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Neuroglia, Volume 3, Issue 2 (June 2022) – 2 articles

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Article
Fabp7 Is Required for Normal Sleep Suppression and Anxiety-Associated Phenotype following Single-Prolonged Stress in Mice
Neuroglia 2022, 3(2), 73-83; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/neuroglia3020005 - 13 May 2022
Viewed by 507
Abstract
Humans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) exhibit sleep disturbances that include insomnia, nightmares, and enhanced daytime sleepiness. Sleep disturbances are considered a hallmark feature of PTSD; however, little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating trauma-induced sleep disorders. Using a rodent [...] Read more.
Humans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) exhibit sleep disturbances that include insomnia, nightmares, and enhanced daytime sleepiness. Sleep disturbances are considered a hallmark feature of PTSD; however, little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating trauma-induced sleep disorders. Using a rodent model of PTSD called “Single Prolonged Stress” (SPS) we examined the requirement of the brain-type fatty acid binding protein Fabp7, an astrocyte expressed lipid-signaling molecule, in mediating trauma-induced sleep disturbances. We measured baseline sleep/wake parameters and then exposed Fabp7 knock-out (KO) and wild-type (WT) C57BL/6N genetic background control animals to SPS. Sleep and wake measurements were obtained immediately following the initial trauma exposure of SPS, and again 7 days later. We found that active-phase (dark period) wakefulness was similar in KO and WT at baseline and immediately following SPS; however, it was significantly increased after 7 days. These effects were opposite in the inactive-phase (light period), where KOs exhibited increased wake in baseline and following SPS, but returned to WT levels after 7 days. To examine the effects of Fabp7 on unconditioned anxiety following trauma, we exposed KO and WT mice to the light–dark box test before and after SPS. Prior to SPS, KO and WT mice spent similar amounts of time in the lit compartment. Following SPS, KO mice spent significantly more time in the lit compartment compared to WT mice. These results demonstrate that mutations in an astrocyte-expressed gene (Fabp7) influence changes in stress-dependent sleep disturbances and associated anxiety behavior. Full article
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Article
Establishment of a Simple and Versatile Evaporation Compensation Model for In Vitro Chronic Ethanol Treatment: Impact on Neuronal Viability
Neuroglia 2022, 3(2), 61-72; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/neuroglia3020004 - 06 Apr 2022
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Abstract
Alcohol overconsumption is a major cause of preventable mental disorders and death in the United States and around the world. The pathogenesis of alcohol dependence, abuse, and toxicity to the central nervous system remains incompletely understood. Cell culture-based models have been highly valuable [...] Read more.
Alcohol overconsumption is a major cause of preventable mental disorders and death in the United States and around the world. The pathogenesis of alcohol dependence, abuse, and toxicity to the central nervous system remains incompletely understood. Cell culture-based models have been highly valuable in studying the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the contribution of individual CNS cell types to ethanol’s effects on the brain. However, conventional cell culture model systems carry the inherent disadvantage of rapid loss of ethanol due to evaporation following a bolus addition of ethanol at the start of the treatment. In this study, we have established a multi-well cell culture plate-based ethanol evaporation compensation model that utilizes the inter-well space as a reservoir to compensate for the evaporative loss of ethanol in the cell treatment wells. Following a single bolus addition at the start, ethanol concentration in the treatment wells rapidly decreased over time. Through compensation using the multi-well plate platform, maintenance of ethanol concentrations ranging from 10–100 mM was achieved for up to 72 h in a cell-free system. Furthermore, greater effects on ethanol-induced decrease in the viability of human dopaminergic neuronal cells were observed with than without evaporation compensation. Our method effectively compensates for the evaporative loss of ethanol typically observed in the traditional treatment method and provides a simple and economic in vitro model system for ethanol treatment over an extended timeframe where maintenance of a relatively constant concentration of ethanol is desired. Full article
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