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J. Otorhinolaryngol. Hear. Balance Med., Volume 1, Issue 2 (December 2018) – 3 articles

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Open AccessReview
Ototoxicity and Noise
J. Otorhinolaryngol. Hear. Balance Med. 2018, 1(2), 10; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ohbm1020010 - 12 Dec 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 831
Abstract
In most cases, hearing loss is the result of exposure to high levels of noise for extended periods of time or as an effect of aging. Although this is found in most situations, hearing can also be damaged by certain chemical agents in [...] Read more.
In most cases, hearing loss is the result of exposure to high levels of noise for extended periods of time or as an effect of aging. Although this is found in most situations, hearing can also be damaged by certain chemical agents in pure state, or as a combination. These chemicals can even include parts of drugs used for the treatment of illnesses for which there are no other remedies. Ototoxic chemicals are also found in the workplace, in most occasions as solvents. The effects from these elements are worst when combined with exposure to a high level of noise. This paper examines the effects of these chemicals in isolation or in combination with noise and gives recommendations on how to deal with this problem. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Primary Tumor and Regional Lymph Node Clinical Status of Distant Metastasis in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma
J. Otorhinolaryngol. Hear. Balance Med. 2018, 1(2), 9; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ohbm1020009 - 14 Nov 2018
Viewed by 817
Abstract
Background: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a squamous cell carcinoma derived from nasopharyngeal epithelium. NPC characteristic is highly invasive and can metastasize rapidly. The presence of distant metastasis is a major factor in determining the patient’s management and prognosis. The magnitude of radiologic and [...] Read more.
Background: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a squamous cell carcinoma derived from nasopharyngeal epithelium. NPC characteristic is highly invasive and can metastasize rapidly. The presence of distant metastasis is a major factor in determining the patient’s management and prognosis. The magnitude of radiologic and molecular costs encouraging the need to know the clinical variables associated with distant metastasis of NPC. Methods: Cross-sectional analytical retrospective studies of undifferentiated NPC (WHO type III) patients at initial diagnosis in the ORL-HNS Department of Dr. Sardjito Hospital Yogyakarta from January 2014 to December 2016. Results: At 276 NPC patients with the ratio of 197 men (71.4%) and 79 women (28.6%) was 2.5:1, mean age 48.5 years, distant metastasis was found in 37 patients (13.4%). There was no significant difference in the frequency of sex (p = 0.346), age (p = 0.784), and primary tumor clinical status (p = 0.297) between NPC with distant metastasis and without distant metastasis. There was significant difference in the frequency of regional lymph node clinical status between NPC with distant metastasis and without distant metastasis (p = 0.004; PR = 3.866). Conclusions: There is no statistically significant difference of primary tumor clinical status between NPC with and without distant metastasis. There is statistically significant difference of lymph node clinical status between NPC with and without distant metastasis. Full article
Open AccessCase Report
Two Down Syndrome Patients with Bilateral Profound Hearing Loss: Case Report and Literature Review
J. Otorhinolaryngol. Hear. Balance Med. 2018, 1(2), 8; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ohbm1020008 - 18 Sep 2018
Viewed by 1156
Abstract
Hearing loss is not uncommon among patients with Down syndrome (DS). It has been reported in 38–78% of the Down syndrome population. However, profound hearing loss in DS patients is rarely noticed due to its low incidence. In this article, we reported two [...] Read more.
Hearing loss is not uncommon among patients with Down syndrome (DS). It has been reported in 38–78% of the Down syndrome population. However, profound hearing loss in DS patients is rarely noticed due to its low incidence. In this article, we reported two Down syndrome patients with bilateral profound hearing loss in two cases. The first case involved an eight-year-old DS child experiencing extremely severe defects in terms of language and severe defects in terms of gross motor function, adaptability, and sociability. The second case revolved around another DS child with bilateral cochlear nerve absence. We review literature on the DS patients with hearing loss and conclude that profound sensorineural hearing loss in those patients has not received enough attention so far. We also recommend that cochlear implantation (CI) suitability assessment and timely intervention via cochlear implantation are necessary in DS patients. Besides, benefits from CI would be limited and hearing rehabilitation process could be much slower when compared with children without additional inabilities. Full article
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