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Oxidative Stress Produced by Paraquat Reduces Nitrogen Fixation in Soybean-Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens Symbiosis by Decreasing Nodule Functionality

Department of Soil Microbiology and Symbiotic Systems, Estación Experimental del Zaidín, CSIC, Profesor Albareda, 1, 18008 Granada, Spain
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Received: 2 December 2020 / Revised: 13 January 2021 / Accepted: 18 January 2021 / Published: 21 January 2021
Soybean (Glycine max.) is one of the most important legumes cultivated worldwide. Its productivity can be altered by some biotic and abiotic stresses like global warming, soil metal pollution or over-application of herbicides like paraquat (1,1’-dimethyl-4,4’-bipyridinium dichloride). In this study, the effect of oxidative stress produced by paraquat addition (0, 20, 50 and 100 µM) during plant growth on symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) and functionality of Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens-elicited soybean nodules were evaluated. Results showed that the 50 µM was the threshold that B. diazoefficiens can tolerate under free-living conditions. In symbiosis with soybean, the paraquat addition statistically reduced the shoot and root dry weight of soybean plants, and number and development of the nodules. SNF was negatively affected by paraquat, which reduced total nitrogen content and fixed nitrogen close to 50% when 100 µM was added. These effects were due to the impairment of nodule functionality and the increased oxidative status of the nodules, as revealed by the lower leghaemoglobin content and the higher lipid peroxidation in soybean nodules from paraquat-treated plants. View Full-Text
Keywords: bacteroid; fixed nitrogen; leghaemoglobin; lipid peroxidation; nitrogen content; nitrogen fixation; oxidative stress; paraquat; soybean; symbiosis bacteroid; fixed nitrogen; leghaemoglobin; lipid peroxidation; nitrogen content; nitrogen fixation; oxidative stress; paraquat; soybean; symbiosis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tortosa, G.; Parejo, S.; Cabrera, J.J.; Bedmar, E.J.; Mesa, S. Oxidative Stress Produced by Paraquat Reduces Nitrogen Fixation in Soybean-Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens Symbiosis by Decreasing Nodule Functionality. Nitrogen 2021, 2, 30-40. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nitrogen2010003

AMA Style

Tortosa G, Parejo S, Cabrera JJ, Bedmar EJ, Mesa S. Oxidative Stress Produced by Paraquat Reduces Nitrogen Fixation in Soybean-Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens Symbiosis by Decreasing Nodule Functionality. Nitrogen. 2021; 2(1):30-40. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nitrogen2010003

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tortosa, Germán, Sergio Parejo, Juan J. Cabrera, Eulogio J. Bedmar, and Socorro Mesa. 2021. "Oxidative Stress Produced by Paraquat Reduces Nitrogen Fixation in Soybean-Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens Symbiosis by Decreasing Nodule Functionality" Nitrogen 2, no. 1: 30-40. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nitrogen2010003

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