Next Issue
Volume 5, December
Previous Issue
Volume 5, October

J. Compos. Sci., Volume 5, Issue 11 (November 2021) – 22 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Textile-reinforced cementitious composites are known not only for their high mechanical performance but also for their superior behavior at high temperatures compared to fiber-reinforced polymers. The full extent of their performance in fire conditions is still unknown, but this research topic is ongoing with increasing interest. This comparative study compiles the existing knowledge and pinpoints the fields that need additional investigation. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Book Review
Alumina, Zirconia and Their Composite Ceramics with Properties Tailored for Medical Applications
J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5(11), 306; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcs5110306 (registering DOI) - 22 Nov 2021
Viewed by 189
Abstract
Although in 1977 the first ceramic composite material had been introduced into the market, it was a long time before composite materials were qualified for medical applications. For a long period high purity alumina ceramics have been used as ball-heads and cups. Because [...] Read more.
Although in 1977 the first ceramic composite material had been introduced into the market, it was a long time before composite materials were qualified for medical applications. For a long period high purity alumina ceramics have been used as ball-heads and cups. Because of their brittleness, in 1986 yttria stabilized zirconia has been introduced into this application, because of higher strength and fracture toughness. However, due to its hydrothermal instability this material disappeared in orthopaedic applications in 2000. Meanwhile a composite materials based on an alumina matrix with dispersed metastable tetragonal zirconia particles and in-situ formed hexagonal platelets became the standard material for ceramic ball-heads, because of their excellent mechanical strength, hardness and improved fracture toughness. Especially fracture toughness can be improved further by special material formulations and tailored microstructure. It has been shown that a mixed stabilisation of zirconia by yttria and ceria with dispersed alumina and hexagonal platelets overcomes the hydrothermal instability and excellent materials properties can be achieved. Such materials do have big potential to be used in dental applications. Furthermore, these materials also can be seen as a new generation for ball-heads, because of their enhanced fracture toughness. All materials are described within these articles. In order to achieve the required properties of the materials, special raw materials are required. Therefore, it is quite important to understand and know the raw material manufacturing procedures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioceramic Composites)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Higher-Order Free Vibration Analysis of Porous Functionally Graded Plates
J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5(11), 305; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcs5110305 - 21 Nov 2021
Viewed by 130
Abstract
The present work analyzes the free vibration response of functionally graded (FG) plates made of Aluminum (Al) and Alumina (Al2O3) with different porosity distributions, as usually induced by a manufacturing process. The problem is tackled theoretically based on a [...] Read more.
The present work analyzes the free vibration response of functionally graded (FG) plates made of Aluminum (Al) and Alumina (Al2O3) with different porosity distributions, as usually induced by a manufacturing process. The problem is tackled theoretically based on a higher-order shear deformation plate theory, while proposing a Navier-type approximation to solve the governing equations for simply-supported plates with different porosity distributions in the thickness direction. The reliability of the proposed theory is checked successfully by comparing the present results with predictions available from literature based on further first-order or higher-order theories. A large parametric study is performed systematically to evaluate the effect of different mechanical properties, such as the material indexes, porosity volume fractions, porosity distributions, and length-to-thickness ratios, on the free vibration response of FG plates, as useful for the design purposes of most engineered materials and composite applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Journal of Composites Science in 2021)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Hybrid Perovskite/Polymer Materials: Preparation and Physicochemical Properties
J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5(11), 304; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcs5110304 (registering DOI) - 19 Nov 2021
Viewed by 215
Abstract
The aim of this work is to investigate the preparation, the optical properties, and the stability over time of a colloidal organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite (CH3NH3PbBr3)/random copolymer P(MMA-co-DMAEMA) system. Different ratios of perovskite to copolymer were used to [...] Read more.
The aim of this work is to investigate the preparation, the optical properties, and the stability over time of a colloidal organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite (CH3NH3PbBr3)/random copolymer P(MMA-co-DMAEMA) system. Different ratios of perovskite to copolymer were used to study its effect on stability and properties. The optical properties were investigated by UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. Dynamic light scattering was used to determine the size, and the size polydispersity of the colloidal hybrid particles; while morphology was investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Photoluminescence decay studies revealed the interaction of the random copolymer with the perovskite. Finally, thin-films were prepared, to investigate the optical properties of the samples in the absence of the solvent. High temporal stability of the optical properties of thin hybrid films was observed under certain conditions. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Structural Damage Detection Using Supervised Nonlinear Support Vector Machine
J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5(11), 303; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcs5110303 - 18 Nov 2021
Viewed by 165
Abstract
Damage detection, using vibrational properties, such as eigenfrequencies, is an efficient and straightforward method for detecting damage in structures, components, and machines. The method, however, is very inefficient when the values of the natural frequencies of damaged and undamaged specimens exhibit slight differences. [...] Read more.
Damage detection, using vibrational properties, such as eigenfrequencies, is an efficient and straightforward method for detecting damage in structures, components, and machines. The method, however, is very inefficient when the values of the natural frequencies of damaged and undamaged specimens exhibit slight differences. This is particularly the case with lightweight structures, such as fiber-reinforced composites. The nonlinear support vector machine (SVM) provides enhanced results under such conditions by transforming the original features into a new space or applying a kernel trick. In this work, the natural frequencies of damaged and undamaged components are used for classification, employing the nonlinear SVM. The proposed methodology assumes that the frequencies are identified sequentially from an experimental modal analysis; for the study propose, however, the training data are generated from the FEM simulations for damaged and undamaged samples. It is shown that nonlinear SVM using kernel function yields in a clear classification boundary between damaged and undamaged specimens, even for minor variations in natural frequencies. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Calcium Carbonate Particles Filled Homopolymer Polypropylene at Different Loading Levels: Mechanical Properties Characterization and Materials Failure Analysis
J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5(11), 302; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcs5110302 - 18 Nov 2021
Viewed by 208
Abstract
Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) particles have been widely used in filling thermoplastics for different applications in automotive, packaging, and construction. No agreement has been reached in the research community regarding the function of CaCO3 for enhancing toughness of homopolymer polypropylene (HPP). [...] Read more.
Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) particles have been widely used in filling thermoplastics for different applications in automotive, packaging, and construction. No agreement has been reached in the research community regarding the function of CaCO3 for enhancing toughness of homopolymer polypropylene (HPP). This study was to understand the effect of different loading levels of CaCO3 on HPP toughness, including notched and unnotched impact strength. A batch mixer was used to thermally compound CaCO3 particles with HPP at loading levels of 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 wt.%, followed by specimen preparation using an injection molding process. The mechanical properties of the composites, including tensile, flexural, and impact were characterized. The results indicated that tensile strengths decreased significantly with increasing loading levels of CaCO3 particles while the tensile and flexural modulus increased significantly with increasing particle loadings. The composite tensile properties changed linearly with increasing CaCO3 loadings. The notched Izod impact strength of the composites was sustained by adding CaCO3 particles up to 40 wt.% while the unnotched impact strength decreased significantly with the addition of CaCO3 particles. Different deformation mechanisms between notched (fracture propagation) and unnotched (fracture initiation and propagation) impact tests were proposed to be the reason. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Automated Damage Detection of (C/C)/Si/SiC Composite Using Vibration Modes with Deep Neural Networks
J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5(11), 301; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcs5110301 - 16 Nov 2021
Viewed by 289
Abstract
Discontinuous carbon fiber-carbon matrix composites dispersed Si/SiC matrix composites have complicated microstructures that consist of four phases (C/C, Si, SiC, and C/SiC). The crack stability significantly depends on their geometrical arrangement. Nondestructive evaluation is needed to maintain the components in their safe condition. [...] Read more.
Discontinuous carbon fiber-carbon matrix composites dispersed Si/SiC matrix composites have complicated microstructures that consist of four phases (C/C, Si, SiC, and C/SiC). The crack stability significantly depends on their geometrical arrangement. Nondestructive evaluation is needed to maintain the components in their safe condition. Although several nondestructive evaluation methods such as the Eddy current have been developed, any set of them is still inadequate in order to cover all of the scales and aspects that (C/C)/Si/SiC composites comprise. We propose a new method for nondestructive evaluation using vibration/resonance modes and deep learning. The assumed resolution is mm-order (approx. 1–10 mm), which laser vibrometers are generally capable of handling sufficiently. We utilize deep neural networks called convolutional auto-encoders for inferring damaged areas from vibration modes, which is a so-called inverse problem and infeasible to solve numerically in most cases. We solve this inference problem by training convolutional auto-encoders using vibration modes obtained from a non-damaged specimen with various frequencies as the dataset. Experimental results show that the proposed method successfully detects the damaged areas of validation specimens. One of the noteworthy points of this method is that we need only a few specimens for training deep neural networks, which generally require a large amount of data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ceramic-Matrix Composites)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Compatibilization of Starch/Synthetic Biodegradable Polymer Blends for Packaging Applications: A Review
J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5(11), 300; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcs5110300 - 16 Nov 2021
Viewed by 300
Abstract
The health and environmental concerns of the usage of non-biodegradable plastics have driven efforts to explore replacing them with renewable polymers. Although starch is a vital renewable polymer, poor water resistivity and thermo-mechanical properties have limited its applications. Recently, starch/synthetic biodegradable polymer blends [...] Read more.
The health and environmental concerns of the usage of non-biodegradable plastics have driven efforts to explore replacing them with renewable polymers. Although starch is a vital renewable polymer, poor water resistivity and thermo-mechanical properties have limited its applications. Recently, starch/synthetic biodegradable polymer blends have captured greater attention to replace inert plastic materials; the question of ‘immiscibility’ arises during the blend preparation due to the mixing of hydrophilic starch with hydrophobic polymers. The immiscibility issue between starch and synthetic polymers impacts the water absorption, thermo-mechanical properties, and chemical stability demanded by various engineering applications. Numerous studies have been carried out to eliminate the immiscibility issues of the different components in the polymer blends while enhancing the thermo-mechanical properties. Incorporating compatibilizers into the blend mixtures has significantly reduced the particle sizes of the dispersed phase while improving the interfacial adhesion between the starch and synthetic biodegradable polymer, leading to fine and homogeneous structures. Thus, Significant improvements in thermo-mechanical and barrier properties and water resistance can be observed in the compatibilized blends. This review provides an extensive discussion on the compatibilization processes of starch and petroleum-based polymer blends. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Mechanical Properties of Compression Moulded Aggregate-Reinforced Thermoplastic Composite Scrap
J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5(11), 299; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcs5110299 - 14 Nov 2021
Viewed by 348
Abstract
Recycling of thermoplastic composites has drawn a considerable attention in the recent years. However, the main issue with recycled composites is their inferior mechanical properties compared to the virgin ones. In this present study, an alternative route to the traditional mechanical recycling technique [...] Read more.
Recycling of thermoplastic composites has drawn a considerable attention in the recent years. However, the main issue with recycled composites is their inferior mechanical properties compared to the virgin ones. In this present study, an alternative route to the traditional mechanical recycling technique of thermoplastic composites has been investigated with the view to increase mechanical properties of the recycled parts. In this regard, the glass/polypropylene laminate offcuts are cut in different grain sizes and processed in bulk form, using compression moulding. Further, the effect of different grain sizes (i.e., different lengths, widths and thicknesses) and other process-related parameters (such as mould coverage) on the tensile properties of recycled aggregate-reinforced composites have been investigated. The tensile properties of all composite samples are tested according to ISO 527-4 test method and the significance of test results is evaluated according to Student’s t-test and Fisher’s F-test respectively. It is observed that the tensile moduli of the recycled panels are close to the equivalent quasi-isotropic continuous fibre-reinforced reference laminate while there is a noteworthy difference in the strengths of the recycled composites. At this stage, the manufactured recycled composites show potential for stiffness-driven application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Journal of Composites Science in 2021)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
In Vitro Weight Loss of Dental Composite Resins and Glass-Ionomer Cements Exposed to a Challenge Simulating the Oral Intake of Acidic Drinks and Foods
J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5(11), 298; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcs5110298 (registering DOI) - 13 Nov 2021
Viewed by 319
Abstract
Specific conditions of the oral cavity, such as intake of acidic drinks, foods, and drugs, represent a damage both for teeth as well as restorative materials. The aim of this in vitro study is to assess the influence of an acidic challenge on [...] Read more.
Specific conditions of the oral cavity, such as intake of acidic drinks, foods, and drugs, represent a damage both for teeth as well as restorative materials. The aim of this in vitro study is to assess the influence of an acidic challenge on the weight loss of biomimetic restorative dental materials (composite resins and glass-ionomer cements, respectively). Seven products recently available in the marked have been tested in this study for the two kinds of materials, respectively. Resin composites were divided into Groups 1A–7A, whereas glass-ionomer cements into Groups 1B–7B. A total of six samples was considered for each group, among which two were stored into distilled water (control samples) whereas the other four were immersed into soft drink (Coca-Cola, Coca-Cola Company, Milano, Italy) for 7 days. Respectively, after 1, 3 and 7 days, weight was assessed for each sample and the percentage weight loss was calculated. For all the composite resins (Groups 1A–7A), no significant intergroup or intragroup differences occurred for the weight loss values (p > 0.05). Conversely, all glass-ionomers (Groups 1B–7B) showed a significant and progressive weight loss after 1, 3, and 7 days of acid challenge (p < 0.05) (intragroup differences). This reduction was significantly lower in case of GC Equia Forte + Coat and ChemFil Rock, with respect to the other cements (p < 0.05) (intergroup differences). In conclusions, all the biomimetic composite resins showed a reliable behavior when exposed to acidic erosion, whereas glass-ionomers cements generally tended to solubilize. However, the additional use of a protective layer above these latter materials could reduce this event. Despite these results appear to be interesting from a clinical point of view, future morphological evaluations should be conducted to evaluate the superficial changes of the materials after acidic explosion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Journal of Composites Science in 2021)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Tension-Compression Fatigue Induced Stress Concentrations in Woven Composite Laminate
J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5(11), 297; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcs5110297 - 11 Nov 2021
Viewed by 231
Abstract
Tension-compression (T-C) fatigue response is one of the important design criteria for carbon-fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) material, as well as stress concentration. Hence, the objective of the current study is to investigate and quantify the stress concentration in CFRP dog-bone specimens due to T-C [...] Read more.
Tension-compression (T-C) fatigue response is one of the important design criteria for carbon-fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) material, as well as stress concentration. Hence, the objective of the current study is to investigate and quantify the stress concentration in CFRP dog-bone specimens due to T-C quasi-static and fatigue loadings (with anti-buckling fixtures). Dog-bone specimens with a [(0/90),(45/−45)4]s layup were fabricated using woven CFRP prepregs and their low-cycle fatigue behaviour was studied at two stress ratios (−0.1 & −0.5) and two frequencies (3 Hz & 5 Hz). During testing, strain gauges were mounted at the centre and edge regions of the dog-bone specimens to obtain accurate, real-time strain measurements. The corresponding stresses were calculated using Young’s moduli. The stress concentration at the specimen edges, due to quasi-static tension, was significant compared to quasi-static compression loads. Furthermore, the stress concentration increased with the quasi-static loading within the elastic limit. Similarly, the stress concentration at the specimen edges, due to tensile fatigue loads, was more significant and consistent than due to compressive fatigue loads. Finally, the effects of the stress ratio and loading frequency on the stress concentration were noted to be negligible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Journal of Composites Science in 2021)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
An Experimental Study of the Cyclic Compression after Impact Behavior of CFRP Composites
J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5(11), 296; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcs5110296 - 10 Nov 2021
Viewed by 199
Abstract
The behavior of impact damaged composite laminates under cyclic load is crucial to achieve a damage tolerant design of composite structures. A sufficient residual strength has to be ensured throughout the entire structural service life. In this study, a set of 27 impacted [...] Read more.
The behavior of impact damaged composite laminates under cyclic load is crucial to achieve a damage tolerant design of composite structures. A sufficient residual strength has to be ensured throughout the entire structural service life. In this study, a set of 27 impacted coupon specimens is subjected to quasi-static and cyclic compression load. After long intervals without detectable damage growth, the specimens fail through the sudden lateral propagation of delamination and fiber kink bands within few load cycles. Ultrasonic inspections were used to reveal the damage size after certain cycle intervals. Through continuous dent depth measurements during the cyclic tests, the evolution of the dent visibility was monitored. These measurements revealed a relaxation of the indentation of up to 90% before ultimate failure occurs. Due to the distinct relaxation and the short growth interval before ultimate failure, this study confirms the no-growth design approach as the preferred method to account for the damage tolerance of stiffened, compression-loaded composite laminates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Fiber Composites)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Wrinkle Formation and Initial Defect Sensitivity of Steered Tow in Automated Fiber Placement
J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5(11), 295; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcs5110295 - 09 Nov 2021
Viewed by 256
Abstract
This paper aims to study the wrinkle formation of a prepreg with initial defect during steering in automated fiber placement (AFP). Wrinkle formation has a detrimental effect on the mechanical properties of the final product, limiting the AFP applications. A theoretical model for [...] Read more.
This paper aims to study the wrinkle formation of a prepreg with initial defect during steering in automated fiber placement (AFP). Wrinkle formation has a detrimental effect on the mechanical properties of the final product, limiting the AFP applications. A theoretical model for wrinkle formation has been developed in which a Pasternak foundation and a Koiter imperfection model are adapted to model viscoelastic characteristics of the prepreg tack and initial defect of the prepreg, respectively. The initial defect is defined as a slight deviation of the tow’s mid-plane from a horizontal shape. The initial defect is generated in the tow by moving the tow through the guidance system, pressure of the roller, and resin tackiness. Galerkin method, along with the finite difference method (FDM), are employed to solve the wrinkle problem equation. The proposed method is able to satisfy the different boundary conditions for the wrinkle problem completely. The numerical results show that increasing the initial defect leads to a decrease in critical load and an increase in critical steering radius. To validate the theoretical model, experimental results are presented and compared with model-predicted results. It is shown that the model is well able to capture the trends and values of wrinkle formation wavelengths obtained from the experiment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Journal of Composites Science in 2021)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Design of Low Cost Carbon Fiber Composites via Examining the Micromechanical Stress Distributions in A42 Bean-Shaped versus T650 Circular Fibers
J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5(11), 294; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcs5110294 - 07 Nov 2021
Viewed by 313
Abstract
Recent advancements have led to new polyacrylonitrile carbon fiber precursors which reduce production costs, yet lead to bean-shaped cross-sections. While these bean-shaped fibers have comparable stiffness and ultimate strength values to typical carbon fibers, their unique morphology results in varying in-plane orientations and [...] Read more.
Recent advancements have led to new polyacrylonitrile carbon fiber precursors which reduce production costs, yet lead to bean-shaped cross-sections. While these bean-shaped fibers have comparable stiffness and ultimate strength values to typical carbon fibers, their unique morphology results in varying in-plane orientations and different microstructural stress distributions under loading, which are not well understood and can limit failure strength under complex loading scenarios. Therefore, this work used finite element simulations to compare longitudinal stress distributions in A42 (bean-shaped) and T650 (circular) carbon fiber composite microstructures. Specifically, a microscopy image of an A42/P6300 microstructure was processed to instantiate a 3D model, while a Monte Carlo approach (which accounts for size and in-plane orientation distributions) was used to create statistically equivalent A42/P6300 and T650/P6300 microstructures. First, the results showed that the measured in-plane orientations of the A42 carbon fibers for the analyzed specimen had an orderly distribution with peaks at |ϕ|=0,180. Additionally, the results showed that under 1.5% elongation, the A42/P6300 microstructure reached simulated failure at approximately 2108 MPa, while the T650/P6300 microstructure did not reach failure. A single fiber model showed that this was due to the curvature of A42 fibers which was 3.18 μm1 higher at the inner corner, yielding a matrix stress that was 7 MPa higher compared to the T650/P6300 microstructure. Overall, this analysis is valuable to engineers designing new components using lower cost carbon fiber composites, based on the micromechanical stress distributions and unique packing abilities resulting from the A42 fiber morphologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Fiber Composites)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Preliminary Finite Element Analysis and Flight Simulations of a Modular Drone Built through Fused Filament Fabrication
J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5(11), 293; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcs5110293 - 06 Nov 2021
Viewed by 320
Abstract
This paper discusses the architecture and preliminary design of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), whose actual operative scenario and required performances drive its flying configuration. The UAV is a multirotor and can be adapted to be used as a tricopter, a quadcopter, a [...] Read more.
This paper discusses the architecture and preliminary design of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), whose actual operative scenario and required performances drive its flying configuration. The UAV is a multirotor and can be adapted to be used as a tricopter, a quadcopter, a hexacopter, and an octocopter: the number (and consequent arrangement) of the arms modify its performance. Customization is combined with the concept of additive manufacturing, as all components are designed to be produced in Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF). This approach does not limit the application scenarios of the drone; it is instead a further push in the direction of customization, as it permits continuous upgrades over time. The paper simulates four scenarios and discusses how to optimize performances such as payload, thrust-to-weight ratio, efficiency, flight time, and maximum speed through suitable configurations. Avionic components already available on the market integrate into a customizable and adaptable frame. This analysis reveals the most severe conditions for the structure, and conducts a structural validation of its performance. Validating the functional use of FFF-produced parts is challenging due to the anisotropic behavior of the parts. However, some structural elements are thin-walled and enjoy being printed with a 100% linear infill. A simplified approach to those elements has already been proposed and validated through a parallel with UniDirectional Composites, whose 2D testing procedures and methodologies have been derived and adapted. An FEA of some elements of the frame is conducted, using shell elements to discretize the geometry. A proper definition of their mechanical response is possible because the constitutive model is not isotropic a priori but reflects the behavior of the finished parts. The tensile strength variability in the material reference system is high: a component-by-component comparison proves the design to be adequate and measured to the surrounding conditions; however, it highlights the absence of a defined failure criterion. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Conjugated Polymer/Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites—State-of-the-Art
J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5(11), 292; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcs5110292 - 05 Nov 2021
Viewed by 262
Abstract
Graphene oxide is an imperative modified form of graphene. Similar to graphene, graphene oxide has gained vast interest for the myriad of industrial applications. Conjugated polymers or conducting polymers are well known organic materials having conducting backbone. These polymers have semiconducting nature due [...] Read more.
Graphene oxide is an imperative modified form of graphene. Similar to graphene, graphene oxide has gained vast interest for the myriad of industrial applications. Conjugated polymers or conducting polymers are well known organic materials having conducting backbone. These polymers have semiconducting nature due to π-conjugation along the main chain. Doping and modification have been used to enhance the electrical conductivity of the conjugated polymers. The nanocomposites of the conjugated polymers have been reported with the nanocarbon nanofillers including graphene oxide. This review essentially presents the structure, properties, and advancements in the field of conducting polymer/graphene oxide nanocomposites. The facile synthesis, processability, and physical properties of the polymer/graphene oxide nanocomposites have been discussed. The conjugated polymer/graphene oxide nanocomposites have essential significance for the supercapacitors, solar cells, and anti-corrosion materials. Nevertheless, the further advanced properties and technical applications of the conjugated polymer/graphene oxide nanocomposites need to be explored to overcome the challenges related to the high performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Graphene Oxide Composites)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Numerical Application of Effective Thickness Approach to Box Aluminium Sections
J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5(11), 291; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcs5110291 - 05 Nov 2021
Viewed by 365
Abstract
The ultimate behaviour of aluminium members subjected to uniform compression or bending is strongly influenced by local buckling effects which occur in the portions of the section during compression. In the current codes, the effective thickness method (ETM) is applied to evaluate the [...] Read more.
The ultimate behaviour of aluminium members subjected to uniform compression or bending is strongly influenced by local buckling effects which occur in the portions of the section during compression. In the current codes, the effective thickness method (ETM) is applied to evaluate the ultimate resistance of slender cross-sections affected by elastic local buckling. In this paper, a recent extension of ETM is presented to consider the local buckling effects in the elastic-plastic range and the interaction between the plate elements constituting the cross-section. The theoretical results obtained with this approach, applied to box-shaped aluminium members during compression or in bending, are compared with the experimental tests provided in the scientific literature. It is observed that the ETM is a valid and accurate tool for predicting the maximum resistance of box-shaped aluminium members during compression or in bending. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Journal of Composites Science in 2021)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
State-of-the-Art Review on Experimental Investigations of Textile-Reinforced Concrete Exposed to High Temperatures
J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5(11), 290; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcs5110290 - 05 Nov 2021
Viewed by 356
Abstract
Textile-reinforced concrete (TRC) is a promising composite material with enormous potential in structural applications because it offers the possibility to construct slender, lightweight, and robust elements. However, despite the good heat resistance of the inorganic matrices and the well-established knowledge on the high-temperature [...] Read more.
Textile-reinforced concrete (TRC) is a promising composite material with enormous potential in structural applications because it offers the possibility to construct slender, lightweight, and robust elements. However, despite the good heat resistance of the inorganic matrices and the well-established knowledge on the high-temperature performance of the commonly used fibrous reinforcements, their application in TRC elements with very small thicknesses makes their effectiveness against thermal loads questionable. This paper presents a state-of-the-art review on the thermomechanical behavior of TRC, focusing on its mechanical performance both during and after exposure to high temperatures. The available knowledge from experimental investigations where TRC has been tested in thermomechanical conditions as a standalone material is compiled, and the results are compared. This comparative study identifies the key parameters that determine the mechanical response of TRC to increased temperatures, being the surface treatment of the textiles and the combination of thermal and mechanical loads. It is concluded that the uncoated carbon fibers are the most promising solution for a fire-safe TRC application. However, the knowledge gaps are still large, mainly due to the inconsistency of the testing methods and the stochastic behavior of phenomena related to heat treatment (such as spalling). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fire Safety of Structural Composites)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Mold Filling in Rotational Molding
J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5(11), 289; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcs5110289 - 04 Nov 2021
Viewed by 252
Abstract
This work focuses on the development of a numerical mold filling simulation for the rotational molding process. In the rotational molding process, a dry fiber preform is placed in a mold and impregnated with a thermoset matrix under rotation. Additionally, metallic load introduction [...] Read more.
This work focuses on the development of a numerical mold filling simulation for the rotational molding process. In the rotational molding process, a dry fiber preform is placed in a mold and impregnated with a thermoset matrix under rotation. Additionally, metallic load introduction elements can be inserted into the mold and joined with co-curing or form-fit, resulting in hybrid drive shafts or tie rods. The numerical model can be used to simulate the impregnation of the preform. Based on the resin transfer molding process, an OpenFOAM solver is extended for the rotational molding process. Permeability, kinetic and curing models are selected and adapted to the materials used. A wireless measurement solution with a capacitive sensor is developed to validate the model. Comparisons between measurements and numerically calculated impregnation times to reach the capacitive sensor with the matrix show good quality of the developed model. The average deviation between calculated result and measured mean values in the experiment is 43.8% the maximum deviation is 65.8% . The model can therefore be used to predict the impregnation progress and the curing state. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Advances on Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) Nanostructures and Natural Colorants: A Review
J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5(11), 288; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcs5110288 - 29 Oct 2021
Viewed by 318
Abstract
Human beings are attempting to take advantage of renewable natural resources by using solar cells. These devices take the sun’s radiation and convert it into electrical energy. The issue with traditional silicon-based solar cells is their manufacturing costs and environmental problems. For this [...] Read more.
Human beings are attempting to take advantage of renewable natural resources by using solar cells. These devices take the sun’s radiation and convert it into electrical energy. The issue with traditional silicon-based solar cells is their manufacturing costs and environmental problems. For this reason, alternatives have been developed within the solar cell field. One of these alternatives is the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC), also known as Grätzel solar cells. DSSCs are a type of solar cell that mimics photosynthesis. They have a photoanode, which is formed by a semiconductor film sensitized with a dye. Some of their advantages include low-cost manufacturing, eco-friendly materials use, and suitability for most environments. This review discusses four important aspects, with two related to the dye, which can be natural or synthetic. Herein, only natural dyes and their extraction methods were selected. On the other hand, this paper discusses the nanostructures used for DSSCs, the TiO2 nanostructure being the most reported; it recently reached an efficiency level of 10.3%. Finally, a review on the novelties in DSSCs technology is presented, where it is observed that the use of Catrin protein (cow brain) shows 1.45% of efficiency, which is significantly lower if compared to Ag nanoparticles doped with graphene that report 9.9% efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Opportunities for Composites in the Future Energy Systems)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Low-Frequency Magnetoelectric Effects in Magnetostrictive–Piezoelectric Bilayers: Longitudinal and Bending Deformations
J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5(11), 287; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcs5110287 - 28 Oct 2021
Viewed by 306
Abstract
A model for the low-frequency magnetoelectric (ME) effect that takes into consideration the bending deformation in a ferromagnetic and ferroelectric bilayer is presented. Past models, in general, ignored the influence of bending deformation. Based on the solution of the equations of the elastic [...] Read more.
A model for the low-frequency magnetoelectric (ME) effect that takes into consideration the bending deformation in a ferromagnetic and ferroelectric bilayer is presented. Past models, in general, ignored the influence of bending deformation. Based on the solution of the equations of the elastic theory and electrostatics, expressions for the ME voltage coefficients (MEVCs) and ME sensitivity coefficients (MESCs) in terms of the physical parameters of the materials and the geometric characteristic of the structure were obtained. Contributions from both bending and planar deformations were considered. The theory was applied to composites of PZT and Ni with negative magnetostriction, and Permendur, or Metglas, both with positive magnetostriction. Estimates of MEVCs and MESCs indicate that the contribution from bending deformation is significant but smaller than the contribution from planar deformations, leading to a reduction in the net ME coefficients in all the three bilayer systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Journal of Composites Science in 2021)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Mechanical and Microstructural Assessment of Inhomogeneities in Oxide Ceramic Matrix Composites Detected by Air-Coupled Ultrasound Inspection
J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5(11), 286; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcs5110286 - 23 Oct 2021
Viewed by 378
Abstract
Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC) are promising materials for high-temperature applications where damage tolerant failure behavior is required. Non-destructive testing is essential for process development, monitoring, and quality assessment of CMC parts. Air-coupled ultrasound (ACU) is a fast and cost-efficient tool for non-destructive inspections [...] Read more.
Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC) are promising materials for high-temperature applications where damage tolerant failure behavior is required. Non-destructive testing is essential for process development, monitoring, and quality assessment of CMC parts. Air-coupled ultrasound (ACU) is a fast and cost-efficient tool for non-destructive inspections of large components with respect to the detection of material inhomogeneities. Even though ACU inspection is usually used for visual inspection, the interpretation of C-scan images is often ambiguous with regard to critical defects and their impact on local material properties. This paper reports on a new approach to link the local acoustic damping of an oxide CMC plate obtained from ACU analysis with subsequent destructive mechanical testing and microstructural analyses. Local damping values of bending bars are extracted from ACU maps and compared with the results of subsequent resonant frequency damping analysis and 3-point bending tests. To support data interpretation, the homogeneous and inhomogeneous CMC areas detected in the ACU map are further analyzed by X-ray computed tomography and scanning electron microscopy. The results provide strong evidence that specific material properties such as Young’s modulus are not predictable from ACU damping maps. However, ACU shows a high, beneficial sensitivity for narrow but large area matrix cracks or delaminations, i.e., local damping is significantly correlated with specific properties such as shear moduli and bending strengths. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ceramic-Matrix Composites)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Crashworthiness of a Composite Bladder Fuel Tank for a Tilt Rotor Aircraft
J. Compos. Sci. 2021, 5(11), 285; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcs5110285 (registering DOI) - 22 Oct 2021
Viewed by 572
Abstract
The fulfilment of the crash is a demanding requirement for a Tiltrotor. Indeed, such a kind of aircraft, being a hybrid between an airplane and a helicopter, inherits the requirements mainly from helicopters (EASA CS 29) due to its hovering ability. In particular, [...] Read more.
The fulfilment of the crash is a demanding requirement for a Tiltrotor. Indeed, such a kind of aircraft, being a hybrid between an airplane and a helicopter, inherits the requirements mainly from helicopters (EASA CS 29) due to its hovering ability. In particular, the fuel storage system must be designed in such a manner that it is crash resistant, under prescribed airworthiness requirements, in order to avoid the fuel leakage during such an event, preventing fire and, thus, increasing the survival chances of the crew and the passengers. The present work deals with the evaluation of crashworthiness of the fuel storage system of a Tiltrotor (bladder tank), and, in particular, it aims at describing the adopted numerical approach and some specific results. Crash resistance requirements are considered from the earliest design stages, and for this reason they are mainly addressed from a numerical point of view and by simulations that treat both single components and small/medium size assemblies. The developed numerical models include all the main parts needed for simulating the structural behavior of the investigated wing section: the tank, the structural components of the wing, the fuel sub-systems (fuel lines, probes, etc.) and the fuel itself. During the crash event there are several parts inside the tanks that can come into contact with the tank structure; therefore, it is necessary to evaluate which of these parts can be a damage source for the tank itself and could generate fuel loss. The SPH approach has been adopted to discretise fuel and to estimate the interaction forces with respect to the tank structure. Experimental data were used to calibrate the fuel tank and foam material models and to define the acceleration time-history to be applied. Thanks to the optimized foam’s configuration, the amount of dissipated impact energy is remarkable, and the evaluation of tanks/fuel system stress distribution allows estimating any undesired failure due to a survivable crash event. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop