroprevalence of Leptospira in animals was studied between October 2011 and May 2013 in 15 villages. Serum samples from 1404 cattle and 60 small ruminants were screened by a Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT), first in pools, and then the individual positive samples were identified. Focus group discussions including farmers, village officials, and official stakeholders were used to explore knowledge and behavior of zoonotic diseases, particularly leptospirosis. Two small ruminants were seropositive for Leptospira icterohemorrhagiae. From the cattle, 3.7% were seropositive, and the most common serovars were Leptospira hardjo, followed by L. icterohemorrhagiae. Out of all farms, 5.6% had at least one positive cattle. Risk factor analyses showed that the risk of the farm being seropositive increased if the farmer used water from an open source, or if farming was not the main occupation. This study showed the presence of Leptospira spp. in ruminants in Yogyakarta and identified use of open water as a risk factor for the livestock. We also observed that the knowledge related to leptospirosis was low, and risky farm management practices were commonly employed. Full article
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Article
National Antimicrobial Consumption: Analysis of Central Warehouses Supplies to In-Patient Care Health Facilities from 2017 to 2019 in Uganda
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2021, 6(2), 83; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/tropicalmed6020083 - 19 May 2021
Viewed by 2822
Abstract
Antimicrobial consumption (AMC) surveillance at global and national levels is necessary to inform relevant interventions and policies. This study analyzed central warehouse antimicrobial supplies to health facilities providing inpatient care in Uganda. We collected data on antimicrobials supplied by National Medical Stores (NMS) [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial consumption (AMC) surveillance at global and national levels is necessary to inform relevant interventions and policies. This study analyzed central warehouse antimicrobial supplies to health facilities providing inpatient care in Uganda. We collected data on antimicrobials supplied by National Medical Stores (NMS) and Joint Medical Stores (JMS) to 442 health facilities from 2017 to 2019. Data were analyzed using the World Health Organization methodology for AMC surveillance. Total quantity of antimicrobials in defined daily dose (DDD) were determined, classified into Access, Watch, Reserve (AWaRe) and AMC density was calculated. There was an increase in total DDDs distributed by NMS in 2019 by 4,166,572 DDD. In 2019, Amoxicillin (27%), Cotrimoxazole (20%), and Metronidazole (12%) were the most supplied antimicrobials by NMS while Doxycycline (10%), Amoxicillin (19%), and Metronidazole (10%) were the most supplied by JMS. The majority of antimicrobials supplied by NMS (81%) and JMS (66%) were from the Access category. Increasing antimicrobial consumption density (DDD per 100 patient days) was observed from national referral to lower-level health facilities. Except for NMS in 2019, total antimicrobials supplied by NMS and JMS remained the same from 2017 to 2019. This serves as a baseline for future assessments and monitoring of stewardship interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue AMR in Low and Middle Income Countries)
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Article
Increasing Antimicrobial Resistance in Surgical Wards at Mulago National Referral Hospital, Uganda, from 2014 to 2018—Cause for Concern?
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2021, 6(2), 82; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/tropicalmed6020082 - 19 May 2021
Viewed by 2908
Abstract
Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) and Healthcare Associated Infections (HAIs) are major global public health challenges in our time. This study provides a broader and updated overview of AMR trends in surgical wards of Mulago National Referral Hospital (MNRH) between 2014 and 2018. Laboratory data [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) and Healthcare Associated Infections (HAIs) are major global public health challenges in our time. This study provides a broader and updated overview of AMR trends in surgical wards of Mulago National Referral Hospital (MNRH) between 2014 and 2018. Laboratory data on the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of bacterial isolates from 428 patient samples were available. The most common samples were as follows: tracheal aspirates (36.5%), pus swabs (28.0%), and blood (20.6%). Klebsiella (21.7%), Acinetobacter (17.5%), and Staphylococcus species (12.4%) were the most common isolates. The resistance patterns for different antimicrobials were: penicillins (40–100%), cephalosporins (30–100%), β-lactamase inhibitor combinations (70–100%), carbapenems (10–100%), polymyxin E (0–7%), aminoglycosides (50–100%), sulphonamides (80–100%), fluoroquinolones (40–70%), macrolides (40–100%), lincosamides (10–45%), phenicols (40–70%), nitrofurans (0–25%), and glycopeptide (0–20%). This study demonstrated a sustained increase in resistance among the most commonly used antibiotics in Uganda over the five-year study period. It implies ongoing hospital-based monitoring and surveillance of AMR patterns are needed to inform antibiotic prescribing, and to contribute to national and global AMR profiles. It also suggests continued emphasis on infection prevention and control practices (IPC), including antibiotic stewardship. Ultimately, laboratory capacity for timely bacteriological culture and sensitivity testing will provide a rational choice of antibiotics for HAI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue AMR in Low and Middle Income Countries)
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Article
Assessing the Impact of COVID-19 on TB and HIV Programme Services in Selected Health Facilities in Lilongwe, Malawi: Operational Research in Real Time
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2021, 6(2), 81; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/tropicalmed6020081 - 19 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2602
Abstract
When the COVID-19 pandemic was announced in March 2020, there was concern that TB and HIV programme services in Malawi would be severely affected. We set up real-time monthly surveillance of TB and HIV activities in eight health facilities in Lilongwe to see [...] Read more.
When the COVID-19 pandemic was announced in March 2020, there was concern that TB and HIV programme services in Malawi would be severely affected. We set up real-time monthly surveillance of TB and HIV activities in eight health facilities in Lilongwe to see if it was possible to counteract the anticipated negative impact on TB case detection and treatment and HIV testing. Aggregate data were collected monthly during the COVID-19 period (March 2020–February 2021) using an EpiCollect5 application and compared with monthly data collected during the pre-COVID-19 period (March 2019–February 2020); these reports were sent monthly to programme directors. During COVID-19, there was an overall decrease in persons presenting with presumptive pulmonary TB (45.6%), in patients registered for TB treatment (19.1%), and in individuals tested for HIV (39.0%). For presumptive TB, children and females were more affected, but for HIV testing, adults and males were more affected. During COVID-19, the TB treatment success rate (96.1% in pre-COVID-19 and 96.0% during COVID-19 period) and referral of HIV-positive persons to antiretroviral therapy (100% in pre-COVID-19 and 98.6% during COVID-19 period) remained high and largely unchanged. Declining trends in TB and HIV case detection were not redressed despite real-time monthly surveillance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19: Current Challenges and Future Perspectives)
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Article
Wounds, Antimicrobial Resistance and Challenges of Implementing a Surveillance System in Myanmar: A Mixed-Methods Study
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2021, 6(2), 80; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/tropicalmed6020080 - 18 May 2021
Viewed by 2472
Abstract
Wound infections with drug-resistant bacteria lead to higher mortality and morbidity and increased healthcare costs. We aimed to describe the spectrum of bacterial pathogens, isolated from wound cultures in Yangon General Hospital in 2018, and their antimicrobial resistance (AMR) patterns and to understand [...] Read more.
Wound infections with drug-resistant bacteria lead to higher mortality and morbidity and increased healthcare costs. We aimed to describe the spectrum of bacterial pathogens, isolated from wound cultures in Yangon General Hospital in 2018, and their antimicrobial resistance (AMR) patterns and to understand the challenges in implementing an AMR surveillance system in Myanmar. We conducted a concurrent mixed-methods study involving analysis of surveillance data and in-depth interviews with nine key personnel involved in AMR surveillance. Of 1418 wound specimens processed, 822 (58%) were culture-positive. The most common Gram-positive bacteria were coagulase-negative staphylococci (23.3%) and Staphylococcus aureus (15.1%). Among Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli (12.5%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10.1%) were common. Staphylococcus aureus isolates were resistant to penicillin (98%), oxacillin (70%) and tetracycline (66%). Escherichia coli showed resistance to ampicillin (98%). Lack of dedicated and trained staff (microbiologist, technician, data entry operator), lack of computers at sentinel sites and non-uniform and non-standardized data capture formats were the major challenges in implementing AMR surveillance. These challenges need to be addressed urgently. We also recommend periodic analysis and sharing of antibiograms at every hospital to inform the treatment regimens used in wound management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue AMR in Low and Middle Income Countries)
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Article
Reduced Bacterial Counts from a Sewage Treatment Plant but Increased Counts and Antibiotic Resistance in the Recipient Stream in Accra, Ghana—A Cross-Sectional Study
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2021, 6(2), 79; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/tropicalmed6020079 - 14 May 2021
Viewed by 2512
Abstract
Wastewater treatment plants receive sewage containing high concentrations of bacteria and antibiotics. We assessed bacterial counts and their antibiotic resistance patterns in water from (a) influents and effluents of the Legon sewage treatment plant (STP) in Accra, Ghana and (b) upstream, outfall, and [...] Read more.
Wastewater treatment plants receive sewage containing high concentrations of bacteria and antibiotics. We assessed bacterial counts and their antibiotic resistance patterns in water from (a) influents and effluents of the Legon sewage treatment plant (STP) in Accra, Ghana and (b) upstream, outfall, and downstream in the recipient Onyasia stream. We conducted a cross-sectional study of quality-controlled water testing (January–June 2018). In STP effluents, mean bacterial counts (colony-forming units/100 mL) had reduced E. coli (99.9% reduction; 102,266,667 to 710), A. hydrophila (98.8%; 376,333 to 9603), and P. aeruginosa (99.5%; 5,666,667 to 1550). Antibiotic resistance was significantly reduced for tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, cefuroxime, and ceftazidime and increased for gentamicin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, and imipenem. The highest levels were for amoxicillin/clavulanate (50–97%) and aztreonam (33%). Bacterial counts increased by 98.8% downstream compared to the sewage outfall and were predominated by E. coli, implying intense fecal contamination from other sources. There was a progressive increase in antibiotic resistance from upstream, to outfall, to downstream. The highest resistance was for amoxicillin/clavulanate (80–83%), cefuroxime (47–73%), aztreonam (53%), and ciprofloxacin (40%). The STP is efficient in reducing bacterial counts and thus reducing environmental contamination. The recipient stream is contaminated with antibiotic-resistant bacteria listed as critically important for human use, which needs addressing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue AMR in Low and Middle Income Countries)
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Article
Seroprevalence and Clinical Features of Scrub Typhus among Febrile Patients Attending a Referral Hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2021, 6(2), 78; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/tropicalmed6020078 - 13 May 2021
Viewed by 2937
Abstract
(1) Background: Scrub typhus (ST) is endemic to Nepal. It is often underdiagnosed and misdiagnosed due to non-specific clinical presentation coupled with limited microbiological facilities, leading to adverse clinical outcomes. This study aimed to assess the seroprevalence of scrub typhus in febrile patients [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Scrub typhus (ST) is endemic to Nepal. It is often underdiagnosed and misdiagnosed due to non-specific clinical presentation coupled with limited microbiological facilities, leading to adverse clinical outcomes. This study aimed to assess the seroprevalence of scrub typhus in febrile patients attending Sukraraj Tropical and Infectious Disease Hospital (STIDH), Nepal, from August 2018 to April 2019. (2) Materials and Method: Blood/serum samples and clinical and demographic data of adult febrile patients (≥19 years) who attended or were referred to the hospital were collected after obtaining written informed consent from the participants excluding immunocompromised individuals. Collected blood/serum samples were subjected to hematological, biochemical, and serological tests. A serological test for scrub typhus was performed using the ImmuneMed scrub typhus rapid diagnostic test kit. Data generated were analyzed using SPSS software version 24.0. (3) Results: Amongst the 2070 febrile patients, 462 (22.3%) were seropositive to at least one etiological agent of febrile illnesses (scrub typhus: 253 cases, dengue: 101 cases, leptospirosis: 9, brucellosis: 52, malaria: 9 and kala-azar: 20 cases). Scrub typhus accounted for 12.2% (n = 253) of total febrile illnesses followed by dengue (4.9%, n = 101). Mixed seropositivity of scrub typhus with dengue, brucellosis, and typhoid was found in 12 (0.6%), 9 (0.4%), and 5 (0.2%) cases, respectively. Among 253 scrub typhus patients, 53.4% were female. Among the 154 patients, the most common symptoms were fever (100%), headache (79.2%), sweating (70.1%), breathing difficulty (51.3%), redness of the eye (43.5%), and pathognomonic eschar was observed in 9.1% patients. Fifty percent of scrub typhus patients had low platelet count and >30% of patients had an elevated level of liver enzymes (such as serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGPT) and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGOT). (4) Conclusion: Scrub typhus is a considerable cause of febrile illness in Nepal. Females apparently have a higher chance of acquiring scrub typhus. ST presents nonspecific clinical presentation. The diagnostic dilemma of typhus patients can be minimized by the early monitoring of ST-associated symptoms. The country’s health system needs to be strengthened for early outbreak detection, and immediate response actions against scrub typhus to control the future outbreak of ST. Full article
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Article
National Antibiotic Consumption for Human Use in Sierra Leone (2017–2019): A Cross-Sectional Study
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2021, 6(2), 77; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/tropicalmed6020077 - 13 May 2021
Viewed by 2281
Abstract
Monitoring antibiotic consumption is crucial to tackling antimicrobial resistance. However, currently there is no system in Sierra Leone for recording and reporting on antibiotic consumption. We therefore conducted a cross-sectional study to assess national antibiotic consumption expressed as defined daily dose (DDD) per [...] Read more.
Monitoring antibiotic consumption is crucial to tackling antimicrobial resistance. However, currently there is no system in Sierra Leone for recording and reporting on antibiotic consumption. We therefore conducted a cross-sectional study to assess national antibiotic consumption expressed as defined daily dose (DDD) per 1000 inhabitants per day using all registered and imported antibiotics (categorized under the subgroup J01 under the anatomical and therapeutic classification (ATC) system) as a proxy. Between 2017–2019, total cumulative consumption of antibiotics was 19 DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day. The vast majority consisted of oral antibiotics (98.4%), while parenteral antibiotics made up 1.6%. According to therapeutic/pharmacological subgroups (ATC level 3), beta-lactam/penicillins, quinolones, and other antibacterials (mainly oral metronidazole) comprised 65% of total consumption. According to WHO Access, Watch, and Reserve (AWaRe), 65% of antibiotics consumed were Access, 31% were Watch, and no Reserve antibiotics were reported. The top ten oral antibiotics represented 97% of total oral antibiotics consumed, with metronidazole (35%) and ciprofloxacin (15%) together constituting half of the total. Of parenteral antibiotics consumed, procaine penicillin (32%) and ceftriaxone (19%) together comprised half of the total. Policy recommendations at global and national levels have been made to improve monitoring of antibiotic consumption and antibiotic stewardship. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue AMR in Low and Middle Income Countries)
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