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Int. J. Turbomach. Propuls. Power, Volume 6, Issue 1 (March 2021) – 5 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): A mean-line compressor performance calculation method is presented that covers the entire operating range, including the choked region of the map. It can be directly integrated into overall engine performance models, as it is developed in the same simulation environment. The code materializing the model can inherit the same interfaces, fluid models, and solvers, as the engine cycle model, allowing consistent, transparent, and robust simulations. In order to deal with convergence problems when the compressor operates close to or within the choked operation region, an approach to model choking conditions at blade row and overall compressor level is proposed. The choked portion of the compressor characteristics map is thus numerically established, allowing full knowledge and handling of inter-stage flow conditions. View this paper
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Article
A New Loss Generation Body Force Model for Fan/Compressor Blade Rows: An Artificial-Neural-Network Based Methodology
Int. J. Turbomach. Propuls. Power 2021, 6(1), 5; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijtpp6010005 - 11 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 653
Abstract
Body force models of fans and compressors are widely employed for predicting performance due to the reduction in computational cost associated with their use, particularly in nonuniform inflows. Such models are generally divided into a portion responsible for flow turning and another for [...] Read more.
Body force models of fans and compressors are widely employed for predicting performance due to the reduction in computational cost associated with their use, particularly in nonuniform inflows. Such models are generally divided into a portion responsible for flow turning and another for loss generation. Recently, accurate, uncalibrated turning force models have been developed, but accurate loss generation models have typically required calibration against higher fidelity computations (especially when flow separation occurs). In this paper, a blade profile loss model is introduced which requires the trailing edge boundary layer momentum thicknesses. To estimate the momentum thickness for a given blade section, an artificial neural network is trained using over 400,000 combinations of blade section shape and flow conditions. A blade-to-blade flow field solver is used to generate the training data. The model obtained depends only on blade geometry information and the local flow conditions, making its implementation in a typical computational fluid dynamics framework straightforward. We show good agreement in the prediction of profile loss for 2D cascades both on and off design in the defined ranges for the neural network training. Full article
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Article
Axial Compressor Mean-Line Analysis: Choking Modelling and Fully-Coupled Integration in Engine Performance Simulations
Int. J. Turbomach. Propuls. Power 2021, 6(1), 4; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijtpp6010004 - 26 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1060
Abstract
A mean-line compressor performance calculation method is presented that covers the entire operating range, including the choked region of the map. It can be directly integrated into overall engine performance models, as it is developed in the same simulation environment. The code materializing [...] Read more.
A mean-line compressor performance calculation method is presented that covers the entire operating range, including the choked region of the map. It can be directly integrated into overall engine performance models, as it is developed in the same simulation environment. The code materializing the model can inherit the same interfaces, fluid models, and solvers, as the engine cycle model, allowing consistent, transparent, and robust simulations. In order to deal with convergence problems when the compressor operates close to or within the choked operation region, an approach to model choking conditions at blade row and overall compressor level is proposed. The choked portion of the compressor characteristics map is thus numerically established, allowing full knowledge and handling of inter-stage flow conditions. Such choking modelling capabilities are illustrated, for the first time in the open literature, for the case of multi-stage compressors. Integration capabilities of the 1D code within an overall engine model are demonstrated through steady state and transient simulations of a contemporary turbofan layout. Advantages offered by this approach are discussed, while comparison of using alternative approaches for representing compressor performance in overall engine models is discussed. Full article
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Article
Review of a Custom-Designed Optical Sensing System for Aero-Engine Applications
Int. J. Turbomach. Propuls. Power 2021, 6(1), 3; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijtpp6010003 - 25 Feb 2021
Viewed by 705
Abstract
Fibre bundle-based reflective optical sensors are good candidates for parameter monitorisation in aero engines. Tip clearance is one of those parameters of great concern that is necessary to monitor. Within this optical technology, the evolution experienced by a custom-designed optical sensor is presented [...] Read more.
Fibre bundle-based reflective optical sensors are good candidates for parameter monitorisation in aero engines. Tip clearance is one of those parameters of great concern that is necessary to monitor. Within this optical technology, the evolution experienced by a custom-designed optical sensor is presented from its first configuration up to the fifth one. The performance of the last configuration is compared with those of other two optical sensors that are also based on a fibre bundle design. The comparison has been carried out in an experimental program in a transonic wind tunnel for aero engines. The proven high resolution and sensitivity of the last configuration of the optical sensor opens up the possibility to detect blade defects, cracks, etc. that could otherwise be hard to track. Full article
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Article
Fuzzy Controller Structures Investigation for Future Gas Turbine Aero-Engines
Int. J. Turbomach. Propuls. Power 2021, 6(1), 2; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijtpp6010002 - 22 Feb 2021
Viewed by 752
Abstract
The Advisory Council for Aeronautics Research in Europe (ACARE) Flight Path 2050 focuses on ambitious and severe targets for the next generation of air travel systems (e.g., 75% reduction in CO2 emissions per passenger kilometer, a 90% reduction in NOx emissions, and [...] Read more.
The Advisory Council for Aeronautics Research in Europe (ACARE) Flight Path 2050 focuses on ambitious and severe targets for the next generation of air travel systems (e.g., 75% reduction in CO2 emissions per passenger kilometer, a 90% reduction in NOx emissions, and 65% reduction in noise emission of flying aircraft relative to the capabilities of typical new aircraft in 2000). In order to meet these requirements, aircraft engines should work very close to their operating limits. Therefore, the importance of advanced control strategies to satisfy all engine control modes simultaneously while protecting them from malfunctions and physical damages is being more crucial these days. In the last three decades, fuzzy controllers (FCs) have been proposed as a high potential solution for performance improvement of the next generation of aircraft engines. Based on an analytic review, this paper divides the trend of FCs design into two main lines including pure FCs (PFC) and min–max FCs (MMFC). These two main architectures are then designed, implemented on hardware, and applied in a case study to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of each structure. The analysis of hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation results shows that the pure FC structure would be a high potential candidate for maneuverability and response time indices improvement (e.g., military applications); while min–max FC architecture has a great potential for future civil aero-engines where the fuel consumption and steady-state responses are more important. The simulation results are also compared with those of industrial min–max controllers to confirm the feasibility and reliability of the fuzzy controllers for real-world application. The results of this paper propose a general roadmap for fuzzy controllers’ structure selection for new and next generation of aircraft engines. Full article
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Editorial
Acknowledgment to Reviewers of IJTPP in 2020
Int. J. Turbomach. Propuls. Power 2021, 6(1), 1; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijtpp6010001 - 25 Jan 2021
Viewed by 915
Abstract
Peer review is the driving force of journal development, and reviewers are gatekeepers who ensure that IJTPP maintains its standards for the high quality of its published papers [...] Full article
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