Neurovascular coupling is a key control mechanism in cerebral blood flow (CBF) regulation. Importantly, this process was demonstrated to be affected in several neurological disorders, including epilepsy. Neurovascular coupling (NVC) is the basis for functional brain imaging, such as PET, SPECT, fMRI, and fNIRS, to assess and map neuronal activity, thus understanding NVC is critical to properly interpret functional imaging signals. However, hemodynamics, as assessed by these functional imaging techniques, continue to be used as a surrogate to map seizure activity; studies of NVC and cerebral blood flow control during and following seizures are rare. Recent studies have provided conflicting results, with some studies showing focal increases in CBF at the onset of a seizure while others show decreases. In this brief review article, we provide an overview of the current knowledge state of neurovascular coupling and discuss seizure-related alterations in neurovascular coupling and CBF control.
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