Next Issue
Volume 5, June
Previous Issue
Volume 4, December

Colloids Interfaces, Volume 5, Issue 1 (March 2021) – 19 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Article
Electroosmosis and Electric Conduction of Electrolyte Solutions in Charge-Regulating Fibrous Media
Colloids Interfaces 2021, 5(1), 19; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/colloids5010019 - 19 Mar 2021
Viewed by 601
Abstract
An analytical study of the electroosmosis and electric conduction of electrolyte solutions in a fibrous medium composed of parallel charge-regulating cylinders with arbitrary electric double layer thickness is presented. A linearized charge regulation model was adopted for the association and dissociation reactions occurring [...] Read more.
An analytical study of the electroosmosis and electric conduction of electrolyte solutions in a fibrous medium composed of parallel charge-regulating cylinders with arbitrary electric double layer thickness is presented. A linearized charge regulation model was adopted for the association and dissociation reactions occurring at the amphoteric functional groups over the surfaces of the cylinders, and a unit cell model was employed to accommodate interactions among the cylinders. The electrokinetic equations governing the ionic concentration, electric potential, and liquid flow fields were solved at low zeta potential for the cylinders. Explicit formulas for the electroosmotic mobility and effective electric conductivity in the fiber matrix were obtained. The results indicate that the charge regulation characteristics, such as the equilibrium constants of the reactions occurring at the cylinders’ surfaces and the bulk concentration of the charge-determining ions, influence the surface charge density and potential, electroosmotic mobility, and effective electric conductivity substantially. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Locomotion of Colloidal Particles)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Recent Advances in Nanomaterials for Dermal and Transdermal Applications
Colloids Interfaces 2021, 5(1), 18; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/colloids5010018 - 18 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 796
Abstract
The stratum corneum, the most superficial layer of the skin, protects the body against environmental hazards and presents a highly selective barrier for the passage of drugs and cosmetic products deeper into the skin and across the skin. Nanomaterials can effectively increase the [...] Read more.
The stratum corneum, the most superficial layer of the skin, protects the body against environmental hazards and presents a highly selective barrier for the passage of drugs and cosmetic products deeper into the skin and across the skin. Nanomaterials can effectively increase the permeation of active molecules across the stratum corneum and enable their penetration into deeper skin layers, often by interacting with the skin and creating the distinct sites with elevated local concentration, acting as reservoirs. The flux of the molecules from these reservoirs can be either limited to the underlying skin layers (for topical drug and cosmeceutical delivery) or extended across all the sublayers of the epidermis to the blood vessels of the dermis (for transdermal delivery). The type of the nanocarrier and the physicochemical nature of the active substance are among the factors that determine the final skin permeation pattern and the stability of the penetrant in the cutaneous environment. The most widely employed types of nanomaterials for dermal and transdermal applications include solid lipid nanoparticles, nanovesicular carriers, microemulsions, nanoemulsions, and polymeric nanoparticles. The recent advances in the area of nanomaterial-assisted dermal and transdermal delivery are highlighted in this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Colloidal Systems: Formation and Applications of Nanomaterials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Dynamic Measurements with the Bicone Interfacial Shear Rheometer: The Effects of the Numerical Implementation of the Interfacial Boundary Condition
Colloids Interfaces 2021, 5(1), 17; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/colloids5010017 - 17 Mar 2021
Viewed by 613
Abstract
The increasing popularity of flow field-based data analysis (FFBDA) techniques has a paradigmatic example in the routines already developed for the rotational oscillating bicone bob interfacial shear rheometer. Such routines use a second order centered finite difference (SOCFD) discretization scheme, in both the [...] Read more.
The increasing popularity of flow field-based data analysis (FFBDA) techniques has a paradigmatic example in the routines already developed for the rotational oscillating bicone bob interfacial shear rheometer. Such routines use a second order centered finite difference (SOCFD) discretization scheme, in both the vertical and radial coordinates, for the velocity field in the bulk fluid subphase and a first order forward finite difference (FOFFD) scheme in the vertical coordinate for the velocity field at the air/water interface. Such a mixture of schemes causes non-smooth flow fields at the interface that can be tackled by appropriately devising a SOCFD scheme for the vertical coordinate at the interface using a line of “phantom” nodes that merely serve to adequately merge the Navier–Stokes equations and the Boussinesq–Scriven boundary condition at the interface. Here we report on a detailed analysis of the quantitative improvements of such a scheme over the previous one by comparing the structure of the flow fields at and close to the interface, the differences in the interfacial and bulk drag torques on the bicone bob, and the differences in the torque/displacement complex amplitude ratio. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Thermodynamics, Kinetics and Dilational Visco-Elasticity of Adsorbed CnEOm Layers at the Aqueous Solution/Air Interface
Colloids Interfaces 2021, 5(1), 16; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/colloids5010016 - 16 Mar 2021
Viewed by 547
Abstract
The adsorption behaviour of linear poly(oxyethylene) alkyl ether (CnEOm) is best described by a reorientation model. Based on a complete set of experimental data, including the adsorption kinetics, the equilibrium surface tension isotherm and the surface dilational visco-elasticity, the [...] Read more.
The adsorption behaviour of linear poly(oxyethylene) alkyl ether (CnEOm) is best described by a reorientation model. Based on a complete set of experimental data, including the adsorption kinetics, the equilibrium surface tension isotherm and the surface dilational visco-elasticity, the thermodynamic and kinetic adsorption parameters for some CnEOm at the water/air interface were determined. For the study, six CnEOm surfactants were selected (n = 10, 12 and 14 and m = 4, 5 and 8) and were studied by bubble profile analysis and maximum bubble pressure tensiometry. A refined theoretical model based on a reorientation-adsorption model combined with a diffusion-controlled adsorption kinetics and exchange of matter allowed us to calculate the surface layer composition by adsorbing molecules in different orientations. It turns out that at larger surface coverage, the adsorption rate decreases, i.e., the apparent diffusion coefficients are smaller. This deceleration can be explained by the transition of molecules adsorbed in a state of larger molar surface area into a state with smaller molar surface area. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Nanocomposite Inks Based on Nickel–Silver Core–Shell and Silver Nanoparticles for Fabrication Conductive Coatings at Low-Temperature Sintering
Colloids Interfaces 2021, 5(1), 15; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/colloids5010015 - 08 Mar 2021
Viewed by 679
Abstract
Nanocomposite inks composed of nickel–silver core–shell and silver nanoparticles (NPs) can combine the advantages of lower cost, high conductivity, and low-temperature sintering processes, which have attracted much attention in the development of materials for printed flexible electronics. In this context, in the present [...] Read more.
Nanocomposite inks composed of nickel–silver core–shell and silver nanoparticles (NPs) can combine the advantages of lower cost, high conductivity, and low-temperature sintering processes, which have attracted much attention in the development of materials for printed flexible electronics. In this context, in the present paper, we report the process of preparation of nanocomposite ink containing nickel–silver core–shell nanoparticles, as the main filler, and silver nanoparticles, as doping material, and their application for the fabrication of conductive coatings. It was found that the addition of a low concentration of Ag NPs to ink formulation based mainly on low-cost Ni-Ag NPs improves the conductive properties of coatings fabricated by ink deposition on a glass substrate. Two types of prepared nanocomposite ink coatings showed promising properties for future application: (1) doped with 0.5% of Ag NPs sintered at 200 °C as low cost for larger industrial application and, (2) containing 1% of Ag NPs sintered at 150 °C for the fabrication of conductive printed patterns on flexible substrates. The conductivity of such nanocomposite films was similar, about of 6 × 106 S/m, which corresponds to 35% of that for a bulk nickel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Colloidal Systems: Formation and Applications of Nanomaterials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
β-Lactoglobulin Adsorption Layers at the Water/Air Surface: 5. Adsorption Isotherm and Equation of State Revisited, Impact of pH
Colloids Interfaces 2021, 5(1), 14; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/colloids5010014 - 05 Mar 2021
Viewed by 563
Abstract
The theoretical description of the adsorption of proteins at liquid/fluid interfaces suffers from the inapplicability of classical formalisms, which soundly calls for the development of more complicated adsorption models. A Frumkin-type thermodynamic 2-d solution model that accounts for nonidealities of interface enthalpy [...] Read more.
The theoretical description of the adsorption of proteins at liquid/fluid interfaces suffers from the inapplicability of classical formalisms, which soundly calls for the development of more complicated adsorption models. A Frumkin-type thermodynamic 2-d solution model that accounts for nonidealities of interface enthalpy and entropy was proposed about two decades ago and has been continuously developed in the course of comparisons with experimental data. In a previous paper we investigated the adsorption of the globular protein β-lactoglobulin at the water/air interface and used such a model to analyze the experimental isotherms of the surface pressure, Π(c), and the frequency-, f-, dependent surface dilational viscoelasticity modulus, E(c)f, in a wide range of protein concentrations, c, and at pH 7. However, the best fit between theory and experiment proposed in that paper appeared incompatible with new data on the surface excess, Γ, obtained from direct measurements with neutron reflectometry. Therefore, in this work, the same model is simultaneously applied to a larger set of experimental dependences, e.g., Π(c), Γ(c), E(Π)f, etc., with E-values measured strictly in the linear viscoelasticity regime. Despite this ambitious complication, a best global fit was elaborated using a single set of parameter values, which well describes all experimental dependencies, thus corroborating the validity of the chosen thermodynamic model. Furthermore, we applied the model in the same manner to experimental results obtained at pH 3 and pH 5 in order to explain the well-pronounced effect of pH on the interfacial behavior of β-lactoglobulin. The results revealed that the propensity of β-lactoglobulin globules to unfold upon adsorption and stretch at the interface decreases in the order pH 3 > pH 7 > pH 5, i.e., with decreasing protein net charge. Finally, we discuss advantages and limitations in the current state of the model. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Synthesis of Monoclinic Vanadium Dioxide via One-Pot Hydrothermal Route
Colloids Interfaces 2021, 5(1), 13; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/colloids5010013 - 16 Feb 2021
Viewed by 772
Abstract
Pure monoclinic vanadium dioxide nanoparticles (VO2 NPs) with a controlled uniform size are considered essential for the preparation of thermochromic smart window coatings on desired substrates. Herein, we report a facile one-step hydrothermal synthesis of VO2(M) NPs without post-treatment of [...] Read more.
Pure monoclinic vanadium dioxide nanoparticles (VO2 NPs) with a controlled uniform size are considered essential for the preparation of thermochromic smart window coatings on desired substrates. Herein, we report a facile one-step hydrothermal synthesis of VO2(M) NPs without post-treatment of annealing, which may induce unwanted aggregation of NPs. In contrast with the annealed sample, the one-step processed VO2(M) NPs exhibit superior thermochromic performance with the solar modulation efficiency of 11.8% and luminous transmittance of 37.3%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Colloidal Systems: Formation and Applications of Nanomaterials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Evaporation of Sessile Droplets of Polyelectrolyte/Surfactant Mixtures on Silicon Wafers
Colloids Interfaces 2021, 5(1), 12; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/colloids5010012 - 16 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 943
Abstract
The wetting and evaporation behavior of droplets of aqueous solutions of mixtures of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) solution, PDADMAC, with two different anionic surfactants, sodium laureth sulfate, SLES, and sodium N-lauroyl N-methyl taurate, SLMT, were studied in terms of the changes of the [...] Read more.
The wetting and evaporation behavior of droplets of aqueous solutions of mixtures of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) solution, PDADMAC, with two different anionic surfactants, sodium laureth sulfate, SLES, and sodium N-lauroyl N-methyl taurate, SLMT, were studied in terms of the changes of the contact angle θ and contact length L of sessile droplets of the mixtures on silicon wafers at a temperature of 25 °C and different relative humidities in the range of 30–90%. The advancing contact angle θa was found to depend on the surfactant concentration, independent of the relative humidity, with the mixtures containing SLES presenting improved wetting behaviors. Furthermore, a constant droplet contact angle was not observed during evaporation due to pinning of the droplet at the coffee-ring that was formed. The kinetics for the first evaporation stage of the mixture were independent of the relative humidity, with the evaporation behavior being well described in terms of the universal law for evaporation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Colloidal Systems: Formation and Applications of Nanomaterials)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Hydrodynamic Boundary Layers at Solid Wall—A Tool for Separation of Fine Solids
Colloids Interfaces 2021, 5(1), 11; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/colloids5010011 - 11 Feb 2021
Viewed by 520
Abstract
A theoretical study is performed about the hydrodynamic interaction of fine species entrapped in the boundary layer (BL) at solid wall (plate). The key starting point is the analysis of the disturbance introduced by solid spheres in the background fluid flow. For a [...] Read more.
A theoretical study is performed about the hydrodynamic interaction of fine species entrapped in the boundary layer (BL) at solid wall (plate). The key starting point is the analysis of the disturbance introduced by solid spheres in the background fluid flow. For a neutrally buoyant entity, the type of interaction is determined by the size of the spheres as compared to the thickness of the BL region. The result is granulometric separation of the solids inside the BL domain at the wall. The most important result in view of potential applications concerns the so-called small particles Rp < L/ReL5/4 (ReL is the Reynolds number of the background flow and Rp is the radius of the entrapped sphere). In the case of non-neutrally buoyant particles, gravity interferes with the separation effect. Important factor in this case is the relative density of the solid species as compared to this of the fluid. In view of further practical uses, particles within the range of Δρ/ρ < Fr2/ReL1/2 (Fr is Froude number and Δρ/ρ is the relative density of the entrapped solids) are systematically studied. The trajectories inside the BL region of the captured species are calculated. The obtained data show that there are preferred regions along the wall where the fine solids are detained. The results are important for the assessment of the general efficiency of entrapment and segregation of fine species in the vicinity of solid walls and have high potential for further design of industrial separation processes. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Foam Quality of Foams Formed on Capillaries and Porous Media Systems
Colloids Interfaces 2021, 5(1), 10; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/colloids5010010 - 08 Feb 2021
Viewed by 824
Abstract
Foams are of great importance as a result of their expansive presence in everyday life—they are used in the food, cosmetic, and process industries, and in detergency, oil recovery, and firefighting. There is a little understanding of foam formation using soft porous media [...] Read more.
Foams are of great importance as a result of their expansive presence in everyday life—they are used in the food, cosmetic, and process industries, and in detergency, oil recovery, and firefighting. There is a little understanding of foam formation using soft porous media in terms of the quality of foam and foam formation. Interaction of foams with porous media has recently been investigated in a study by Arjmandi-Tash et al., where three different regimes of foam drainage in contact with porous media were observed. In this study, the amount of foam generated using porous media with surfactant solutions is investigated. The aim is to understand the quality of foam produced using porous media. The effect of capillary sizes and arrangement of porous in porous media has on the quality of foam is investigated. This is then followed by the use of soft porous media for foam formation to understand how the foam is generated on the surface of the porous media and the effect that different conditions (such as concentration) have on the quality of the foam. The quality of foam is a blanket term for bubble size, liquid volume fraction, and stability of the foam. The liquid volume fraction is calculated using a homemade dynamic foam analyser, which is used to obtain the distribution of liquid volume fraction along with the foam height. Soft porous media does not influence substantially the rate of decay of foam produced, however, it decreases the average diameter of the bubbles, whilst increasing the range of bubble sizes due to the wide range of pore sizes present in the soft porous media. The foam analyser showed the expected behaviour that, as the foam decays and becomes drier, the liquid volume fraction of the foam falls, and therefore the conductivity of foam also decreases, indicating the usefulness of the home-made device for future investigations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Outstanding Scientists in Colloids and Interfaces: Emil Chibowski)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Interfacial Tension Sensor for Low Dosage Surfactant Detection
Colloids Interfaces 2021, 5(1), 9; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/colloids5010009 - 03 Feb 2021
Viewed by 609
Abstract
Currently there are no available methods for in-line measurement of gas-liquid interfacial tension during the flotation process. Microfluidic devices have the potential to be deployed in such settings to allow for a rapid in-line determination of the interfacial tension, and hence provide information [...] Read more.
Currently there are no available methods for in-line measurement of gas-liquid interfacial tension during the flotation process. Microfluidic devices have the potential to be deployed in such settings to allow for a rapid in-line determination of the interfacial tension, and hence provide information on frother concentration. This paper presents the development of a simple method for interfacial tension determination based on a microfluidic device with a flow-focusing geometry. The bubble generation frequency in such a microfluidic device is correlated with the concentration of two flotation frothers (characterized by very different adsorption kinetic behavior). The results are compared with the equilibrium interfacial tension values determined using classical profile analysis tensiometry. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Dependency of Contact Angles on Three-Phase Contact Line: A Review
Colloids Interfaces 2021, 5(1), 8; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/colloids5010008 - 01 Feb 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 713
Abstract
The wetted area of a sessile droplet on a practical substrate is limited by the three-phase contact line and characterized by contact angle, contact radius and drop height. Although, contact angles of droplets have been studied for more than two hundred years, there [...] Read more.
The wetted area of a sessile droplet on a practical substrate is limited by the three-phase contact line and characterized by contact angle, contact radius and drop height. Although, contact angles of droplets have been studied for more than two hundred years, there are still some unanswered questions. In the last two decades, it was experimentally proven that the advancing and receding contact angles, and the contact angle hysteresis of rough and chemically heterogeneous surfaces, are determined by interactions of the liquid and the solid at the three-phase contact line alone, and the interfacial area within the contact perimeter is irrelevant. However, confusion and misunderstanding still exist in this field regarding the relationship between contact angle and surface roughness and chemical heterogeneity. An extensive review was published on the debate for the dependence of apparent contact angles on drop contact area or the three-phase contact line in 2014. Following this old review, several new articles were published on the same subject. This article presents a review of the novel articles (mostly published after 2014 to present) on the dependency of contact angles on the three-phase contact line, after a short summary is given for this long-lasting debate. Recently, some improvements have been made; for example, a relationship of the apparent contact angle with the properties of the three-phase line was obtained by replacing the solid–vapor interfacial tension term, γSV, with a string tension term containing the edge energy, γSLV, and curvature of the triple contact line, km, terms. In addition, a novel Gibbsian thermodynamics composite system was developed for a liquid drop resting on a heterogeneous multiphase and also on a homogeneous rough solid substrate at equilibrium conditions, and this approach led to the same conclusions given above. Moreover, some publications on the line energy concept along the three-phase contact line, and on the “modified” Cassie equations were also examined in this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wetting on Micro/Nano-Scale: From Fundamentals to Application)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Surface Activity of Natural Surfactants Extracted from Sapindus mukorossi and Sapindus trifoliatus Soapnuts
Colloids Interfaces 2021, 5(1), 7; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/colloids5010007 - 31 Jan 2021
Viewed by 594
Abstract
Surfactants derived from renewable sources such as plants are an ecological alternative to synthetic surfactants. Aqueous solutions of natural surfactants extracted from soapnuts obtained from two plants, Sapindus mukorossi and Sapindus trifoliatus, were studied. Their properties in terms of surface tension reduction and [...] Read more.
Surfactants derived from renewable sources such as plants are an ecological alternative to synthetic surfactants. Aqueous solutions of natural surfactants extracted from soapnuts obtained from two plants, Sapindus mukorossi and Sapindus trifoliatus, were studied. Their properties in terms of surface tension reduction and wettability were examinated. The natural surfactants show the ability to reduce the surface tension and increase the wettability of the hydrophobic polytetrafluoroethylene surface. These nuts can be used repeatedly for washing also in hard water. Crude extracts from Sp. trifoliatus exhibit better surface properties than those from Sp. mukorossi. This makes these soapnuts a good potential source of biosurfactants for household use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Outstanding Scientists in Colloids and Interfaces: Emil Chibowski)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Experimental Data Contributing to the Elusive Surface Charge of Inert Materials in Contact with Aqueous Media
Colloids Interfaces 2021, 5(1), 6; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/colloids5010006 - 23 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 888
Abstract
We studied the charging of inert surfaces (polytetrafluoroethylene, i.e., PTFE; graphite; graphene; and hydrophobic silica) using classical colloid chemistry approaches. Potentiometric titrations showed that these surfaces acquired less charge from proton-related reactions than oxide minerals. The data from batch-type titrations for PTFE powder [...] Read more.
We studied the charging of inert surfaces (polytetrafluoroethylene, i.e., PTFE; graphite; graphene; and hydrophobic silica) using classical colloid chemistry approaches. Potentiometric titrations showed that these surfaces acquired less charge from proton-related reactions than oxide minerals. The data from batch-type titrations for PTFE powder did not show an effect of ionic strength, which was also in contrast with results for classical colloids. In agreement with classical colloids, the electrokinetic results for inert surfaces showed the typical salt level dependence. In some cases, the point of zero net proton charge as determined from mass and tentatively from acid–base titration differed from isoelectric points, which has also been previously observed, for example by Chibowski and co-workers for ice electrolyte interfaces. Finally, we found no evidence for surface contaminations of our PTFE particles before and after immersion in aqueous solutions. Only in the presence of NaCl-containing solutions did cryo-XPS detect oxygen from water. We believe that our low isoelectric points for PTFE were not due to impurities. Moreover, the measured buffering at pH 3 could not be explained by sub-micromolar concentrations of contaminants. The most comprehensive explanation for the various sets of data is that hydroxide ion accumulation occurred at the interfaces between inert surfaces and aqueous solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Outstanding Scientists in Colloids and Interfaces: Emil Chibowski)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Editorial
Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Colloids and Interfaces in 2020
Colloids Interfaces 2021, 5(1), 5; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/colloids5010005 - 18 Jan 2021
Viewed by 456
Abstract
Peer review is the driving force of journal development, and reviewers are gatekeepers who ensure that Colloids and Interfaces maintains its standards for the high quality of its published papers [...] Full article
Article
What Can You Learn about Apparent Surface Free Energy from the Hysteresis Approach?
Colloids Interfaces 2021, 5(1), 4; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/colloids5010004 - 14 Jan 2021
Viewed by 652
Abstract
The apparent surface free energy is one of the most important quantities in determining the surface properties of solids. So far, no method of measuring this energy has been found. The essence of contact angle measurements is problematic. Contact angles should be measured [...] Read more.
The apparent surface free energy is one of the most important quantities in determining the surface properties of solids. So far, no method of measuring this energy has been found. The essence of contact angle measurements is problematic. Contact angles should be measured as proposed by Young, i.e., in equilibrium with the liquid vapors. This type of measurement is not possible because within a short time, the droplet in the closed chamber reaches equilibrium not only with vapors but also with the liquid film adsorbed on the tested surface. In this study, the surface free energy was determined for the plasma-activated polyoxymethylene (POM) polymer. Activation of the polymer with plasma leads to an increase in the value of the total apparent surface free energy. When using the energy calculations from the hysteresis based approach (CAH), it should be noted that the energy changes significantly when it is calculated from the contact angles of a polar liquid, whereas being calculated from the angles of a non-polar liquid, the surface activation with plasma changes its value slightly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Outstanding Scientists in Colloids and Interfaces: Emil Chibowski)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Adsorption Properties of Soft Hydrophobically Functionalized PSS/MA Polyelectrolytes
Colloids Interfaces 2021, 5(1), 3; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/colloids5010003 - 14 Jan 2021
Viewed by 601
Abstract
We investigated the adsorption properties of the newly synthesized, hydrophobically functionalized polyelectrolyte (HF-PE), poly(4-styrenesulfonic-co-maleic acid) copolymer (PSS/MA). The hydrophobic alkyl side chains (C12 or C16) were incorporated into the polyelectrolyte backbone via the labile amid linker to obtain the soft [...] Read more.
We investigated the adsorption properties of the newly synthesized, hydrophobically functionalized polyelectrolyte (HF-PE), poly(4-styrenesulfonic-co-maleic acid) copolymer (PSS/MA). The hydrophobic alkyl side chains (C12 or C16) were incorporated into the polyelectrolyte backbone via the labile amid linker to obtain the soft HF-PE product with the assumed amount of 15% and 40% degree of grafting for every length of the alkyl chain, i.e., PSS/MA-g-C12NH2 (15% or 40%) as well as PSS/MA-g-C16NH2 (15% or 40%). In the present contribution, we determined both the effect of grafting density and the length of alkyl chain on adsorption at water/air and water/decane interfaces, as well as on top of the polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) deposited on a solid surface. The dependence of the interfacial tension on copolymer concentration was investigated by the pendant drop method, while the adsorption at solid surface coated by poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)/poly(styrene sulphonate) PEM by the quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D), attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR) and contact angle analysis. We found that surface activity of the hydrophobized copolymer was practically independent of the grafting ratio for C16 side chains, whereas, for C12, the copolymer with a lower grafting ratio seemed to be more surface active. The results of QCM-D and FTIR-ATR experiments confirmed the adsorption of hydrophobized copolymer at PEM along with the modification of water structure at the interface. Finally, it can be concluded that the hydrophobically modified PSS/MA can be successfully applied either as the efficacious emulsifier for the formation of (nano)emulsions for further active substances encapsulation using the sequential adsorption method or as one of the convenient building blocks for the surface modification materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Outstanding Scientists in Colloids and Interfaces: Emil Chibowski)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Improved As-Synthesized Oleic Amido Propyl Betaine Surfactant Mixture for Stable Ultra-Low Interfacial Tension: Effect of Mixed Co-Solvents
Colloids Interfaces 2021, 5(1), 2; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/colloids5010002 - 06 Jan 2021
Viewed by 591
Abstract
As-synthesized oleic amido propyl betaine surfactant mixture, that was produced through a “direct formulation through synthesis” process, exhibited ultra-low oil/water interfacial tension (IFT) values as low as 3.5 × 10−4 mN/m when dissolved in seawater at a reservoir temperature of 96 °C. [...] Read more.
As-synthesized oleic amido propyl betaine surfactant mixture, that was produced through a “direct formulation through synthesis” process, exhibited ultra-low oil/water interfacial tension (IFT) values as low as 3.5 × 10−4 mN/m when dissolved in seawater at a reservoir temperature of 96 °C. The as-synthesized surfactant, which was left untreated, had a slightly cloudy appearance when mixed with seawater. Polar solvents were introduced to this surfactant to improve its aqueous solubility by changing its overall hydrophilicity, particularly on the oil/water interface. In this study, two types of glycol ether co-solvent, i.e., ethylene glycol monobutyl ether and diethylene glycol monobutyl ether, were used at different concentrations in a single application and as a mixture of co-solvents at a certain ratio. The behavior of the as-synthesized surfactant with the presence of these co-solvents was investigated. As a result, it showed that the co-solvent helps in solubility improvement and alters the interfacial tension behavior of the surfactant. Ethylene glycol monobutyl ether was found to be efficient in maintaining an ultra-low IFT value of the surfactant. However, the aqueous solubility of the surfactant was not significantly improved. In contrast, the addition of diethylene glycol monobutyl ether showed improvement of the aqueous solubility of the surfactant, but it tends to increase the IFT above ultra-low value. Based on this understanding, a set of co-solvent mixing ratios were tested, and the results showed further improvement in both the oil/water interfacial tension behavior and surfactant aqueous solubility. The most stable oil/water IFT of 3.36 × 10−3 mN/m and clearer surfactant solutions were obtained for ratio C at 35 wt.% presence of co-solvent. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Adsorption of Equimolar Mixtures of Cationic and Anionic Surfactants at the Water/Hexane Interface
Colloids Interfaces 2021, 5(1), 1; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/colloids5010001 - 24 Dec 2020
Viewed by 828
Abstract
In mixed solutions of anionic and cationic surfactants, called catanionics, ion pairs are formed which behave like non-ionic surfactants with a much higher surface activity than the single components. In equimolar mixtures of NaCnSO4 and CmTAB, all surface-active [...] Read more.
In mixed solutions of anionic and cationic surfactants, called catanionics, ion pairs are formed which behave like non-ionic surfactants with a much higher surface activity than the single components. In equimolar mixtures of NaCnSO4 and CmTAB, all surface-active ions are paired. For mixtures with n + m = const, the interfacial properties are rather similar. Catanionics containing one long-chain surfactant and one surfactant with medium chain length exhibit a strong increase in surface activity as compared with the single compounds. In contrast, catanionics of one medium- and one short chain surfactant have a surface activity similar to that of the medium-chain surfactant alone. Both the Frumkin model and the reorientation model describe the experimental equilibrium data equally well, while the adsorption kinetics of the mixed medium- and short-chain surfactants can be well described only with the reorientation model. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop