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Volume 4, June

Reports, Volume 4, Issue 3 (September 2021) – 11 articles

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Article
A Locally Advanced Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma Arising from Vaginal Endometriosis: Management and Review of the Literature
Reports 2021, 4(3), 29; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/reports4030029 (registering DOI) - 17 Sep 2021
Abstract
Endometrioid adenocarcinoma associated with endometriosis at extrauterine or extraovarian localization is a rare entity. Often presenting with local spread without nodal and distant metastasis, this entity has no specific staging system nor treatment guidelines. In the case of nodal and distant spread, the [...] Read more.
Endometrioid adenocarcinoma associated with endometriosis at extrauterine or extraovarian localization is a rare entity. Often presenting with local spread without nodal and distant metastasis, this entity has no specific staging system nor treatment guidelines. In the case of nodal and distant spread, the treatment decision requires personalization. In this article, we present the diagnosis and surgical and systemic treatment of a 56-year-old woman diagnosed with an endometriosis-associated advanced endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the vagina with nodal involvement. Following an extensive review of the scarce data reported to guide the treatment choices in this rare setting, we proposed a multidisciplinary treatment with laparoscopic surgical cytoreduction, four cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy with carboplatin and paclitaxel, and radiotherapy with brachytherapy. Due to an anaphylactic reaction on the first administration, paclitaxel was replaced with nab-paclitaxel. Despite many negative prognostic factors, the patient is free from relapse after 48 months. We report the case of a locally advanced endometrioid adenocarcinoma associated with endometriosis of the vagina, with pelvic nodal spread, and the relevant literature review of similar cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cancer Biology and Therapy)
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Case Report
Rapidly Growing Aneurysm with Ulcer-like Projection Complicated with Bacteroides ovatus Bacteremia
Reports 2021, 4(3), 28; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/reports4030028 - 03 Sep 2021
Viewed by 413
Abstract
The incidence of anaerobic bacteremia has been increasing over the past several decades. Further, antibiotic resistance in Bacteroides is a pertinent issue. A 76-year-old man was brought to our hospital with complaints of fever, chills, and abdominal pain. Empiric antibiotics induced minimal relief. [...] Read more.
The incidence of anaerobic bacteremia has been increasing over the past several decades. Further, antibiotic resistance in Bacteroides is a pertinent issue. A 76-year-old man was brought to our hospital with complaints of fever, chills, and abdominal pain. Empiric antibiotics induced minimal relief. The blood culture was positive for multi-drug resistant Bacteroides ovatus. Our patient developed a periaortic abscess in the abdominal aorta and a thoracic aortic aneurysm with ulcer-like projection (ULP), which rapidly increased in size. He was transferred to the tertiary medical institution for surgical drainage. This case suggests that bacteremia can exacerbate aneurysms with ulcerative lesions. Anaerobic bacteremia is a possible differential diagnosis when periaortic abscess formation is present. Early surgical consultation and appropriate antibiotic selection are crucial in anaerobic bacteremia treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Case Reports in Oncology)
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Case Report
Clinical Discernment, Bone Marrow, and Molecular Diagnostics Are Equally Important to Solve the Phenotypic Mimicry among Subtypes of Myeloproliferative Neoplasms
Reports 2021, 4(3), 27; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/reports4030027 - 27 Aug 2021
Viewed by 228
Abstract
The 2016 WHO classification integrates clinical, bone marrow (BM)-morphology, and molecular features to define disease entities. This together with the advancements in molecular detection and standardization of BM features enable an accurate diagnosis of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) in the majority of patients. Diagnostic [...] Read more.
The 2016 WHO classification integrates clinical, bone marrow (BM)-morphology, and molecular features to define disease entities. This together with the advancements in molecular detection and standardization of BM features enable an accurate diagnosis of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) in the majority of patients. Diagnostic challenges remain due to phenotypic mimicry of MPN, failing specificity of BM-morphology, and the fact that phenotype-driver mutations, such as JAK2V617F, are not exclusive to a particular MPN, and their absence does not preclude any of these. We present a series of cases to illustrate themes to be considered in complex cases of MPN, such as triple-negative (TN)-MPN or MPN-unclassifiable (MPN-U). Eleven patients labelled as TN-MPN or MPN-U were included. Serum tryptase and NGS were part of a systematic/sequential multidisciplinary evaluation. Results were clustered into four categories based on diagnostic entities and/or how these diagnoses were made: (A) With expanding molecular techniques, BCR-ABL1 and karyotyping should not be missed; (B) systemic mastocytosis is underdiagnosed and often missed; (C) benign non-clonal disorders could mimic MPN; and (D) NGS could prove clonality in some “TN”-MPN cases. The prognostic/therapeutic consequences of an accurate diagnosis are immense. In TN-MPN or MPN-U cases, a multidisciplinary re-evaluation integrating molecular results, BM-morphology, and clinical judgment is crucial. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Case Reports in Oncology)
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Case Report
Tear Liquid for Predictive Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease
Reports 2021, 4(3), 26; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/reports4030026 - 25 Aug 2021
Viewed by 627
Abstract
The common approach of the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is made with an analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid or the study of retinal fundus and the plaques formation through optical corneal tomography (OCT), or more simply with a fundus camera. Tears analysis [...] Read more.
The common approach of the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is made with an analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid or the study of retinal fundus and the plaques formation through optical corneal tomography (OCT), or more simply with a fundus camera. Tears analysis is widely discussed in literature as an essential method to describe molecular and biochemical alterations in different diseases. The aim of our study was the identification with immunocytochemistry of Amyloid Beta-42 in tears from patients with or without familiarity for Alzheimer Disease, in order to make the diagnosis earlier and more accessible compared to other invasive methods. Our study was performed on tears from three phenotypically healthy subjects: two of them were Caucasian with Alzheimer familiarity (48 and 55 years old) and the other one was Asian without Alzheimer familiarity (45 years old) and affected by an adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis at the moment of withdrawal. Tear samples were collected from eye fornix and were examinated by immunocytochemistry (ICC) assay using anti-Amyloid Beta X-42 antibody. Two out of three tears samples showed positive Amyloid Beta-42. Considering that our patients were phenotypically healthy, the identification of Amyloid Beta-42 by ICC could be a candidable method to make the diagnosis of the disease earlier and more accessible and available then other current and invasive methods and it could be a candidate for a screening method too. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cyto-Histopathogical Correlations in Pathology Diagnostics)
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Article
Usefulness of Circulating CYFRA21-1 in Patients as a Biomarker in Patients Taking Sorafenib or Lenvatinib for Unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Reports 2021, 4(3), 25; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/reports4030025 - 20 Aug 2021
Viewed by 347
Abstract
Background: This study investigated the impact of serum cytokeratin 19 fragment (CYFRA21-1) level on the clinical outcomes of patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated with sorafenib (SOR) or lenvatinib (LEN). Methods: A total of 71 cases with unresectable HCC taking SOR or [...] Read more.
Background: This study investigated the impact of serum cytokeratin 19 fragment (CYFRA21-1) level on the clinical outcomes of patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated with sorafenib (SOR) or lenvatinib (LEN). Methods: A total of 71 cases with unresectable HCC taking SOR or LEN were included. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify the prognostic factors in patients taking SOR or LEN. Results: Among the 71 patients taking SOR or LEN, the frequency of cases showing high CYFRA21-1 levels after administration increased compared to before the administration. There was no association between the CYFRA21-1 level and the result of treatment response using modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (mRECIST) 12 weeks after the administration. Univariate analysis identified a maximum intrahepatic tumor diameter of 70 mm or more, extrahepatic metastasis, baseline alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) ≥ 2000 ng/mL, baseline AFP-L3 index ≥ 15%, baseline des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) ≥ 1000 mAU/mL, baseline CYFRA21-1 > 3.5 ng/mL, 12-week mRECIST progressive disease (PD), 12-week DCP ratio ≥ 4, 12-week CYFRA21-1 ratio ≥ 2, administration period less than 12 weeks, ALBI grade 3 at PD, and no additional treatment after discontinuation of SOR/LEN as prognostic factors. Multivariate analysis revealed that AFP-L3 index ≥ 15%, 12-week mRECIST PD, 12-week DCP ratio ≥ 4, 12-week CYFRA21-1 ratio ≥ 2, administration period less than 12 weeks, and no additional treatment after discontinuation of SOR/LEN were independent factors. Conclusions: Patients with a high CYFRA21-1 level at baseline tend to have poor prognosis, and patients with a high CYFRA21-1 ratio 12 weeks after administration have poor prognosis. Serum CYFRA21-1 measurement may have additional effects on prognostic prediction, and it may be necessary to pay close attention to the transition to the next HCC treatment in cases whose CYFRA21-1 level is high. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Case Reports in Oncology)
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Case Report
Lymphoepithelial Carcinoma in the Lateral Tongue: The Case Report
Reports 2021, 4(3), 24; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/reports4030024 - 12 Aug 2021
Viewed by 367
Abstract
Lymphoepithelial carcinoma (LEC) of the tongue is a rare subtype of squamous cell carcinoma. Histologically, it is an undifferentiated carcinoma with rich lymphocyte and plasma cell infiltration. The most common location for LEC in the head and neck is the salivary glands, and [...] Read more.
Lymphoepithelial carcinoma (LEC) of the tongue is a rare subtype of squamous cell carcinoma. Histologically, it is an undifferentiated carcinoma with rich lymphocyte and plasma cell infiltration. The most common location for LEC in the head and neck is the salivary glands, and LEC of the oral cavity is extremely rare. The second case report of LEC in the lateral tongue is presented. In addition, a review of the literature was performed, and the relationship between LEC and Epstein–Barr virus infection was considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Case Reports in Oncology)
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Article
The Role of General Practitioners in Suicide Prevention—What You Said and Did then Actually Saved My Life
Reports 2021, 4(3), 23; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/reports4030023 - 06 Aug 2021
Viewed by 281
Abstract
Background: General practitioners (GPs) have an important role in the prevention of suicidal behavior. The purpose of this study was to explore their views and experiences in identifying and assessing suicidal ideation. Methods: Ten GPs were recruited through convenience sampling based on accessibility, [...] Read more.
Background: General practitioners (GPs) have an important role in the prevention of suicidal behavior. The purpose of this study was to explore their views and experiences in identifying and assessing suicidal ideation. Methods: Ten GPs were recruited through convenience sampling based on accessibility, interest and willingness to participate. In-depth interviews were carried out, and the results were transcribed verbatim. Aspects of experiences with suicidal patients emerged through the thematic analysis process. Results: The GPs described the varied clinical picture when patients presented in their office. How they identified depressive symptoms apart from originally somatic complaints included forming a trusting relationship and addressing suicide ideation. They described customized interventions as well as obstacles and factors that facilitated communication, including time, their own personal traits, patient’s disclosure and organizational barriers. Conclusions: The levels of the suicidal process among patients in general practice vary greatly. GPs adjust their appraisals to profoundly understand and intervene to prevent a crisis of escalation into subsequent suicidal behavior. Full article
Case Report
Acute Facial Edema in a Patient with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Reports 2021, 4(3), 22; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/reports4030022 - 02 Aug 2021
Viewed by 394
Abstract
Allergies have been found to be associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, few reports have described angioedema occurring in elderly men with systemic lupus erythematosus. Herein, we report the case of an 85-year-old man who presented with angioedema with eosinophilia. The patient [...] Read more.
Allergies have been found to be associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, few reports have described angioedema occurring in elderly men with systemic lupus erythematosus. Herein, we report the case of an 85-year-old man who presented with angioedema with eosinophilia. The patient was initially thought to have a drug-induced allergy. The differentiation between allergic reactions caused by drugs and those caused by eosinophilia with SLE can be challenging. The effect of the withdrawal of the suspected culprit drug and allergic dermal findings can be key to differentiating the two conditions. SLE is prevalent among younger generations; hence, active immunity can induce various symptoms, including eosinophilia, which causes angioedema. Even older people with SLE can have a strong immune reaction, resulting in angioedema with eosinophilia. In cases of localized facial edema in elderly patients with SLE, it is critical to consider angioedema caused by eosinophilia as a differential diagnosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Case Reports of Autoimmune Diseases)
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Case Report
Early Detection of Post-Endarterectomy Complication by Point-of-Care Ultrasound
Reports 2021, 4(3), 21; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/reports4030021 - 08 Jul 2021
Viewed by 435
Abstract
Endarterectomy is an effective intervention to remove the atheromatous plaque in the inner lining of the artery, aiming to revascularize the occluded/stenosed vessel in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). The most common wound-related complication is postoperative bleeding, followed by infection, hematoma, [...] Read more.
Endarterectomy is an effective intervention to remove the atheromatous plaque in the inner lining of the artery, aiming to revascularize the occluded/stenosed vessel in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). The most common wound-related complication is postoperative bleeding, followed by infection, hematoma, and seroma. However, hematoma complications with air surrounded have rarely been reported in clinical cases. Case presentation: A 90-year-old female patient visited our emergency department because of a rapidly growing hematoma with pulsatile bleeding over her right groin area. She had received bilateral percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with endarterectomy for PAOD one month prior. A point-of-care ultrasound revealed a large hypoechoic mass, with a dirty shadow on the right groin area. Computed tomography angiography showed a hematoma over her right femoral region, with free air surrounding the right femoral artery. Angiography revealed an irregular shaped lesion on the right femoral artery without contrast extravasation. The patient was diagnosed with right-femoral post-endarterectomy infection with infected hematoma, with the inclusion of air. She underwent urgent excision and repair of the right femoral artery infectious lesion, debridement of the infectious hematoma and stenting of the right external iliac artery, common femoral artery and superficial femoral artery. Full article
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Case Report
The Role of Cytology in the Diagnosis of Metastatic Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Reports 2021, 4(3), 20; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/reports4030020 - 30 Jun 2021
Viewed by 366
Abstract
The diagnosis of primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in high risk patients, such as those with chronic hepatitis B or C with/without cirrhosis of the liver, can be made with relevant image studies alone; however, morphologic confirmation by cytology or histopathology is essential to [...] Read more.
The diagnosis of primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in high risk patients, such as those with chronic hepatitis B or C with/without cirrhosis of the liver, can be made with relevant image studies alone; however, morphologic confirmation by cytology or histopathology is essential to the diagnosis of metastatic HCC because the treatment of the latter differs from that of primary extrahepatic malignancy. Although both cytology and histopathology are important tools in the diagnosis of malignancy, histopathology almost always plays a confirmatory and pivotal role, and also a gold standard in cyto-histological correlation. We present two patients of metastatic HCC to rare sites; endobronchus in one, and neck lymph nodes, face and the abdominal wall in the other. Repeated bronchial biopsy in the first patient and excisional biopsy from the metastatic sites of the second patient failed to make a conclusive diagnosis of metastatic HCC. However, bronchial brushing in the first patient and fine needle aspiration cytology from the respective metastatic sites of the second patient consistently showed characteristic HCC features and provided clinicians with the rationale for ongoing treatment. The diagnostic issues and possible pitfalls are discussed. Cytology and histopathology appear equipollent; sometimes cytology can play a diagnostic role when histopathology fails its expected role in this scenario. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cyto-Histopathogical Correlations in Pathology Diagnostics)
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Case Report
Laryngeal Paralysis Recovered Two Years after a Head Trauma by Growth Hormone Treatment and Neurorehabilitation
Reports 2021, 4(3), 19; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/reports4030019 - 28 Jun 2021
Viewed by 366
Abstract
The aim of this study was to describe the cognitive and speech results obtained after growth hormone (GH) treatment and neurorehabilitation in a man who suffered a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Seventeen months after the accident, the patient was treated with growth hormone [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to describe the cognitive and speech results obtained after growth hormone (GH) treatment and neurorehabilitation in a man who suffered a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Seventeen months after the accident, the patient was treated with growth hormone (GH), together with neurostimulation and speech therapy. At admission, the flexible laryngoscopy revealed that the left vocal cord was paralyzed, in the paramedian position, a situation compatible with a recurrent nerve injury. Clinical and rehabilitation assessments revealed a prompt improvement in speech and cognitive functions and, following completion of treatment, endoscopic examination showed recovery of vocal cord mobility. These results, together with previous results from our group, indicate that GH treatment is safe and effective for helping neurorehabilitation in chronic speech impairment due to central laryngeal paralysis, as well as impaired cognitive functions. Full article
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