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Article

5G Poor and Rich Novel Control Scheme Based Load Frequency Regulation of a Two-Area System with 100% Renewables in Africa

Electromechanics Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Heliopolis University, Cairo 11785, Egypt
Received: 14 November 2020 / Revised: 14 December 2020 / Accepted: 21 December 2020 / Published: 23 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fractional-Order Circuits and Systems)
Remote farms in Africa are cultivated lands planned for 100% sustainable energy and organic agriculture in the future. This paper presents the load frequency control of a two-area power system feeding those farms. The power system is supplied by renewable technologies and storage facilities only which are photovoltaics, biogas, biodiesel, solar thermal, battery storage and flywheel storage systems. Each of those facilities has 150-kW capacity. This paper presents a model for each renewable energy technology and energy storage facility. The frequency is controlled by using a novel non-linear fractional order proportional integral derivative control scheme (NFOPID). The novel scheme is compared to a non-linear PID controller (NPID), fractional order PID controller (FOPID), and conventional PID. The effect of the different degradation factors related to the communication infrastructure, such as the time delay and packet loss, are modeled and simulated to assess the controlled system performance. A new cost function is presented in this research. The four controllers are tuned by novel poor and rich optimization (PRO) algorithm at different operating conditions. PRO controller design is compared to other state of the art techniques in this paper. The results show that the PRO design for a novel NFOPID controller has a promising future in load frequency control considering communication delays and packet loss. The simulation and optimization are applied on MATLAB/SIMULINK 2017a environment. View Full-Text
Keywords: 100% renewable power generation; load frequency control; poor and rich optimization; NFOPID controller; FOPID controller; NPID controller; biogas generator; biodiesel generator; energy food nexus 100% renewable power generation; load frequency control; poor and rich optimization; NFOPID controller; FOPID controller; NPID controller; biogas generator; biodiesel generator; energy food nexus
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fayek, H.H. 5G Poor and Rich Novel Control Scheme Based Load Frequency Regulation of a Two-Area System with 100% Renewables in Africa. Fractal Fract. 2021, 5, 2. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fractalfract5010002

AMA Style

Fayek HH. 5G Poor and Rich Novel Control Scheme Based Load Frequency Regulation of a Two-Area System with 100% Renewables in Africa. Fractal and Fractional. 2021; 5(1):2. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fractalfract5010002

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fayek, Hady H. 2021. "5G Poor and Rich Novel Control Scheme Based Load Frequency Regulation of a Two-Area System with 100% Renewables in Africa" Fractal and Fractional 5, no. 1: 2. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fractalfract5010002

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