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Extent and Variation of Nitrogen Losses from Non-legume Field Crops of Conterminous United States

Department of Soil Science, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58108, USA
Received: 17 March 2020 / Revised: 30 April 2020 / Accepted: 11 May 2020 / Published: 19 May 2020
Nitrogen (N) losses from field crops have raised environmental concerns. This manuscript accompanies a database of N loss studies from non-legume field crops conducted across the conterminous United States. Cumulative N losses through nitrous oxide-denitrification (CN2O), ammonia volatilization (CNH3), and nitrate leaching (CNO3) during the growing season and associated crop, soil, and water management information were gathered to determine the extent and controls of these losses. This database consisted of 404, 26, and 358 observations of CN2O, CNH3, and CNO3 losses, respectively, from sixty-two peer-reviewed manuscripts. Corn (Zea mays) dominated the N loss studies. Losses ranged between −0.04 to 16.9, 2.50 to 50.9, and 0 to 257 kg N ha−1 for CN2O, CNH3 and CNO3, respectively. Most CN2O and CNO3 observations were reported from Colorado (n = 100) and Iowa (n = 176), respectively. The highest values of CN2O, and CNO3 were reported from Illinois and Minnesota states, and corn and potato (Solanum tuberosum), respectively. The application of anhydrous NH3 had the highest value of CN2O loss, and ammonium nitrate had the highest CNO3 loss. Among the different placement methods, the injection of fertilizer-N had the highest CN2O loss, whereas the banding of fertilizer-N had the highest CNO3 loss. The maximum CNO3 loss was higher for chisel than no-tillage practice. Both CN2O and CNO3 were positively correlated with fertilizer N application rate and the amount of water input (irrigation and rainfall). Fertilizer-N management strategies to control N loss should consider the spatio-temporal variability of interactions among climate, crop-and soil types. View Full-Text
Keywords: cumulative flux; denitrification; leaching; volatilization; irrigation; subsurface drainage; tillage cumulative flux; denitrification; leaching; volatilization; irrigation; subsurface drainage; tillage
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chatterjee, A. Extent and Variation of Nitrogen Losses from Non-legume Field Crops of Conterminous United States. Nitrogen 2020, 1, 34-51. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nitrogen1010005

AMA Style

Chatterjee A. Extent and Variation of Nitrogen Losses from Non-legume Field Crops of Conterminous United States. Nitrogen. 2020; 1(1):34-51. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nitrogen1010005

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chatterjee, Amitava. 2020. "Extent and Variation of Nitrogen Losses from Non-legume Field Crops of Conterminous United States" Nitrogen 1, no. 1: 34-51. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nitrogen1010005

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