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Volume 1, December

Neuroglia, Volume 2, Issue 1 (December 2021) – 6 articles

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Article
Direct Deviations in Astrocyte Free Ca2+ Concentration Control Multiple Arteriole Tone States
Neuroglia 2021, 2(1), 48-56; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/neuroglia2010006 - 14 Oct 2021
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Abstract
Astrocytes elicit bidirectional control of microvascular diameter in acutely isolated brain slices through vasoconstriction and vasodilation pathways that can be differentially recruited via the free Ca2+ concentration in endfeet and/or the metabolic status of the tissue. However, the Ca2+-level hypothesis [...] Read more.
Astrocytes elicit bidirectional control of microvascular diameter in acutely isolated brain slices through vasoconstriction and vasodilation pathways that can be differentially recruited via the free Ca2+ concentration in endfeet and/or the metabolic status of the tissue. However, the Ca2+-level hypothesis has not been tested using direct manipulation. To overcome this, we used Ca2+-clamp whole-cell patching of peri-arteriole astrocytes to change astrocyte-free Ca2+ to different concentrations and examined the vascular response. We discovered that clamping Ca2+ at the approximate resting value (100 nM) had no impact on arteriole diameter in a pre-constricted arteriole. However, a moderate elevation to 250 nM elicited sustained vasodilation that was blocked by the COX-1 antagonist SC-560 (500 nM). The vasodilation to 250 nM Ca2+ was sensitive to the metabolic state, as it converted to vasoconstriction when oxygen tension was dramatically elevated. In normal oxygen, clamping astrocyte Ca2+ well above the resting level (750 nM) produced sustained vasoconstriction, which converted to vasodilation in the 20-HETE blocker HET0016 (1 μM). This response was fully blocked by the addition of SC-560 (500 nM), showing that 20-HETE-induced vasoconstriction dominated the dilatory action of COX-1. These data demonstrate that direct changes in astrocyte free Ca2+ can control multiple arteriole tone states through different mediators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamic Vascular-Glial-Neuronal Interactions in Health and Disease)
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Review
Neurovascular Coupling in Seizures
Neuroglia 2021, 2(1), 36-47; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/neuroglia2010005 - 11 Oct 2021
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Abstract
Neurovascular coupling is a key control mechanism in cerebral blood flow (CBF) regulation. Importantly, this process was demonstrated to be affected in several neurological disorders, including epilepsy. Neurovascular coupling (NVC) is the basis for functional brain imaging, such as PET, SPECT, fMRI, and [...] Read more.
Neurovascular coupling is a key control mechanism in cerebral blood flow (CBF) regulation. Importantly, this process was demonstrated to be affected in several neurological disorders, including epilepsy. Neurovascular coupling (NVC) is the basis for functional brain imaging, such as PET, SPECT, fMRI, and fNIRS, to assess and map neuronal activity, thus understanding NVC is critical to properly interpret functional imaging signals. However, hemodynamics, as assessed by these functional imaging techniques, continue to be used as a surrogate to map seizure activity; studies of NVC and cerebral blood flow control during and following seizures are rare. Recent studies have provided conflicting results, with some studies showing focal increases in CBF at the onset of a seizure while others show decreases. In this brief review article, we provide an overview of the current knowledge state of neurovascular coupling and discuss seizure-related alterations in neurovascular coupling and CBF control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamic Vascular-Glial-Neuronal Interactions in Health and Disease)
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Review
Hypothesis: Neuroglia Activation Due to Increased Peripheral and CNS Proinflammatory Cytokines/Chemokines with Neuroinflammation May Result in Long COVID
Neuroglia 2021, 2(1), 7-35; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/neuroglia2010004 - 30 Aug 2021
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Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has paralleled the great Spanish flu pandemic of 1918–1919 in the United States. Previous historical accounts have strongly suggested a post-viral syndrome and, currently, a post-COVID-19 viral syndrome is unquestionable, which shares many of the characteristics of myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has paralleled the great Spanish flu pandemic of 1918–1919 in the United States. Previous historical accounts have strongly suggested a post-viral syndrome and, currently, a post-COVID-19 viral syndrome is unquestionable, which shares many of the characteristics of myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome that is present globally. The original term for this post-acute sequela of SARS-CoV-2 (PASC) was termed long haulers by those who were affected with this syndrome and it is now termed long COVID (LC) or PASC. International researchers and clinicians are desperately trying to better understand the pathobiological mechanisms possibly involved in this syndrome. This review aims to summarize many of the cumulated findings associated with LC/PASC and provides supportive and representative illustrations and transmission electron micrographic remodeling changes within brain tissues associated with a stress type of injury as occurs in the classic db/db and novel BTBR ob/ob obesity and diabetes mellitus mice models. These models are utilized to merely provide a response to metabolic stress injury wound healing mechanisms that are also present in humans. This review posits that neuroglial activation and chronic neuroinflammation may be a common denominator for the development of the complex LC/PASC syndrome following acute COVID-19 due to SARS-CoV-2. Full article
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Editorial
Neuroglia—An Open Access Journal: Editor-in-Chief Biography
Neuroglia 2021, 2(1), 4-6; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/neuroglia2010003 - 11 Jun 2021
Viewed by 501
Abstract
James St John grew up in Melbourne, Australia and started his scientific career in agricultural science [...] Full article
Editorial
Neuroglia—An Open Access Journal
Neuroglia 2021, 2(1), 2-3; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/neuroglia2010002 - 04 Jun 2021
Viewed by 587
Abstract
Welcome to Neuroglia, a new Open Access MDPI journal which will report original research articles and reviews on studies of neuroglia [...] Full article
Editorial
Publisher’s Note: Resumed Publication of Neuroglia by MDPI
Neuroglia 2021, 2(1), 1; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/neuroglia2010001 - 27 Apr 2021
Viewed by 453
Abstract
Since the launch of the first journal Molecules [...] Full article
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