2. Fire–Wind Interaction
2.1. Fanning Effects of Wind
2.2. Effects of Wind Direction and Slope Angle on Fire
2.3. Fire Modelling and Wind Interaction
3. Fire–Wind Interaction and Structures
3.1. Effect of Wind Transition from Wildland to WUI
3.2. Effect of Wind–Fire Interaction on Urban Buildings
3.2.1. Fire–Wind Interaction Effects on Low-Rise Building
3.2.2. Fire–Wind Interaction Effects on High-Rise Buildings
- In all structural tests, the WCDs decreased the temperatures in the stairwell and the corridor.
- The streams of water suppressed the fires, leading to decreases of over 50% in the stairwell and corridor temperature.
- When positive pressure ventilation fans are used along with WCDs, fans can maintain clear and reasonable conditions in the stairwell. The main reason for the successful usage of positive pressure ventilation fans was to reduce the wind-driven fire conditions through door control or other techniques.
4. Conclusions and Future Challenges
- The behaviours of airflow are of primary importance in determining fire progression on the rate of thermal release associated with buildings.
- At a WUI, both structural and wildland fuels are combined. Simulations of this regime must consider the coupling effects between structural and wildland fuels.
- Ventilation operation mitigates the hazards of wind-driven fires. The effectiveness of this operation was found to decline with increasing wind speed.
- Using wind-control devices (WCDs) is suggested to maintain safe conditions for firefighters. In all tests, the use of WCDs decreased observed temperatures.
- As positive pressure ventilation is applied along with WCDs, fans are able to maintain acceptable conditions (as the fan was turned on, it takes time for the fire to obtain its rate of peak burning, and the stream of gases was forced away from the entrance).
- Using sprinklers dramatically reduces the thermal fluxes and temperature.
5. Future Directions
- An accurate analysis of fire behaviour in compartments of low and high-rise structures in wind environments are required to find efficient methods to assess compartment fire smoke control and travel.
- The other side of the coupled interaction of wind and fire is the enhancement of the wind downstream of a fire source. Investigation of the impact of fire on wind is not adequately conducted and needs further exploration.
- Although there are some studies on wildland–urban interface fires, little effort has been allocated to serious analysis of the physical aspects of wildland–urban interface fire propagation. In addition, it is hoped that further simulation endeavours might produce better cooperation and communication between fire safety specialists and WUI scientists.
- More research around real size structures is needed to fully comprehend the capability of firefighters to work with the proposed tactics, and to assess the interaction of these tactics with structure ventilation methods (both natural and positive pressure ventilation).
- Further investigation is required to analyse the critical wind velocity at the stairways and doorways of high-rise buildings.
- Improvement of new techniques for smoke exhaust devices including exact impact of external aerodynamic elements on smoke ventilators (considering a wide range of wind speeds and angles) is needed.
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Exp.||Descriptions||Heat Release Rate (MW)||Temperature of Hall Thermocouple Array (°C)||Max Heat Flux (kW/m2)||CO2 (% Volume) from the Lower Living Room Sampling Location|
|1||There is not any external wind to the building. Once the fire within the building was identified to be fully improved, the fire was suppressed by safety sprinklers located in the building. The outcomes are associated with the time interval of begin suppression and window venting.||1.5–14||300–1200||30–90||5–18|
|2||2 WCD were applied (the outcomes are associated with the time interval of WCD off and WCD on)||15–2||800–350||100–20||16–11|
|3||2 WCD and a tiny water spray were applied (the outcomes are associated with the time interval of Sprinkler on and WCD on)||20–1.5||800–300||140–50||17–6|
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