Next Issue
Volume 4, June
Previous Issue
Volume 3, December

Reports, Volume 4, Issue 1 (March 2021) – 8 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The immune system has complementary functions, defending the organism from bacteria, viruses, or tumor cells (immune response), but also following a narrow line, it identifies and respects its own structures. For this immunological tolerance, there are key points such as CTLA-4 or PD-1 that modulate the activation of the immune system. Blocking these pathways with Tremelimumab (anti-CTLA-4 antibody) or Durvalumab (anti-PD-L1 antibody), immune response against cancer is boosted, but autoimmune diseases are frequently triggered by breaking previous immune tolerance as adverse events. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Review
Ultrasonographic Findings in Common Thyroid and Parathyroid Disorders—Advantages of Real Time Observation by the Endocrinologist with their Own Ultrasound Machine
Reports 2021, 4(1), 8; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/reports4010008 - 23 Mar 2021
Viewed by 482
Abstract
In this review we discuss the significance of the main ultrasonographic features of common thyroid and parathyroid conditions, with a focus on the advantages of real time observation. The thyroid specialist, defined as an endocrinologist with a major interest in thyroid disorders and [...] Read more.
In this review we discuss the significance of the main ultrasonographic features of common thyroid and parathyroid conditions, with a focus on the advantages of real time observation. The thyroid specialist, defined as an endocrinologist with a major interest in thyroid disorders and access to a portable ultrasound machine, can correlate what they see with the thyroid blood test results and clinical findings in a way that is not available to the general endocrinologist who relies on the interpretation by the consultant radiologist of ultrasound images prepared by a technician. We also discuss the significance of the small, very bright, intra nodular microcalcifications found in benign colloid nodules, which we call “colloid spots” and the difference between these and the 3–4 mm soft microcalcifications that are 90% specific for papillary thyroid cancer and provide a new system for staging the inflammatory changes in Hashimoto thyroiditis, as observed on ultrasonography. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Brief Report
AHR:IKAROS Interaction Promotes Platelet Biogenesis in Response to SR1
Reports 2021, 4(1), 7; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/reports4010007 - 02 Mar 2021
Viewed by 689
Abstract
In vitro, the differentiation of megakaryocytes (MKs) is improved by aryl-hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) antagonists such as StemRegenin 1 (SR1), an effect physiologically recapitulated by the presence of stromal mesenchymal cells (MSC). This inhibition promotes the amplification of a CD34+CD41low population [...] Read more.
In vitro, the differentiation of megakaryocytes (MKs) is improved by aryl-hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) antagonists such as StemRegenin 1 (SR1), an effect physiologically recapitulated by the presence of stromal mesenchymal cells (MSC). This inhibition promotes the amplification of a CD34+CD41low population able to mature as MKs with a high capacity for platelet production. In this short report, we showed that the emergence of the thrombocytogenic precursors and the enhancement of platelet production triggered by SR1 involved IKAROS. The downregulation/inhibition of IKAROS (shRNA or lenalidomide) significantly reduced the emergence of SR1-induced thrombocytogenic population, suggesting a crosstalk between AHR and IKAROS. Interestingly, using a proximity ligation assay, we could demonstrate a physical interaction between AHR and IKAROS. This interaction was also observed in the megakaryocytic cells differentiated in the presence of MSCs. In conclusion, our study revealed a previously unknown AHR/ IKAROS -dependent pathway which prompted the expansion of the thrombocytogenic precursors. This AHR- IKAROS dependent checkpoint controlling MK maturation opens new perspectives to platelet production engineering. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Metagenome Techniques for Detection of Pathogens Causing Ocular Infection
Reports 2021, 4(1), 6; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/reports4010006 - 02 Mar 2021
Viewed by 538
Abstract
Metagenomic analysis is the comprehensive study of DNA using clinical specimens of organisms including bacteria, fungi, and viruses. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of metagenomic analysis for diagnosing ocular infections, including 11 keratitis cases, four iridocyclitis cases, and one endophthalmitis case. [...] Read more.
Metagenomic analysis is the comprehensive study of DNA using clinical specimens of organisms including bacteria, fungi, and viruses. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of metagenomic analysis for diagnosing ocular infections, including 11 keratitis cases, four iridocyclitis cases, and one endophthalmitis case. Corneal scraping, aqueous humor, and vitreous humor, were collected respectively. Ocular specimens were used for bacterial and fungal culture, and PCR for detecting viral DNA. Shotgun metagenomic sequencing for 150 bases of single end was performed by Illumina MiSeq® System. Sequence was retrieved from the database at NCBI using a MegaBLAST search. Since Propionibacterium spp. are commensal bacteria found at the ocular surface, they were excluded from analysis. Six cases (37.5%) were positive for culture or PCR. Metagenome techniques revealed that 9 cases (56.3%) included genomes of organisms that were considered pathogenic in specimens. Five cases (31.3%) possessed genomes of organisms like themselves that were detected by culture and PCR. Six cases (37.5%) were negative for culture, PCR, and metagenome analysis. Moreover, viral pathogens (HSV-1, 2 cases; and VZV, 1 case) were detected by only metagenome analysis. Metagenome analysis using an ocular sample can detect microbial genome comprehensively, and viral pathogens, which were not detected by conventional examination. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Case Report
A Case Report of Spindle Cell Carcinoma with Osteoid and Cartilage Formation in the Tongue
Reports 2021, 4(1), 5; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/reports4010005 - 22 Feb 2021
Viewed by 531
Abstract
Spindle cell carcinoma (SCSCC) with osteoid and/or cartilage formation in the head and neck is rare; only one case was reported in the tongue. Herein, we report an SCSCC with osteoid and cartilage formation of the tongue developed in an 85-year-old man, and [...] Read more.
Spindle cell carcinoma (SCSCC) with osteoid and/or cartilage formation in the head and neck is rare; only one case was reported in the tongue. Herein, we report an SCSCC with osteoid and cartilage formation of the tongue developed in an 85-year-old man, and then review the report. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Case Report
A Case Report of Primordial Odontogenic Tumor That Required Distinction from a Dentigerous Cyst
Reports 2021, 4(1), 4; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/reports4010004 - 09 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1158
Abstract
Primordial odontogenic tumor (POT) is a rare odontogenic tumor characterized by a variably cellular loose fibrous tissue with areas similar to the dental papilla and covered by cuboidal to columnar epithelium. We herein report a case of POT in a 14-year-old boy. Computed [...] Read more.
Primordial odontogenic tumor (POT) is a rare odontogenic tumor characterized by a variably cellular loose fibrous tissue with areas similar to the dental papilla and covered by cuboidal to columnar epithelium. We herein report a case of POT in a 14-year-old boy. Computed tomography (CT) exhibited a round cavity with a defined cortical border circumscribing the tooth of the second molar. However, the gross finding was a solid mass, not a cyst. Histologically, the tumor consisted of dental papillalike myxoid connective tissue covered by columnar epithelium. Therefore, although the clinical diagnosis was dentigerous cyst (DC), we diagnosed POT based on histologic findings. Clinical findings of POT resemble DC, but the clinical behavior of POT is different to DC, such as cortical expansion and root resorption of teeth. Therefore, histological differentiation of POT from DC is critical for accurate diagnosis. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Editorial
Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Reports in 2020
by
Reports 2021, 4(1), 3; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/reports4010003 - 25 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 632
Abstract
Peer review is the driving force of journal development, and reviewers are gatekeepers who ensure that Reports maintains its standards for the high quality of its published papers [...] Full article
Case Report
A Possible Accessory Muscle of the Serratus Posterior Superior Muscle
Reports 2021, 4(1), 2; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/reports4010002 - 25 Jan 2021
Viewed by 759
Abstract
Anatomical variation is defined as the normal range of possibilities in the topography and morphology of body structures. In contrast, an anomaly is any structural or functional anatomical finding beyond the normal range of possibilities. This case study describes a muscular anomaly found [...] Read more.
Anatomical variation is defined as the normal range of possibilities in the topography and morphology of body structures. In contrast, an anomaly is any structural or functional anatomical finding beyond the normal range of possibilities. This case study describes a muscular anomaly found in a 73-year-old preserved Caucasian male. We observed a left-sided anomalous muscle originating from the transverse process of the C1 (Atlas) vertebra and inserting onto the proximal attachment of the serratus posterior superior (SPS) muscle at the C7 level. We suggest that this anomaly is a result of early embryological development and hypothesize that the atypical neck muscle may reinforce the action of the SPS. This finding is rare and no reference of it can be found in the literature. Reporting anatomical anomalies is important for the medical literature and education. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Case Report
Polyglandular Autoimmune Syndrome Triggered after CTLA-4 and PD-1L Immunotherapy Treatment
Reports 2021, 4(1), 1; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/reports4010001 - 14 Jan 2021
Viewed by 690
Abstract
Background: CTLA-4 and PD-1L are novel immune checkpoint targets for cancer treatment with specific side effects such as autoimmune diseases. Less frequently, the presence of several autoimmune diseases in the same patient has been described. In this communication, we illustrate the case of [...] Read more.
Background: CTLA-4 and PD-1L are novel immune checkpoint targets for cancer treatment with specific side effects such as autoimmune diseases. Less frequently, the presence of several autoimmune diseases in the same patient has been described. In this communication, we illustrate the case of a 45-year-old patient with a previous diagnosis of advanced cancer that, after starting treatment with this immunotherapy, developed in the following months autoimmune diabetes, lymphocytic hypophysitis, and a Hashimoto thyroiditis in an abrupt and intense manner that would correspond to an autoimmune polyglandular disease. Discussion: The activation of autoimmunity and associated diseases is increasing in parallel with augmented indication of these immunotherapeutic treatments in cancer patients. A closer follow-up of these patients could be necessary for an optimal approach to this type of pathology. Conclusions: Different autoimmune diseases can converge in the same patient when immunotherapy for cancer is indicated to boost immune response against tumor, caused by altering immune tolerance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Case Reports of Autoimmune Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop