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Appl. Syst. Innov., Volume 3, Issue 4 (December 2020) – 15 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Noise vibration and harshness (NVH) is an important quality criterion for modern vehicles. In this study, we present an approach to shift NVH optimization to earlier design phases. We use two different morphing algorithms to automatically modify the first finite element simulation model for a component. The generated database of transfer functions enables the creation of metamodels describing the correlation between geometric component parameters and transfer function amplitudes. We show the ability to intuitively reduce the transferred forces of a vehicle’s knuckle at a specific frequency. View this paper
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Digitalization of Public Services—An Input Output Logit Analysis
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2020, 3(4), 56; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/asi3040056 - 03 Dec 2020
Viewed by 557
Abstract
In 2000, Sri Lanka designed an ambitious plan for the introduction of information and communication technology (ICT) in most government functions and in the public service delivery (PSD) system in the country. This process started in the early 2000s and gained momentum with [...] Read more.
In 2000, Sri Lanka designed an ambitious plan for the introduction of information and communication technology (ICT) in most government functions and in the public service delivery (PSD) system in the country. This process started in the early 2000s and gained momentum with several local and internationally funded initiatives. A systematic innovation concept was incorporated within the ICT regime, which ensured bottom-up learning for a smooth transformation from paper to digitized PSD systems. Towards this end, the Information Communication Technology Agency (ICTA) and Lanka Government Network (LGN) were established. ICT incorporation covered the operations of most government agencies and departments to improve governance and PSD. We analyzed the efficiency of the ICT regime to understand its impact on public service employee output as well as on services to the public. We collected service delivery data from both the employees and their clients using a Likert-scale questionnaire. The questionnaire enquired about the utility of the ICT regime introduced in various departments and ministries (DMs) of the Sri Lankan government. This paper analyzes the overall and relative effectiveness of the ICT regime in terms of the inputs incurred and the outcomes realized. First, we calculated the Cronbach’s alpha to test the robustness of the data. Second, we applied ordinal logistics analysis to understand the interrelations among various measures (inputs) and their impacts (outcomes). Finally, we conducted specificity, sensitivity, and predictive value analysis to assess the accuracy of the investigative model. Our findings suggest a positive correlation between the inputs and the outcomes of the ICT regime introduced to digitalize PSD. Our results further indicate that although the inputs and the outcomes are positively corelated, this correlation is not sufficiently strong, and the ICT implementation measures need further emphasis to demonstrate any significant impact on user confidence in this regime. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Paper Collection in Applied System Innovation)
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Open AccessArticle
Cognitive Manufacturing in Industry 4.0 toward Cognitive Load Reduction: A Conceptual Framework
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2020, 3(4), 55; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/asi3040055 - 03 Dec 2020
Viewed by 633
Abstract
Cognitive manufacturing utilizes cognitive computing, the industrial Internet of things (IoT), and advanced analytics to upgrade manufacturing processes in manners that were not previously conceivable. It enables associations to improve major business measurements, for example, productivity, product reliability, quality, and safety, while decreasing [...] Read more.
Cognitive manufacturing utilizes cognitive computing, the industrial Internet of things (IoT), and advanced analytics to upgrade manufacturing processes in manners that were not previously conceivable. It enables associations to improve major business measurements, for example, productivity, product reliability, quality, and safety, while decreasing downtime and lowering costs. Considering all the facts that can prejudice the manufacturing performance in Industry 4.0, the cognitive load has received more attention, since it was previously neglected with respect to manufacturing industries. This paper aims to investigate what causes cognitive load reduction in manufacturing environments, i.e., human–computer interaction technologies that reduce the identified causes and the applications of cognitive manufacturing that use the referred technologies. Thus, a conceptual framework that links cognitive manufacturing to a reduction of the cognitive load was developed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Industrial Application of Communication Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Energy Transmission and Equilibrium Scheme in Data Communication Opportunistic Networks
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2020, 3(4), 54; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/asi3040054 - 03 Dec 2020
Viewed by 451
Abstract
In data communication, a good communication scheme can improve the transmission of data packets among nodes. The opportunistic network is a convenient wireless communication network and its model is easily applied in data communication. Energy consumption among nodes in the opportunistic network is [...] Read more.
In data communication, a good communication scheme can improve the transmission of data packets among nodes. The opportunistic network is a convenient wireless communication network and its model is easily applied in data communication. Energy consumption among nodes in the opportunistic network is an important parameter. The over-consumption of energy may cause the nodes to be dead, and then many useful data packets would be lost. Especially in data communication, this tendency is obvious. However, many researchers rarely consider energy consumption in the opportunistic network. This paper suggests a scheme in which data packets are transmitted among nodes. Energy supply and equilibrium is found in opportunistic networks. This scheme not only supplies energy to active nodes, but also considers inactive nodes to energy supply objects. Then, this scheme accomplishes data packets transmission and improves energy utilization in the opportunistic network. With the evidence of simulation and comparison of the epidemic algorithm, the direct delivery algorithm, and spray and wait algorithm in the opportunistic network, this scheme can be an equilibrium for energy consumption, for improving the delivering ratio, and the size of the cache time. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Optimal Control of a Multilayer Electroelastic Engine with a Longitudinal Piezoeffect for Nanomechatronics Systems
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2020, 3(4), 53; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/asi3040053 - 01 Dec 2020
Viewed by 1034
Abstract
A electroelastic engine with a longitudinal piezoeffect is widely used in nanotechnology for nanomanipulators, laser systems, nanopumps, and scanning microscopy. For these nanomechatronics systems, the transition between individual positions of the systems in the shortest possible time is relevant. It is relevant to [...] Read more.
A electroelastic engine with a longitudinal piezoeffect is widely used in nanotechnology for nanomanipulators, laser systems, nanopumps, and scanning microscopy. For these nanomechatronics systems, the transition between individual positions of the systems in the shortest possible time is relevant. It is relevant to solve the problem of optimizing the nanopositioning control system with a minimum control time. This work determines the optimal control of a multilayer electroelastic engine with a longitudinal piezoeffect and minimal control time for an optimal nanomechatronics system. The expressions of the control function and switching line are obtained with using the Pontryagin maximum principle for the optimal control system of the multilayer electroelastic engine at a longitudinal piezoeffect with an ordinary second-order differential equation of system. In this optimal nanomechatronics system, the control function takes only two values and changes once. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Paper Collection in Applied System Innovation)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Investigation of Different Storage Systems for Solar-Driven Organic Rankine Cycle
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2020, 3(4), 52; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/asi3040052 - 26 Nov 2020
Viewed by 576
Abstract
The objective of the present work is the study of different thermal storage systems for a solar-fed organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system that operates with parabolic trough collectors. The conventional design with sensible thermal oil storage is compared with a storage configuration with [...] Read more.
The objective of the present work is the study of different thermal storage systems for a solar-fed organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system that operates with parabolic trough collectors. The conventional design with sensible thermal oil storage is compared with a storage configuration with thermal oil and ceramic rocks, as well as the use of latent storage with phase change materials (PCMs) is investigated. The initial system is studied parametrically, and it is properly designed to order for the cycle to have high performance. Different organic fluids are studied in the organic Rankine cycle and different rocks are investigated as storage materials. Toluene is found to be the best candidate in the cycle and ceramic rocks are found to be the best candidate energetically and financially. The final results proved that both the thermal oil–ceramic rocks and the PCM are better technologies than the simple sensible thermal oil storage. For the design with a 180 m2 collecting area and 8 m3 storage tank volume, the thermal oil–ceramic rocks design leads to 13.89% system efficiency and net present value (NPV) to 129.73 k€, the PCM storage to 13.97% and 128.66 k€, respectively, while the pure thermal oil case leads to 12.48% and 105.32 k€, respectively. Moreover, it is useful to state that when the collecting area is varied from 160 m2 to 200 m2 with the tank volume at 8 m3, the efficiency enhancement with ceramic rocks compared to pure oil ranges from 8.99% up to 12.39%, while the enhancement with PCM ranges from 7.96% to 13.26%. For the same conditions, the NPV is improved with ceramic rocks from 18.35% to 25.79%, while with PCM from 14.17% to 25.29%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solar Energy Systems and Applications)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Business Continuity Plan in the Higher Education Industry: University Students’ Perceptions of the Effectiveness of Academic Continuity Plans during Covid-19 Pandemic
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2020, 3(4), 51; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/asi3040051 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1131
Abstract
The Covid-19 pandemic is one of the most disruptive, life-changing events that had brought the world to a perpetual standstill in 2020. Schools and institutions of higher education were impacted badly, resulting from the lockdowns and movement restrictions imposed by the governments of [...] Read more.
The Covid-19 pandemic is one of the most disruptive, life-changing events that had brought the world to a perpetual standstill in 2020. Schools and institutions of higher education were impacted badly, resulting from the lockdowns and movement restrictions imposed by the governments of numerous countries. Students and faculty found themselves in virtual classrooms, with many caught unaware of what they needed to do, having to learn new things at lightning speed and feeling a sense of despair. While many online learners had frustrations and concerns regarding their online learning experience, there were those who had a good learning experience. The students’ observations and perceptions of the difficulties and opportunities they encountered in their online learning experience were assessed through grounded theory using textual thematic qualitative analysis of their reflective feedback. The findings reveal that most students had a good online learning experience and found that the academic continuity plans implemented by the universities were effective. The concerns that some students had with online learning were related to technological drawbacks such as poor internet connections, and personal concerns about academic ability and time management skills, among others. This study concludes by offering insights and recommendations to institutions, faculty, and students on how best to conduct online learning and teaching for all. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systems and Industries in Response to COVID-19 Crisis)
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Open AccessArticle
Systematic Innovation Based BPR Regime—A Factors Analysis
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2020, 3(4), 50; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/asi3040050 - 13 Nov 2020
Viewed by 507
Abstract
Sri Lankan public services have a lingering colonial legacy, and there have been several efforts since the country’s independence to break away from the restraints of the past to align them with modern times and expectations. The drive for modernization of public services [...] Read more.
Sri Lankan public services have a lingering colonial legacy, and there have been several efforts since the country’s independence to break away from the restraints of the past to align them with modern times and expectations. The drive for modernization of public services passed through several phases of experimentation without much success in the past. A significant attempt at the modernization of public services was made in the first decade of this millennium; we now notice substantial changes in public service delivery (PSD) in the country. In this paper, we assess the impact of an inside-outside-inside (IOI)-based open system innovation-related business process reengineering (BPR) regime adapted for reforms in the organization and the delivery of public services in the country. We carried out an input and output analysis of the BPR regime, adopted by various departments and ministries of the government of Sri Lanka to improve the PSD infrastructure. A broad-based ground survey on a five-point Likert scale was carried out, and performance data were collected. We collected a total of 290 responses—each questionnaire was composed of 40 questions regarding the inputs and the outputs of the regime’s implementation. Applying an ordered multivariate logistic regression model, we have attempted to estimate correlations amongst inputs, results, and overall perception of success or failure of the BPR regime across 29 departments and ministries (D&M). We have tabulated summary statistics and regression results to assess the relative significance of various regime inputs and their impact on the corresponding outcomes. The outcomes suggest that while all inputs and outputs are significantly correlated, some inputs have a more significant effect on the results expected from the BPR regime. We have used original data acquired through a survey carried out directly through the PSD organizations in the country, and this study is the first of its kind in this regard. We expect this study will be of high utility to the personnel engaged in the planning and implementation of PSD through systematic innovation and BPR, not only in Sri Lanka but also for many other professionals and researchers who are engaged in designing and execution of similar service improvements and reengineering strategies in different countries around the world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Paper Collection in Applied System Innovation)
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Open AccessArticle
Shifting Paradigm of Education Landscape in Time of the COVID-19 Pandemic: Revealing of a Digital Education Management Information System
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2020, 3(4), 49; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/asi3040049 - 10 Nov 2020
Viewed by 755
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has indirectly changed the landscape of the country’s education system. Through information-based decision-making, the management of the education system seeks to increase the access to and efficiency, effectiveness, equity and quality of education through effective systems of monitoring, evaluation, budgeting [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has indirectly changed the landscape of the country’s education system. Through information-based decision-making, the management of the education system seeks to increase the access to and efficiency, effectiveness, equity and quality of education through effective systems of monitoring, evaluation, budgeting and planning. From this perspective, an Integrated National Education Information System (iNEISTM) was developed to streamline and transform business processes and to provide an application and technology platform to comply with the National Education System that may be suitable for the COVID-19 pandemic environment. The implementation of iNEIS™ aimed to significantly improve operational efficiency and productivity and provide better services, value and “holistic education” to students. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the newly implemented, integrated iNEISTM and its implications for educational management systems that were implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic. It specifically examines the benefits and obstacles that hinder the efficiency and effectiveness of the system. The result is very interesting. These findings demonstrate that there was a lack of positive impact on end-users, such as lacking readiness to accept organizational change and uncoordinated communication and information exchange between stakeholders and end-users. This research implies that when both the stakeholder-provider and end-user understand the significance of iNEISTM, there is a great possibility that the implementation will succeed in harvesting the full value of the system. This paper provides the stakeholder-provider with useful guidelines, in the form of recommendations, that need to be implemented to ensure improvement in the effectiveness of iNEISTM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systems and Industries in Response to COVID-19 Crisis)
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Open AccessArticle
Agent-Based Modeling of Rumor Propagation Using Expected Integrated Mean Squared Error Optimal Design
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2020, 3(4), 48; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/asi3040048 - 10 Nov 2020
Viewed by 604
Abstract
In the “Age of the Internet”, fake news and rumor-mongering have emerged as some of the most critical factors that affect our online social lives. For example, in the workplace, rumor spreading runs rampant during times when employees may be plagued with uncertainty [...] Read more.
In the “Age of the Internet”, fake news and rumor-mongering have emerged as some of the most critical factors that affect our online social lives. For example, in the workplace, rumor spreading runs rampant during times when employees may be plagued with uncertainty about the nature and consequences of major changes. Positive information should be widely propagated as much as possible; however, we must limit the spread of rumors in an effort to reduce their inherently harmful effects. The purpose of this research is to explain the mechanisms for controlling rumors and suggest an approach for dispelling the rumor effect in the workplace. In this study, we will present a simple simulation framework of agent-based modeling and apply Social Impact Theory to explain rumor propagation within social networks. Based on our results, we have found that organizations can significantly reduce the spread of the rumors by improving the workplace environment and instituting counseling for those in management positions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Paper Collection in Applied System Innovation)
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Open AccessArticle
Metamodels Resulting from Two Different Geometry Morphing Approaches Are Suitable to Direct the Modification of Structure-Born Noise Transfer in the Digital Design Phase
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2020, 3(4), 47; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/asi3040047 - 06 Nov 2020
Viewed by 799
Abstract
Noise vibration and harshness (NVH) development often takes place in the later development phases. Shifting the optimization to the early digital development phase enables more parameters to participate in the optimization and leads to a more holistic development process. Digital NVH development often [...] Read more.
Noise vibration and harshness (NVH) development often takes place in the later development phases. Shifting the optimization to the early digital development phase enables more parameters to participate in the optimization and leads to a more holistic development process. Digital NVH development often modifies system and component frequency response functions (FRFs) using finite element (FE) simulation. Currently, the often manual process of creating new FE models for modified designs makes a systematic evaluation of many designs difficult and time-consuming. In this paper, we take on these difficulties and use both a Direct Morphing approach and a Box Morphing approach to automatically adopt the first existing FE models to modified designs. We use the generated simulation results to fit metamodels describing the correlation between geometrical parameters and characteristic FRF values. These metamodels provide an easy and fast to use tool for designers to consider NVH demands. In a simulation example, we demonstrate the capabilities by modifying the kinematic hard points of a vehicle suspension and using them to modify the noise transfer sensitivity. We show that the metamodels can lead the digital design process to intuitively and specifically reduce characteristic component FRF values by changing the location of the component hard points. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Paper Collection in Applied System Innovation)
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Open AccessReview
Barriers and Benefits of ICT Adoption in the Nigerian Construction Industry. A Comprehensive Literature Review
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2020, 3(4), 46; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/asi3040046 - 06 Nov 2020
Viewed by 810
Abstract
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is seen as a way to enhance knowledge collection in the construction sector. Although the theoretical benefits of ICT implementation have been clarified, realizing such benefits is insufficient. This paper attempted a systematic analysis of the literature using [...] Read more.
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is seen as a way to enhance knowledge collection in the construction sector. Although the theoretical benefits of ICT implementation have been clarified, realizing such benefits is insufficient. This paper attempted a systematic analysis of the literature using ATLAS.ti 9 software to save, identify, and analyze this study’s data. A total of 102 articles were actively reviewed, including 82 Scopus journals and 20 conference papers published from 2003 to 2020. In this article, from a construction industry point of view, the ICT adoption process is considered as an interaction between technology, task, and an individual from a construction industry perspective. While ICT is acknowledged as a source of aggressive gain by both practitioners and scholars, ICT’s sole presence would definitely not guarantee achievement in the industry’s ICT approval. Companies cannot grasp the full benefits of ICT, except that users are able to adopt the technology. Hence, the issues related to ICT adoption need to be examined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systems and Industries in Response to COVID-19 Crisis)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Towards a More Robust Non-Rigid Robotic Joint
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2020, 3(4), 45; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/asi3040045 - 20 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 592
Abstract
The following paper presents an improved, low cost, non-rigid joint that can be used in both robotic manipulators and leg-based traction robotic systems. This joint is an improvement over the previous one presented by the same authors because it is more robust. The [...] Read more.
The following paper presents an improved, low cost, non-rigid joint that can be used in both robotic manipulators and leg-based traction robotic systems. This joint is an improvement over the previous one presented by the same authors because it is more robust. The design iterations are presented and the final system has been modeled including some nonlinear blocks. A control architecture is proposed that allows compliant control to be used under adverse conditions or in uncontrolled environments. The presented joint is a cost-effective solution that can be used when normal rigid joints are not suitable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Industrial Application of Communication Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of the Evolution of the COVID-19 Disease between Romania and Italy
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2020, 3(4), 44; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/asi3040044 - 14 Oct 2020
Viewed by 701
Abstract
After the outbreak of COVID-19 in Italy, thousands of Romanian citizens who worked in Northern Italy, Spain or Germany returned to Romania. Based on the time-dependent susceptible–infected–recovered—SIR model, this paper compares the evolution of the COVID-19 disease between Romania and Italy, assuming that [...] Read more.
After the outbreak of COVID-19 in Italy, thousands of Romanian citizens who worked in Northern Italy, Spain or Germany returned to Romania. Based on the time-dependent susceptible–infected–recovered—SIR model, this paper compares the evolution of the COVID-19 disease between Romania and Italy, assuming that the parameter value of R0 in the time-dependent SIR model decreases to R1 < R0 after publicly announced restrictions by the government, and increases to a value of R2 < R1 when the restrictions are lifted. Among other things, we answer the questions about the date and extent of the second peak in Italy and Romania with respect to different values of R2 and the duration of the restrictions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Analysis of Classification Algorithms Using CNN Transferable Features: A Case Study Using Burn Datasets from Black Africans
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2020, 3(4), 43; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/asi3040043 - 14 Oct 2020
Viewed by 553
Abstract
Burn is a devastating injury affecting over eleven million people worldwide and more than 265,000 affected individuals lost their lives every year. Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have surging cases of more than 90% of the total global incidences due to poor socioeconomic [...] Read more.
Burn is a devastating injury affecting over eleven million people worldwide and more than 265,000 affected individuals lost their lives every year. Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have surging cases of more than 90% of the total global incidences due to poor socioeconomic conditions, lack of preventive measures, reliance on subjective and inaccurate assessment techniques and lack of access to nearby hospitals. These factors necessitate the need for a better objective and cost-effective assessment technique that can be easily deployed in remote areas and hospitals where expertise and reliable burn evaluation is lacking. Therefore, this study proposes the use of Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) features along with different classification algorithms to discriminate between burnt and healthy skin using dataset from Black-African patients. A pretrained CNN model (VGG16) is used to extract abstract discriminatory image features and this approach was due to limited burn images which made it infeasible to train a CNN model from scratch. Subsequently, decision tree, support vector machines (SVM), naïve Bayes, logistic regression, and k-nearest neighbour (KNN) are used to classify whether a given image is burnt or healthy based on the VGG16 features. The performances of these classification algorithms were extensively analysed using the VGG16 features from different layers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Machine Learning Techniques, Applications and Developments)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
New Compact Wearable Metamaterials Circular Patch Antennas for IoT, Medical and 5G Applications
Appl. Syst. Innov. 2020, 3(4), 42; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/asi3040042 - 08 Oct 2020
Viewed by 755
Abstract
The development of compact passive and active wearable circular patch metamaterials antennas for communication, Internet of Things (IoT) and biomedical systems is presented in this paper. Development of compact efficient low-cost wearable antennas are one of the most significant challenges in development of [...] Read more.
The development of compact passive and active wearable circular patch metamaterials antennas for communication, Internet of Things (IoT) and biomedical systems is presented in this paper. Development of compact efficient low-cost wearable antennas are one of the most significant challenges in development of wearable communication, IoT and medical systems. Moreover, the advantage of an integrated compact low-cost feed network is attained by integrating the antenna feed network with the antennas on the same printed board. The efficiency of communication systems may be increased by using efficient passive and active antennas. The system dynamic range may be improved by connecting amplifiers to the printed antenna feed line. Design, design considerations, computed and measured results of wearable circular patch meta-materials antennas with high efficiency for 5G, IoT and biomedical applications are presented in this paper. The circular patch antennas electrical parameters on the human body were analyzed by using commercial full-wave software. The circular patch metamaterial wearable antennas are compact and flexible. The directivity and gain of the antennas with Circular Split-Ring Resonators (CSRR) is higher by 2.5dB to 3dB than the antennas without CSRR. The resonant frequency of the antennas without CSRR is higher by 6% to 9% than the antennas with CSRR. The computed and measured bandwidth of the stacked circular patch wearable antenna with CSRR for IoT and medical applications is around 12%, for S11 lover than −6dB. The gain of the circular patch wearable antenna with CSRR is around 8dBi. Full article
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