This review aims to highlight the various significant matters in glial research stemming from personal work by the author and associates at the Unit of Applied Neurobiology (UNA, CEMIC-CONICET), and some of the pending questions. A reassessment and further comments on interlaminar astrocytes—an astroglial cell type that is specific to humans and other non-human primates, and is not found in rodents, is presented. Tentative hypothesis regarding their function and future possible research lines that could contribute to further the analysis of their development and possible role(s), are suggested. The possibility that they function as a separate entity from the “territorial” astrocytes, is also considered. In addition, the potential significance of our observations on interspecies differences in in vitro glial cell dye coupling, on glial diffusible factors affecting the induction of this glial phenotype, and on their interference with the cellular toxic effects of cerebrospinal fluid obtained from l
-DOPA treated patients with Parkinson´s disease, is also considered. The major differences oberved in the cerebral cortex glial layout between human and rodents—the main model for studying glial function and pathology—calls for a careful assessment of known and potential species differences in all aspects of glial cell biology. This is essential to provide a better understanding of the organization and function of human and non-human primate brain, and of the neurobiological basis of their behavior.
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