Next Article in Journal
Drought Effects on Nitrogen Provisioning in Different Agricultural Systems: Insights Gained and Lessons Learned from a Field Experiment
Previous Article in Journal
Water and Nitrogen (N) Use Efficiency of Upland Rice (Oryza sativa L. × Oryza glaberrima Steud) under Varying N Application Rates
Review

Nitrogen Cycling and Mass Balance in the World’s Mangrove Forests

Tropical Coastal and Mangrove Consultants, 52 Shearwater Drive, Pakenham, VIC 3810, Australia
Received: 24 October 2020 / Revised: 14 November 2020 / Accepted: 25 November 2020 / Published: 1 December 2020
Nitrogen (N) cycling in mangroves is complex, with rapid turnover of low dissolved N concentrations, but slow turnover of particulate N. Most N is stored in soils. The largest sources of N are nearly equal amounts of mangrove and benthic microalgal primary production. Dissolved N fluxes between the forests and tidal waters show net uptake, indicating N conservation. N2-fixation is underestimated as rapid rates measured on tree stems, aboveground roots and cyanobacterial mats cannot currently be accounted for at the whole-forest scale due to their extreme patchiness and the inability to extrapolate beyond a localized area. Net immobilization of NH4+ is the largest ecosystem flux, indicating N retention. Denitrification is the largest loss of N, equating to 35% of total N input. Burial equates to about 29% of total inputs and is the second largest loss of N. Total inputs slightly exceed total outputs, currently suggesting net N balance in mangroves. Mangrove PON export equates to ≈95% of PON export from the world’s tropical rivers, but only 1.5% of the entire world’s river discharge. Mangrove N2O emissions, denitrification, and burial contribute 0.4%, 0.5–2.0% and 6%, respectively, to the global coastal ocean, which are disproportionate to their small worldwide area. View Full-Text
Keywords: biogeochemistry; denitrification; ecosystem; mangrove forests; mass balance; nitrogen; nitrogen cycling; nitrogen fixation; nitrogen retention biogeochemistry; denitrification; ecosystem; mangrove forests; mass balance; nitrogen; nitrogen cycling; nitrogen fixation; nitrogen retention
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Alongi, D.M. Nitrogen Cycling and Mass Balance in the World’s Mangrove Forests. Nitrogen 2020, 1, 167-189. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nitrogen1020014

AMA Style

Alongi DM. Nitrogen Cycling and Mass Balance in the World’s Mangrove Forests. Nitrogen. 2020; 1(2):167-189. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nitrogen1020014

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alongi, Daniel M. 2020. "Nitrogen Cycling and Mass Balance in the World’s Mangrove Forests" Nitrogen 1, no. 2: 167-189. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nitrogen1020014

Find Other Styles

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop