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J. Manuf. Mater. Process., Volume 5, Issue 1 (March 2021) – 26 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The manufacture of thin walls with sharp corners has been optimized by adjusting the limits of a 3-axis Cartesian kinematics through data recorded and analyzed offline, such as axis speed, acceleration, and the positioning of the X and Y axes. The study was carried out with SS316L and IN718 alloys using the directed energy deposition process with laser. Thin walls were obtained with 1 mm thickness, and only one bead per layer and straight/sharp corners at 90. After adjusting the in-position parameter G502 for positioning precision on the FAGOR 8070 CNC system, it was possible to obtain walls with minimal material accumulation in the corner, and practically constant layer thickness and height, with adequate radii of internal curvature. View this paper.
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Article
Condition Monitoring of Manufacturing Processes under Low Sampling Rate
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2021, 5(1), 26; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmmp5010026 - 23 Mar 2021
Viewed by 612
Abstract
Manufacturing processes can be monitored for anomalies and failures just like machines, in condition monitoring and prognostic and health management. This research takes inspiration from condition monitoring and prognostic and health management techniques to develop a method for part production process monitoring. The [...] Read more.
Manufacturing processes can be monitored for anomalies and failures just like machines, in condition monitoring and prognostic and health management. This research takes inspiration from condition monitoring and prognostic and health management techniques to develop a method for part production process monitoring. The contribution brought by this paper is an automated technique for process monitoring that works with low sampling rates of 1/3Hz, a limitation that comes from using data provided by an industrial partner and acquired from industrial manufacturing processes. The technique uses kernel density estimation functions on machine tools spindle load historical time signals for distribution estimation. It then uses this estimation to monitor the manufacturing processes for anomalies in real time. A modified version was tested by our industrial partner on a titanium part manufacturing line. Full article
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Article
Experimental Study on Joining by Forming of HCT590X + Z and EN-AW 6014 Sheets Using Cold Extruded Pin Structures
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2021, 5(1), 25; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmmp5010025 - 17 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 607
Abstract
Due to stricter emission targets in the mobility sector and the resulting trend towards lightweight construction in order to reduce weight and consequently emissions, multi-material systems that allow a material to be placed in the right quantity and in the right place are [...] Read more.
Due to stricter emission targets in the mobility sector and the resulting trend towards lightweight construction in order to reduce weight and consequently emissions, multi-material systems that allow a material to be placed in the right quantity and in the right place are becoming increasingly important. One major challenge that is holding back the rapid and widespread use of multi-material systems is the lack of adequate joining processes that are suitable for joining dissimilar materials. Joining processes without auxiliary elements have the advantage of a reduced assembly effort and no additional added weight. Conventional joining processes without auxiliary elements, such as welding, clinching, or the use of adhesives, reach their limits due to different mechanical properties and chemical incompatibilities. A process with potential in the field of joining dissimilar materials is joining without an auxiliary element using pin structures. However, current pin manufacturing processes are mostly time-consuming or can only be integrated barely into existing industrial manufacturing processes due to their specific properties. For this reason, the present work investigates the production of single- and multi-pin structures from high-strength dual-phase steel HCT590X + Z (DP600, t0 = 1.5 mm) by cold extrusion directly out of the sheet metal. These structures are subsequently joined with an aluminium sheet (EN AW-6014-T4, t0 = 1.5 mm) by direct pin pressing. For a quantitative evaluation of the joint quality, tensile shear tests are carried out and the influence of different pin heights, pin number, and pin arrangements, as well as different joining strategies on the joint strength is experimentally evaluated. It is proven that a single pin structure with a diameter of 1.5 mm and an average height of 1.86 mm achieves a maximum tensile shear force of 1025 N. The results reveal that the formation of a form-fit during direct pin pressing is essential for the joint strength. By increasing the number of pins, a linear increase in force could be demonstrated, which is independent of the arrangement of the pin structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Forming and Joining)
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Editorial
Cyber-Physical Production Systems (CPPS): Introduction
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2021, 5(1), 24; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmmp5010024 - 17 Mar 2021
Viewed by 595
Abstract
Digitalization is a major change driver in manufacturing and is nowadays typically linked to terms like Industry 4 [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cyber Physical Production Systems)
Communication
Synthesis of Bulk Zr48Cu36Al8Ag8 Metallic Glass by Hot Pressing of Amorphous Powders
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2021, 5(1), 23; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmmp5010023 - 09 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 702
Abstract
The critical cooling rate necessary for glass formation via melt solidification poses inherent constraints on sample size using conventional casting techniques. This drawback can be overcome by pressure-assisted sintering of metallic glass powders at temperatures above the glass transition, where the material shows [...] Read more.
The critical cooling rate necessary for glass formation via melt solidification poses inherent constraints on sample size using conventional casting techniques. This drawback can be overcome by pressure-assisted sintering of metallic glass powders at temperatures above the glass transition, where the material shows viscous-flow behavior. Partial crystallization during sintering usually exacerbates the inherent brittleness of metallic glasses and thus needs to be avoided. In order to achieve high density of the bulk specimens while avoiding (or minimizing) crystallization, the optimal combination between low viscosity and long incubation time for crystallization must be identified. Here, by carefully selecting the time–temperature window for powder consolidation, we synthesized highly dense Zr48Cu36Ag8Al8 bulk metallic glass (BMG) with mechanical properties comparable with its cast counterpart. The larger ZrCu-based BMG specimens fabricated in this work could then be post-processed by flash-annealing, offering the possibility to fabricate monolithic metallic glasses and glass–matrix composites with enhanced room-temperature plastic deformation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Powder Metallurgy and Additive Manufacturing/3D Printing of Materials)
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Article
Optimization of Abrasive Flow Nano-Finishing Processes by Adopting Artificial Viral Intelligence
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2021, 5(1), 22; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmmp5010022 - 08 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 625
Abstract
This work deals with the optimization of crucial process parameters related to the abrasive flow machining applications at micro/nano-levels. The optimal combination of abrasive flow machining parameters for nano-finishing has been determined by applying a modified virus-evolutionary genetic algorithm. This algorithm implements two [...] Read more.
This work deals with the optimization of crucial process parameters related to the abrasive flow machining applications at micro/nano-levels. The optimal combination of abrasive flow machining parameters for nano-finishing has been determined by applying a modified virus-evolutionary genetic algorithm. This algorithm implements two populations: One comprising the hosts and one comprising the viruses. Viruses act as information carriers and thus they contribute to the algorithm by boosting efficient schemata in binary coding to facilitate both the arrival at global optimal solutions and rapid convergence speed. Three cases related to abrasive flow machining have been selected from the literature to implement the algorithm, and the results corresponding to them have been compared to those available by the selected contributions. It has been verified that the results obtained by the virus-evolutionary genetic algorithm are not only practically viable, but far more promising compared to others as well. The three cases selected are the traditional “abrasive flow finishing,” the “rotating workpiece” abrasive flow finishing, and the “rotational-magnetorheological” abrasive flow finishing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Micro and Nanomanufacturing)
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Article
Turbine Blade Tip Repair by Laser Directed Energy Deposition Additive Manufacturing Using a Rene 142–MERL 72 Powder Blend
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2021, 5(1), 21; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmmp5010021 - 01 Mar 2021
Viewed by 882
Abstract
Laser directed energy deposition (LDED) was used with a powder blend comprising 75 wt.% Rene 142 and 25 wt.% of Merl 72 (4275M72) for turbine blade tip repair applications. Sound samples could be deposited at ambient temperature on Haynes 230. The microstructural analyses [...] Read more.
Laser directed energy deposition (LDED) was used with a powder blend comprising 75 wt.% Rene 142 and 25 wt.% of Merl 72 (4275M72) for turbine blade tip repair applications. Sound samples could be deposited at ambient temperature on Haynes 230. The microstructural analyses showed the presence of fine gamma prime precipitates in the as-deposited samples, while after aging, the alloy possessed around 40 vol.% with a bimodal precipitate size distribution. Also, the alloy contained Ta-Hf-W carbides in different sizes and shapes. Tensile testing from room temperature up to 1366 K was performed. The 4275M72 deposits possessed higher tensile properties compared to Rene 80 in this temperature range but lower elongations at the elevated temperatures. The creep properties of 4275M72 samples at 1255 K were superior to Rene 80. Also, the oxidation resistance of deposited 4275M72 was similar to Rene 142. The combination of high mechanical properties, creep behavior, and oxidation resistance of LDEDed 4275M72 makes it a suitable alloy for tip repair of turbine blades. Full article
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Article
Edge Grinding Characteristics of Display Glass Substrate
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2021, 5(1), 20; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmmp5010020 - 01 Mar 2021
Viewed by 723
Abstract
Display glass substrate as a brittle material is very challenging to machine due to its excellent physical, mechanical, electrical, and optical properties such as high hardness, high strength, high wear resistance, good fracture toughness, good chemical stability, and good thermal stability. On the [...] Read more.
Display glass substrate as a brittle material is very challenging to machine due to its excellent physical, mechanical, electrical, and optical properties such as high hardness, high strength, high wear resistance, good fracture toughness, good chemical stability, and good thermal stability. On the basis of Griffith fracture mechanics, our theoretical analysis indicated that edge grinding of the display glass substrate is under brittle mode when grinding with the given conditions, which was verified by the experimental studies of ground glass edge surface topography and fractured surface obtained. Grinding force (Fy) in the vertical direction was much larger than grinding force (Fx) in the horizontal direction, causing a large compressive stress acting on the grinding glass edge. Grinding torque was slightly increased with the increase of grinding speed. Grinding temperature was very high when measured under dry grinding compared with measurement under high-pressure coolant. Grinding of glass substrate edge was performed partially under ductile mode machining in the experimental conditions, which can be attributed to and contributed by those micro cutting edges generated by the fractured diamond grit on the grinding wheel surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Precision Machining)
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Article
Manufacturing Concept and Prototype for Train Component Using the FSW Process
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2021, 5(1), 19; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmmp5010019 - 13 Feb 2021
Viewed by 717
Abstract
Friction stir welding (FSW) is a process originally developed for joining light materials, such as aluminum and magnesium, as an answer to their poor weldability by conventional fusion processes. In Colombia, the technique has been studied but its industrial implementation is uncommon, due [...] Read more.
Friction stir welding (FSW) is a process originally developed for joining light materials, such as aluminum and magnesium, as an answer to their poor weldability by conventional fusion processes. In Colombia, the technique has been studied but its industrial implementation is uncommon, due to the high cost of specialized machinery and the unfamiliarity with the technique of local industries. This article presents an implementation case study of FSW on a 6082-aluminum alloy train component from Metro de Medellín (MdM), aiming to establish the component design changes required to accommodate the FSW process, and conventional machines available in the local area which may be available for welding. Additionally, a simple comparison was made between the cost of this approach versus the manufacturing strategy currently used for the selected component. Initially, welding forces were measured when performing the seam on the selected component using an FSW machine. This data was then used to downselect the local milling machines with these capabilities. A simple but specific tool was designed for the geometry of one of the component features. Finally, a prototype was fabricated, and weld samples were obtained, polished, etched, and examined using a microhardness machine and an optical microscope. Results show a good opportunity for the execution of simple components with uniform geometries, which can be carried out using locally available machinery because they do not surpass their maximum loading capacity, the welds do not present visible discontinuities, and an average hardness of 69.5 HV and mechanical efficiency of 95% can be achieved. Additionally, the manufacturing process is around 30% cheaper compared to traditional methods, making the application viable, economically speaking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Friction Stir Welding and Related Technologies)
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Article
Numerical and Experimental Investigation of the Impact of the Electromagnetic Properties of the Die Materials in Electromagnetic Forming of Thin Sheet Metal
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2021, 5(1), 18; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmmp5010018 - 12 Feb 2021
Viewed by 643
Abstract
In electromagnetic forming of thin sheet metal, the die is located within the effective range of the electromagnetic wave. Correspondingly, a current is induced not only in the sheet metal, but also in the die. Like the current in the workpiece, also the [...] Read more.
In electromagnetic forming of thin sheet metal, the die is located within the effective range of the electromagnetic wave. Correspondingly, a current is induced not only in the sheet metal, but also in the die. Like the current in the workpiece, also the current in the die interacts with the electromagnetic wave, resulting in Lorentz forces and changes of the electromagnetic field. With the aim to study the influence of different electromagnetic die properties in terms of specific electric resistance and relative magnetic permeability, electromagnetic simulations were carried out. A change in the resulting forming forces in the sheet metals was determined. To confirm the simulation results, electromagnetic forming and embossing tests were carried out with the corresponding die materials. The results from simulation and experiment were in good agreement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impulse-Based Manufacturing Technologies)
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Article
Fundamental Investigation of Diamond Cutting of Micro V-Shaped Grooves on a Polycrystalline Soft-Brittle Material
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2021, 5(1), 17; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmmp5010017 - 08 Feb 2021
Viewed by 752
Abstract
Fabricating micro-structures on optical materials has received great interest in recent years. In this work, micro-grooving experiments were performed on polycrystalline zinc selenide (ZnSe) to investigate the feasibility of surface micro-structuring on polycrystalline soft-brittle material by diamond turning. A photosensitive resin was coated [...] Read more.
Fabricating micro-structures on optical materials has received great interest in recent years. In this work, micro-grooving experiments were performed on polycrystalline zinc selenide (ZnSe) to investigate the feasibility of surface micro-structuring on polycrystalline soft-brittle material by diamond turning. A photosensitive resin was coated on the workpiece before cutting, and it was found that the coating was effective in suppressing brittle fractures at the edges of the grooves. The effect of tool feed rate in groove depth direction was examined. Results showed that the defect morphology on the groove surface was affected by the tool feed rate. The crystallographic orientation of grains around the groove was characterized by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and it was found that the formation of defects was strongly dependent on the angle of groove surface with respect to the cleavage plane of grain. The stress distribution of the micro-grooving process was investigated by the finite element method. Results showed that the location of tensile stresses in the coated workpiece was farther from the edge of the groove compared with that in the uncoated workpiece, verifying the experimental result that brittle fractures were suppressed by the resin coating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Precision Machining)
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Article
Shielded Active Gas Forge Welding of an L80 Steel in a Small Scale Shielded Active Gas Forge Welding Machine
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2021, 5(1), 16; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmmp5010016 - 08 Feb 2021
Viewed by 689 | Correction
Abstract
The Shielded Active Gas Forge Welding (SAG-FW) method is a solid-state welding technique in which the mating surfaces are heated by induction heating or direct electrical heating before being forged together to form a weld. In this article, an API 5CT L80 grade [...] Read more.
The Shielded Active Gas Forge Welding (SAG-FW) method is a solid-state welding technique in which the mating surfaces are heated by induction heating or direct electrical heating before being forged together to form a weld. In this article, an API 5CT L80 grade carbon steel alloy has been welded using the SAG-FW method. A small-scale forge welding machine has been used to join miniature pipes extracted from a large pipe wall. The welding was performed at three different forging temperatures, i.e., 1300 °C, 1150 °C and 950 °C, in some cases followed by one or two post weld heat treatment cycles. In order to qualify the welds, mechanical and corrosion testing was performed on miniature samples extracted from the welded pipes. In addition, the microstructure of the welds was analysed, and electron probe microanalysis was carried out to control that no oxide film had formed along the weld line. Based on the complete set of experimental results, promising parameters for SAG-FW welding of the API 5CT L80 grade steel are suggested. The most promising procedure includes forging at relative high temperature (1150 °C) followed by rapid cooling and a short temper. This procedure was found to give a weld zone microstructure dominated by tempered martensite with promising mechanical and corrosion properties. The investigation confirmed that small scale forge welding testing is a useful tool in the development of welding parameters for full size SAG-FW welding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Forming and Joining)
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Article
Die Material Selection Criteria for Aluminum Hot Stamping
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2021, 5(1), 15; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmmp5010015 - 02 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 863
Abstract
The aim of this work is to develop a die material selection criterion for aluminum hot stamping applications. The criterion has been based on the back-to-back comparison of a set of reciprocating friction and wear tests. Three representatives belonging to different stamping die [...] Read more.
The aim of this work is to develop a die material selection criterion for aluminum hot stamping applications. The criterion has been based on the back-to-back comparison of a set of reciprocating friction and wear tests. Three representatives belonging to different stamping die material families have been selected for the study: a cold work steel, a hot work steel, and a cast iron. These tool materials have been combined with an exemplary member from two heat treatable aluminum families: 2XXX and 6XXX. Each die-material/aluminum–alloy combination has been tested at three temperatures: 40, 200, and 450 °C. The temperatures have been selected according to different stamping scenarios: long takt time press quenching, short takt time press quenching, and very short takt time hot forming without quenching, respectively. The results show that, among the three die material options available, the cold work steel turned out to be the most favorable option for high volume production and long takt time, the hot work steel fitted best for high volume production coupled with short takt time, and cast iron turned to outstand for short runs with prototype dies and for hot stamping without die quenching. Full article
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Editorial
Acknowledgment to Reviewers of JMMP in 2020
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2021, 5(1), 14; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmmp5010014 - 28 Jan 2021
Viewed by 567
Abstract
Peer review is the driving force of journal development, and reviewers are gatekeepers who ensure that JMMP maintains its standards for the high quality of its published papers [...] Full article
Article
Investigation of Mechanical Loads Distribution for the Process of Generating Gear Grinding
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2021, 5(1), 13; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmmp5010013 - 27 Jan 2021
Viewed by 657
Abstract
In grinding, interaction between the workpiece material and rotating abrasive tool generates high thermo-mechanical loads in the contact zone. If these loads reach critically high values, workpiece material properties deteriorate. To prevent the material deterioration, several models for thermomechanical analysis of grinding processes [...] Read more.
In grinding, interaction between the workpiece material and rotating abrasive tool generates high thermo-mechanical loads in the contact zone. If these loads reach critically high values, workpiece material properties deteriorate. To prevent the material deterioration, several models for thermomechanical analysis of grinding processes have been developed. In these models, the source of heat flux is usually considered as uniform in the temperature distribution calculation. However, it is known that heat flux in grinding is generated from frictional heating as well as plastic deformation during the interaction between workpiece material and each grain from the tool. To consider these factors in a future coupled thermomechanical model specifically for the process of gear generating grinding, an investigation of the mechanical load distribution during interaction between grain and workpiece material considering the process kinematics is first required. This work aims to investigate the influence of process parameters as well as grain shape on the distribution of the mechanical loads along a single-grain in gear generating grinding. For this investigation, an adaptation of a single-grain energy model considering the chip formation mechanisms is proposed. The grinding energy as well as normal force can be determined either supported by measurements or solely based on prediction models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Precision Machining)
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Article
Micro-Injection Molding of Diffractive Structured Surfaces
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2021, 5(1), 12; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmmp5010012 - 22 Jan 2021
Viewed by 725
Abstract
In recent years, the use of highly functional optical elements has made its way into our everyday life. Its applications range from use in utility items such as cell phone cameras up to security elements on banknotes or production goods. For this purpose, [...] Read more.
In recent years, the use of highly functional optical elements has made its way into our everyday life. Its applications range from use in utility items such as cell phone cameras up to security elements on banknotes or production goods. For this purpose, the Leibniz Institute for Materials Engineering (IWT) has been developing a cutting process for the fast and cost-effective production of hologram-based diffractive optical elements. In contrast to established non-mechanical manufacturing processes, such as laser lithography or chemical etching, which are able to produce optics in large quantities and with high accuracy, the diamond turning approach is extending these properties by offering several degrees of freedom. This allows for an almost unlimited geometric complexity and a structured area of considerable size (several tenth square millimeters), achieved in a single process step. In order to introduce diffractive security features to the mass market and to actual production goods, a high-performance replication process is required as the consecutive development step. Micro injection molding represents a feasible and promising option here. In particular, diamond machining enables the integration of safety features directly into the mold insert. Not only does this make additional assembly obsolete, but the safety feature can also be placed inconspicuously in the final product. In this paper, the potential of micro-injection molding as a replication process for diffractive structured surfaces will be investigated and demonstrated. Furthermore, the optical functionality after replication will be verified and evaluated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Precision Machining)
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Article
An Efficient Ultraprecision Machining System Automating Setting Operations of Roughly Machined Workpiece
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2021, 5(1), 11; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmmp5010011 - 19 Jan 2021
Viewed by 703
Abstract
Ultraprecision machining is required in many advanced fields. To create precise parts for realizing their high performance, the whole machining process is usually conducted on the same ultraprecision machine tool to avoid setting errors by reducing setting operations. However, feed rate is relatively [...] Read more.
Ultraprecision machining is required in many advanced fields. To create precise parts for realizing their high performance, the whole machining process is usually conducted on the same ultraprecision machine tool to avoid setting errors by reducing setting operations. However, feed rate is relatively slow and machining efficiency is not so high compared to ordinary machine tools. Thus, the study aims to develop an efficient ultraprecision machining system including an industrial robot to avoid manual setting and to automate the setting operations. In this system, ultraprecision machining is conducted for the workpiece having a shape near the target shape, which is beforehand prepared by ordinary machine tools and is located on the machine table by means of an industrial robot. Since the setting errors of the roughly machined workpiece deteriorate machining accuracy, the differences from the ideal position and attitude are detected with a contact type of on-machine measurement device. Numerical control (NC) data is finally modified to compensate the identified workpiece setting errors to machine the target shape on an ultraprecision machine tool. From the experimental results, it is confirmed that the proposed system has the possibility to reduce time required in ultraprecision machining to create precise parts with high efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Precision Machining)
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Article
Numerical and Experimental Study of AlSi Coating Effect on Nugget Size Growth in Resistance Spot Welding of Hot-Stamped Boron Steels
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2021, 5(1), 10; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmmp5010010 - 15 Jan 2021
Viewed by 689
Abstract
In recent years, increasing automotive safety by improving crashworthiness has been a focal point in the automotive industry, employing high-strength steel such as press hardenable steel (PHS). In addition to the improved strength of individual parts in the body of the vehicle, the [...] Read more.
In recent years, increasing automotive safety by improving crashworthiness has been a focal point in the automotive industry, employing high-strength steel such as press hardenable steel (PHS). In addition to the improved strength of individual parts in the body of the vehicle, the strength of the resistance-spot-welded joints of these parts is highly important to obtain a safe structure. In general, dimensions of weld nuggets are regarded as one of the criteria for the quality of spot-welded joints. In the presented research, a three-dimensional axisymmetric finite element model is developed to predict the nugget formation in resistance spot welding (RSW) of two types of PHS: the uncoated and AlSi-coated 1.8 mm boron steel after hot stamping. A fully coupled electro-thermo-mechanical analysis was conducted using the commercial software package Abaqus. The FE predicted weld nugget development is compared with experimental results. The computed weld nugget sizes show good agreement with experimental values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Forming and Joining)
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Article
Dexel-Based Simulation of Directed Energy Deposition Additive Manufacturing
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2021, 5(1), 9; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmmp5010009 - 11 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 986
Abstract
Additive manufacturing is typically a flexible alternative to conventional manufacturing processes. However, manufacturing costs increase due to the effort required to experimentally determine optimum process parameters for customized products or small batches. Therefore, simulation models are needed in order to reduce the amount [...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing is typically a flexible alternative to conventional manufacturing processes. However, manufacturing costs increase due to the effort required to experimentally determine optimum process parameters for customized products or small batches. Therefore, simulation models are needed in order to reduce the amount of effort necessary for experimental testing. For this purpose, a novel technological simulation method for directed energy deposition additive manufacturing is presented here. The Dexel-based simulation allows modeling of additive manufacturing of varying geometric shapes by considering multi-axis machine tool kinematics and local process conditions. The simulation approach can be combined with the simulation of subtractive processes, which enables integrated digital process chains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Modelling of Machining Operations)
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Article
Prediction of Shearing and Ploughing Constants in Milling of Inconel 718
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2021, 5(1), 8; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmmp5010008 - 11 Jan 2021
Viewed by 752
Abstract
The present study proposes an integrated prediction model for both shearing and ploughing constants for the peripheral milling of Inconel 718 by using a preidentified mean normal friction coefficient. An equation is presented for the identification of normal mean friction angle of oblique [...] Read more.
The present study proposes an integrated prediction model for both shearing and ploughing constants for the peripheral milling of Inconel 718 by using a preidentified mean normal friction coefficient. An equation is presented for the identification of normal mean friction angle of oblique cutting in milling. A simplified oblique cutting model is adopted for obtaining the shear strain and shearing constants for a tool of given helix angle, radial rake angle, and honed edge radius. The shearing and ploughing constants predicted from analytical model using the Merchant’s shear angle formula and the shear flow stress from the selected Johnson–Cook material law are shown to be consistent with the experimental results. The experimentally identified normal friction angles and shearing and edge ploughing constants for the Inconel 718 milling process are demonstrated to have approximately constant values irrespective of the average chip thickness. Moreover, the predicted forces obtained in milling aged Inconel 718 alloy are in good agreement with the experimental force measurements reported in the literature. Without considering the thermal–mechanical coupling effect in the material law, the presented model is demonstrated to work well for milling of both annealed and aged Inconel 718. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Modelling of Machining Operations)
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Review
Kinematic Fields Measurement during Orthogonal Cutting Using Digital Images Correlation: A Review
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2021, 5(1), 7; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmmp5010007 - 09 Jan 2021
Viewed by 816
Abstract
Understanding the mechanism of chip formation during orthogonal cutting requires a local measurement of the displacement and strain fields in the cutting zone. These measurements can then be used in order to enhance/validate numerical simulation of metal cutting or calibrate material behavior laws [...] Read more.
Understanding the mechanism of chip formation during orthogonal cutting requires a local measurement of the displacement and strain fields in the cutting zone. These measurements can then be used in order to enhance/validate numerical simulation of metal cutting or calibrate material behavior laws for a better prediction of the thermomechanical loads inside the cutting zone. Particle tracking to identify the strain localization that is exhibited in the Adiabatic Shear Band (ASB) is a challenging task. These local measurements can be determined by images post-processing while using the Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique or analytical models using streamline models or by micro grid analysis. Recently, the use of the DIC technique is widely increased. Texture quality has been shown to be an important factor. Various techniques of surface preparation are then discussed and classified in terms of the created pattern size. Tools for texture analysis are presented. The technique suitability for the kinematic fields measurement while using the DIC technique during machining is discussed. Various optical systems of the literature employed in the context of kinematic fields measurement during machining are discussed in this paper. The recent advances on the design of optical systems are given. Finally, the results of kinematic fields measurement during machining metallic alloys are analyzed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optimization and Simulation of Solid State Manufacturing Processes)
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Article
High-Temperature Equal-Channel Angular Pressing of a T6-Al-Cu-Li-Mg-Ag-Zr-Sc Alloy
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2021, 5(1), 6; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmmp5010006 - 05 Jan 2021
Viewed by 737
Abstract
Equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) is known to induce significant grain refinement and formation of tangled dislocations within the grains. These are induced to evolve to form low-angle boundaries (i.e., cell boundaries) and eventually high-angle boundaries (i.e., grain boundaries). On the other hand, the [...] Read more.
Equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) is known to induce significant grain refinement and formation of tangled dislocations within the grains. These are induced to evolve to form low-angle boundaries (i.e., cell boundaries) and eventually high-angle boundaries (i.e., grain boundaries). On the other hand, the precipitation sequence of age hardening aluminum alloys can be significantly affected by pre-straining and severe plastic deformation. Thus, ECAP is expected to influence the T6 response of aluminum alloys. In this study, a complex Al-Cu-Mg-Li-Ag-Zr-Sc alloy was subjected to ECAP following different straining paths. The alloy was ECAP at 460 K via route A, C, and by forward-backward route A (FB-route A) up to four passes. That is, ECAP was carried out imposing billet rotation between passes (route A), billet rotation by +90° between passes (route C), and billet rotation by +90° and inversion upside down between passes (FB-route A). The alloy was also aged at 460 K for different durations after ECAP. TEM microstructure inspections showed a marked influence of the different shearing deformations induced by ECAP on the alloy aging response. The precipitation kinetics of the different hardening secondary phases were affected by shearing deformation and tangled dislocations. In particular, the T1-Al2CuLi phase was the one that mostly showed a precipitation sequence speed up induced by the tangled dislocations formed during ECAP. The T1 phase was found to grow with aging time according to the Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner low-power regime. Full article
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Article
Optimization of Thin Walls with Sharp Corners in SS316L and IN718 Alloys Manufactured with Laser Metal Deposition
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2021, 5(1), 5; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmmp5010005 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1165
Abstract
In this work, the manufacture of thin walls with sharp corners has been optimized by adjusting the limits of a 3-axis cartesian kinematics through data recorded and analyzed off-line, such as axis speed, acceleration and the positioning of the X and Y axes. [...] Read more.
In this work, the manufacture of thin walls with sharp corners has been optimized by adjusting the limits of a 3-axis cartesian kinematics through data recorded and analyzed off-line, such as axis speed, acceleration and the positioning of the X and Y axes. The study was carried out with two powder materials (SS316L and IN718) using the directed energy deposition process with laser. Thin walls were obtained with 1 mm thickness and only one bead per layer and straight/sharp corners at 90°. After adjusting the in-position parameter G502 for positioning precision on the FAGOR 8070 CNC system, it has been possible to obtain walls with minimal accumulation of material in the corner, and with practically constant layer thickness and height, with a radii of internal curvature between 0.11 and 0.24 mm for two different precision configuration. The best results have been obtained by identifying the correct balance between the decrease in programmed speed and the precision in the positioning to reach the point defined as wall corner, with speed reductions of 29% for a programmed speed of 20 mm/s and 61% for a speed of 40 mm/s. The walls show minimal defects such as residual porosities, and the microstructure is adequate. Full article
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Article
Potentials of Vitrified and Elastic Bonded Fine Grinding Worms in Continuous Generating Gear Grinding
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2021, 5(1), 4; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmmp5010004 - 05 Jan 2021
Viewed by 807
Abstract
Continuous generating gear grinding with vitrified grinding worms is an established process for the hard finishing of gears for high-performance transmissions. Due to the increasing requirements for gears in terms of power density, the required surface roughness is continuously decreasing. In order to [...] Read more.
Continuous generating gear grinding with vitrified grinding worms is an established process for the hard finishing of gears for high-performance transmissions. Due to the increasing requirements for gears in terms of power density, the required surface roughness is continuously decreasing. In order to meet the required tooth flank roughness, common manufacturing processes are polish grinding with elastic bonded grinding tools and fine grinding with vitrified grinding tools. The process behavior and potential of the different bonds for producing super fine surfaces in generating gear grinding have not been sufficiently scientifically investigated yet. Therefore, the objective of this report is to evaluate these potentials. Part of the investigations are the generating gear grinding process with elastic bonded, as well as vitrified grinding worms with comparable grit sizes. The potential of the different tool specifications is empirically investigated independent of the grain size, focusing on the influence of the bond. One result of the investigations was that the tooth flank roughness could be reduced to nearly the same values with the polish and the fine grinding tool. Furthermore, a dependence of the roughness on the selected grinding parameters could not be determined. However, it was found out that the profile line after polish grinding is significantly dependent on the process strategy used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Precision Machining)
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Article
Experimental Investigation of Dimensional Precision of Deep Drawn Cups Using Direct Polymer Additive Tooling
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2021, 5(1), 3; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmmp5010003 - 30 Dec 2020
Viewed by 832
Abstract
While deep drawing of sheet metals is economical at high volumes, it can be very costly for manufacturing prototypes, mainly due to high tooling costs. Additively manufactured polymer tools have the potential to be more cost-efficient for small series, but they are softer [...] Read more.
While deep drawing of sheet metals is economical at high volumes, it can be very costly for manufacturing prototypes, mainly due to high tooling costs. Additively manufactured polymer tools have the potential to be more cost-efficient for small series, but they are softer and thus less resilient than conventional steel tools. This work aimed to study the dimensional precision of such tools using a standard cup geometry. Tools were printed with FFF using two different materials, PLA and CF-PA. A test series of 20 parts was drawn from each tool. Afterwards, the dimensional precisions of the drawn parts were analyzed using an optical measuring system. The achieved dimensional accuracy of the first drawn cup using the PLA toolset was 1.98 mm, which was further improved to 1.04 mm by altering shrinkage and springback allowances. The repeatability of the deep drawing process for the CF-reinforced PA tool was 0.17 mm during 20 drawing operations and better than that of the PLA tool (1.17 mm). To conclude, deep drawing of standard cups is doable using direct polymer additive tooling with a dimensional accuracy of 1.04 mm, which can be further improved by refining allowances incorporated to the CAD model being printed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Sheet Metal Forming and Structures)
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Article
Optimization and Tuning of Passive Tuned Mass Damper Embedded in Milling Tool for Chatter Mitigation
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2021, 5(1), 2; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmmp5010002 - 25 Dec 2020
Viewed by 873
Abstract
Milling tools with a large length–diameter ratio are widely applied in machining structural features with deep depth. However, their high dynamic flexibility gives rise to chatter vibrations, which results in poor surface finish, reduced productivity, and even tool damage. With a passive tuned [...] Read more.
Milling tools with a large length–diameter ratio are widely applied in machining structural features with deep depth. However, their high dynamic flexibility gives rise to chatter vibrations, which results in poor surface finish, reduced productivity, and even tool damage. With a passive tuned mass damper (TMD) embedded inside the arbor, a large length–diameter ratio milling tool with chatter-resistance ability was developed. By modeling the milling tool as a continuous beam, the tool-tip frequency response function (FRF) of the milling tool with TMD was derived using receptance coupling substructure analysis (RCSA), and the gyroscopic effect of the rotating tool was incorporated. The TMD parameters were optimized numerically with the consideration of mounting position based on the maximum cutting stability criterion, followed by the simulation of the effectiveness of the optimized and detuned TMD. With the tool-tip FRF obtained, the chatter stability of the milling process was predicted. Tap tests showed that the TMD was able to increase the minimum real part of the FRF by 79.3%. The stability lobe diagram (SLD) was predicted, and the minimum critical depth of cut in milling operations was enhanced from 0.10 to 0.46 mm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Machine Tool Dynamics)
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Article
Validation of a Coupled Simulation for Machine Tool Dynamics Using a Linear Drive Actuator
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2021, 5(1), 1; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmmp5010001 - 23 Dec 2020
Viewed by 923
Abstract
In order to ensure high productivity capabilities of machine tools at a low cost but at increased geometric accuracy, modeling of their static and dynamic behavior is a crucial task in structure optimization. The drive control and the frictional forces acting in feed [...] Read more.
In order to ensure high productivity capabilities of machine tools at a low cost but at increased geometric accuracy, modeling of their static and dynamic behavior is a crucial task in structure optimization. The drive control and the frictional forces acting in feed axes significantly determine the machine’s response in the frequency domain. The aim of this study was the accurate modeling and the experimental investigation of dynamic damping effects using a machine tool test rig with three-axis kinematics. For this purpose, an order-reduced finite element model of the mechanical structure was coupled with models of the drive control and of the non-linear friction behavior. In order to validate the individual models, a new actuator system based on a tubular linear drive was used for frequency response measurements during uniaxial carriage movements. A comparison of the dynamic measurements with the simulation results revealed a good match of amplitudes in the frequency domain by considering dynamic damping. Accordingly, the overall dynamic behavior of machine tool structures can be predicted and thus optimized by a coupled simulation at higher level of detail and by considering the damping effects of friction. Dynamic testing with the newly designed actuator is a prerequisite for model validation and control drive parameterization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Machine Tool Dynamics)
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