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Soil Syst., Volume 5, Issue 2 (June 2021) – 15 articles

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Editorial
Recovery Processes of Acidic Soils Experiencing Decreased Acidic Deposition
Soil Syst. 2021, 5(2), 36; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soilsystems5020036 - 21 Jun 2021
Viewed by 418
Abstract
Reductions in acidic deposition rates through legislative actions in North America and Europe have stemmed further environmental degradation and shifted the focus to potential recovery [...] Full article
Article
Phytoextraction of Heavy Metals by Various Vegetable Crops Cultivated on Different Textured Soils Irrigated with City Wastewater
Soil Syst. 2021, 5(2), 35; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soilsystems5020035 - 18 Jun 2021
Viewed by 488
Abstract
A challenging task in urban or suburban agriculture is the sustainability of soil health when utilizing city wastewater, or its dilutes, for growing crops. A two-year field experiment was conducted to evaluate the comparative vegetable transfer factors (VTF) for four effluent-irrigated vegetable crops [...] Read more.
A challenging task in urban or suburban agriculture is the sustainability of soil health when utilizing city wastewater, or its dilutes, for growing crops. A two-year field experiment was conducted to evaluate the comparative vegetable transfer factors (VTF) for four effluent-irrigated vegetable crops (brinjal, spinach, cauliflower, and lettuce) grown on six study sites (1 acre each), equally divided into two soil textures (sandy loam and clay loam). Comparisons of the VTF factors showed spinach was a significant and the best phytoextractant, having the highest heavy metal values (Zn = 20.2, Cu = 12.3, Fe = 17.1, Mn = 30.3, Cd = 6.1, Cr = 7.6, Ni = 9.2, and Pb = 6.9), followed by cauliflower and brinjal, while lettuce extracted the lowest heavy metal contents (VTF: lettuce: Zn = 8.9, Cu = 4.2, Fe = 9.6, Mn = 6.6, Cd = 4.7, Cr = 2.9, Ni = 5.5, and Pb = 2.5) in response to the main (site and vegetable) or interactive (site * vegetable) effects. We suggest that, while vegetables irrigated with sewage water may extract toxic heavy metals and remediate soil, seriously hazardous/toxic contents in the vegetables may be a significant source of soil and environmental pollution. Full article
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Article
A Test of the Inadvertent Uptake Hypothesis Using Plant Species Adapted to Serpentine Soil
Soil Syst. 2021, 5(2), 34; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soilsystems5020034 - 18 Jun 2021
Viewed by 553
Abstract
Serpentine soils are a stressful growing environment for plants, largely due to nutrient deficiencies and high concentrations of toxic heavy metals (e.g., Ni). Plants have evolved various adaptations for tolerating these extreme environments, including metal hyperaccumulation into above-ground tissues. However, the adaptive significance [...] Read more.
Serpentine soils are a stressful growing environment for plants, largely due to nutrient deficiencies and high concentrations of toxic heavy metals (e.g., Ni). Plants have evolved various adaptations for tolerating these extreme environments, including metal hyperaccumulation into above-ground tissues. However, the adaptive significance of metal hyperaccumulation is a topic of debate, with several non-mutually-exclusive hypotheses under study. For example, the inadvertent uptake hypothesis (IUH) states that heavy metal accumulation is a consequence of an efficient nutrient-scavenging mechanism for plants growing in nutrient-deficient soils. Thus, it is possible that metal hyperaccumulation is simply a byproduct of non-specific ion transport mechanisms allowing plants to grow in nutrient-deficient soils, such as serpentine soils, while simultaneously tolerating other potentially toxic heavy metals. Furthermore, some nutrient needs are tissue-specific, and heavy metal toxicity can be more pronounced in reproductive tissues; thus, studies are needed that document nutrient and metal uptake into vegetative and reproductive plant tissues across species of plants that vary in the degree to which they accumulate soil metals. To test these ideas, we grew nine plant species that are variously adapted to serpentine soils (i.e., Ni-hyperaccumulating endemic, non-hyperaccumulating endemic, indicator, or indifferent) in a common garden greenhouse experiment. All species were grown in control soils, as well as those that were amended with the heavy metal Ni, and then analyzed for macronutrient (Ca, Mg, K, and P), micronutrient (Cu, Fe, Zn, Mn, and Mo), and heavy metal (Cr and Co) concentrations in their vegetative and reproductive organs (leaves, anthers, and pistils). In accordance with the IUH, we found that hyperaccumulators often accumulated higher concentrations of nutrients and metals compared to non-hyperaccumulating species, although these differences were often organ-specific. Specifically, while hyperaccumulators accumulated significantly more K and Co across all organs, Cu was higher in leaves only, while Mn and Zn were higher in anthers only. Furthermore, hyperaccumulators accumulated significantly more Co and Mo across all organs when Ni was added to the soil environment. Our work provides additional evidence in support of the IUH, and contributes to our understanding of serpentine adaptation in plants. Full article
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Article
Single and Binary Fe- and Al-hydroxides Affect Potential Phosphorus Mobilization and Transfer from Pools of Different Availability
Soil Syst. 2021, 5(2), 33; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soilsystems5020033 - 21 May 2021
Viewed by 523
Abstract
Phosphorus (P) fixation is a global problem for soil fertility and negatively impacts agricultural productivity. This study characterizes P desorption of already fixed P by using KCl, KNO3, histidine, and malic acid as inorganic and organic compounds, which are quite common [...] Read more.
Phosphorus (P) fixation is a global problem for soil fertility and negatively impacts agricultural productivity. This study characterizes P desorption of already fixed P by using KCl, KNO3, histidine, and malic acid as inorganic and organic compounds, which are quite common in soil. Goethite, gibbsite, and ferrihydrite, as well as hydroxide mixtures with varying Fe- and Al-ratio were selected as model substances of crystalline and amorphous Fe- and Al-hydroxides. Especially two- and multi-component hydroxide systems are common in soils, but they have barely been included in desorption studies. Goethite showed the highest desorption in the range from 70.4 to 81.0%, followed by gibbsite with values in the range from 50.7 to 42.6%. Ferrihydrite had distinctive lower desorption in the range from 11.8 to 1.9%. Within the group of the amorphous Fe-Al-hydroxide mixtures, P desorption was lowest at the balanced mixture ratio for 1 Fe: 1 Al, increased either with increasing Fe or Al amount. Precipitation and steric effects were concluded to be important influencing factors. More P was released by crystalline Fe-hydroxides, and Al-hydroxides of varying crystallinity, but desorption using histidine and malic acid did not substantially influence P desorption compared to inorganic constituents. Full article
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Review
Application of Nematode Community Analyses-Based Models towards Identifying Sustainable Soil Health Management Outcomes: A Review of the Concepts
Soil Syst. 2021, 5(2), 32; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soilsystems5020032 - 21 May 2021
Viewed by 739
Abstract
Soil health connotes the balance of biological, physicochemical, nutritional, structural, and water-holding components necessary to sustain plant productivity. Despite a substantial knowledge base, achieving sustainable soil health remains a goal because it is difficult to simultaneously: (i) improve soil structure, physicochemistry, [...] Read more.
Soil health connotes the balance of biological, physicochemical, nutritional, structural, and water-holding components necessary to sustain plant productivity. Despite a substantial knowledge base, achieving sustainable soil health remains a goal because it is difficult to simultaneously: (i) improve soil structure, physicochemistry, water-holding capacity, and nutrient cycling; (ii) suppress pests and diseases while increasing beneficial organisms; and (iii) improve biological functioning leading to improved biomass/crop yield. The objectives of this review are (a) to identify agricultural practices (APs) driving soil health degradations and barriers to developing sustainable soil health, and (b) to describe how the nematode community analyses-based soil food web (SFW) and fertilizer use efficiency (FUE) data visualization models can be used towards developing sustainable soil health. The SFW model considers changes in beneficial nematode population dynamics relative to food and reproduction (enrichment index, EI; y-axis) and resistance to disturbance (structure index, SI; x-axis) in order to identify best-to-worst case scenarios for nutrient cycling and agroecosystem suitability of AP-driven outcomes. The FUE model visualizes associations between beneficial and plant-parasitic nematodes (x-axis) and ecosystem services (e.g., yield or nutrients, y-axis). The x-y relationship identifies best-to-worst case scenarios of the outcomes for sustainability. Both models can serve as platforms towards developing integrated and sustainable soil health management strategies on a location-specific or a one-size-fits-all basis. Future improvements for increased implementation of these models are discussed. Full article
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Article
No-Till and Solid Digestate Amendment Selectively Affect the Potential Denitrification Activity in Two Mediterranean Orchard Soils
Soil Syst. 2021, 5(2), 31; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soilsystems5020031 - 21 May 2021
Viewed by 522
Abstract
Improved soil managements that include reduced soil disturbance and organic amendment incorporation represent valuable strategies to counteract soil degradation processes that affect Mediterranean tree cultivations. However, changes induced by these practices can promote soil N loss through denitrification. Our research aimed to investigate [...] Read more.
Improved soil managements that include reduced soil disturbance and organic amendment incorporation represent valuable strategies to counteract soil degradation processes that affect Mediterranean tree cultivations. However, changes induced by these practices can promote soil N loss through denitrification. Our research aimed to investigate the short-term effects of no-tillage and organic amendment with solid anaerobic digestate on the potential denitrification in two Mediterranean orchard soils showing contrasting properties in terms of texture and pH. Denitrifying enzyme activity (DEA) and selected soil variables (available C and N, microbial biomass C, basal respiration) were monitored in olive and orange tree orchard soils over a five-month period. Our results showed that the application of both practices increased soil DEA, with dynamics that varied according to the soil type. Increased bulk density, lowered soil aeration, and a promoting effect on soil microbial community growth were the main DEA triggers under no-tillage. Conversely, addition of digestate promoted DEA by increasing readily available C and N with a shorter effect in the olive grove soil, due to greater sorption and higher microbial efficiency, and a long-lasting consequence in the orange orchard soil related to a larger release of soluble substrates and their lower microbial use efficiency. Full article
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Article
Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Inoculation Reduced the Growth of Pre-Rooted Olive Cuttings in a Greenhouse
Soil Syst. 2021, 5(2), 30; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soilsystems5020030 - 04 May 2021
Viewed by 623
Abstract
The effect of commercial mycorrhizal fungi on pre-rooted olive cuttings was assessed. The study consisted of two experiments, the first arranged as a factorial design with three cultivars (Cobrançosa, Madural, and Verdeal Transmontana) and three soil treatments (commercial mycorrhizal fungi, zeolites, and control) [...] Read more.
The effect of commercial mycorrhizal fungi on pre-rooted olive cuttings was assessed. The study consisted of two experiments, the first arranged as a factorial design with three cultivars (Cobrançosa, Madural, and Verdeal Transmontana) and three soil treatments (commercial mycorrhizal fungi, zeolites, and control) and the second as a completely randomized design with three treatments (commercial mycorrhizal fungi, sterilized soil, and control). Cobrançosa grew better than the other cultivars, showing good rooting and initial growth features. Mycorrhizal plants showed reduced growth in comparison to those of the untreated control. This result was explained by competition for photosynthates between plant growth and the expansion of fungi hyphae. Cuttings of reduced leaf area and a twin-wall polycarbonate cover of the greenhouse, somewhat opaque to photosynthetic active radiation, may also have contributed to limit the maximum photosynthetic rate and delay the growth of the inoculated plants. Accordingly, in the mycorrhizal pots, the soil organic carbon (C) increased, probably due to the presence of fungi hyphae in soil samples. Zeolites reduced plant dry matter (DM) yield and tissue phosphorus (P) concentration compared to the control, while increasing the availability in the soil of the cations present in their initial composition. Soil sterilization seems to have reduced soil P bioavailability by inactivating soil enzymes. This study showed that the inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi of pre-rooted cuttings can delay their initial growth. Although these plants may be better prepared to grow in the field, in the short term, their lower development can be a problem for the nurseryman. Full article
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Article
Soil Sulfur Sources Differentially Enhance Cadmium Tolerance in Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea L.)
Soil Syst. 2021, 5(2), 29; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soilsystems5020029 - 01 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1135
Abstract
The effect of four soil-applied sulfur (100 mg S kg−1 soil (100S) and 200 mg S kg−1 soil (200S)) in different sources (elemental S, ammonium sulfate, gypsum or magnesium sulfate) in protecting mustard (Brassica juncea L. (Czern & Coss.)) from [...] Read more.
The effect of four soil-applied sulfur (100 mg S kg−1 soil (100S) and 200 mg S kg−1 soil (200S)) in different sources (elemental S, ammonium sulfate, gypsum or magnesium sulfate) in protecting mustard (Brassica juncea L. (Czern & Coss.)) from cadmium effects was studied. Based on the observed reduction in growth and photosynthesis in plants subjected to 100 and 200 mg Cd kg−1 soil, B. juncea cv. Giriraj was selected as the most Cd-tolerant among five cultivars (namely, Giriraj, RH-0749, Pusa Agrani, RH-406, and Pusa Tarak). Sulfur applied to soil mitigated the negative impact of Cd on sulfur assimilation, cell viability, and photosynthetic functions, with a lower lipid peroxidation, electrolyte leakage, and contents of reactive oxygen species (ROS: hydrogen peroxide, H2O2, and superoxide anion, O2•−). Generally, added S caused higher activity of antioxidant enzymes (ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase), contents of ascorbate (AsA) and reduced glutathione (GSH); increases in the activities of their regenerating enzymes (dehydroascorbate reductase and glutathione reductase); as well as rises in S assimilation, biosynthesis of non-protein thiols (NPTs), and phytochelatins (PCs). Compared to the other S-sources tested, elemental S more prominently protected B. juncea cv. Giriraj against Cd-impacts by minimizing Cd-accumulation and its root-to-shoot translocation; decreasing cellular ROS and membrane damage, and improving Cd-chelation (NPTs and PCs), so strengthening the defense machinery against Cd. The results suggest the use of elemental S for favoring the growth and development of cultivated plants also in Cd-contaminated agricultural soils. Full article
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Article
Gamma Irradiation with 50 kGy Has a Limited Effect on Agronomic Properties of Air-Dry Soil
Soil Syst. 2021, 5(2), 28; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soilsystems5020028 - 13 Apr 2021
Viewed by 648
Abstract
International collaboration on agronomy projects often requires the shipment of soil samples between countries to conduct analyses. However, quarantine regulations in numerous countries restrict the importing of soil samples unless they are sterilized, or analysis is carried out only in quarantine facilities, which [...] Read more.
International collaboration on agronomy projects often requires the shipment of soil samples between countries to conduct analyses. However, quarantine regulations in numerous countries restrict the importing of soil samples unless they are sterilized, or analysis is carried out only in quarantine facilities, which greatly increases cost. Yet, sterilization is only an option if it does not change the soil properties. There is conflicting information about the effect of irradiation on soil chemical properties. To assess the effect of gamma irradiation on some soil chemical properties, one hundred randomly selected air-dried (40 °C) soil samples were split into two samples. One sample was left untreated and the other sample was irradiated with 50 kGy as prescribed by Australian biosecurity regulations. Commonly measured agronomic soil chemical properties were then measured and results from the non-irradiated samples were compared to the irradiated samples. The results show no effect of irradiation on soil cation exchange capacity, exchangeable cations, total carbon and nitrogen content, and DTPA-extractable Zn. Small (<5%) but statistically significant effects of irradiation were observed for pH (1:5 water), electric conductivity (EC1:5), DTPA-extractable Cu, Fe and Mn, and Colwell P. The irradiation effects on Fe were greater in the topsoil than subsoil. Considering that irradiation-induced changes to soil chemical properties were below 5%, gamma irradiation can be considered a suitable method to sterilize air-dried soil to meet import requirements, without affecting the interpretation of soil fertility reports. Full article
Article
Heavy Metals Contamination of Urban Soils—A Decade Study in the City of Lisbon, Portugal
Soil Syst. 2021, 5(2), 27; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soilsystems5020027 - 13 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 887
Abstract
There is an intense and continuous growth of the world population living in cities. This increase in population means an increase in car traffic, an increase in new constructions and an increase in the production of waste that translates into an intensive use [...] Read more.
There is an intense and continuous growth of the world population living in cities. This increase in population means an increase in car traffic, an increase in new constructions and an increase in the production of waste that translates into an intensive use of land, particularly in terms of soil contaminants. Among other environmental contaminants, toxic metals, such as lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni) and chromium (Cr) represent a public health problem. In this study the content of toxic metals in Lisbon’s (Portugal) soils was determined. The study was conducted over approximately a decade in six city locations, with a total of about 700 samples. Each site has different urban characteristics: traffic zone, residential area, urban park and mixed areas. The study allowed to verify the heterogeneity of metal content values in the city soils and their dependence on local traffic. Metal contents were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS). For each site the geo-accumulation index, pollution factor, degree of contamination, pollution load index and ecological risk factor were calculated. The mean concentrations of Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb in soils were 0.463, 44.0, 46.6 and 5.73 mg/kg of dry soil, respectively. In the last year of the study the values were 0.417, 51.5, 62.4 and 8.49 mg/kg of dry soil, respectively. Cd and Ni exceeded the typical content values of these metals in the earth’s crust, indicating their anthropogenic origin. The correlation analysis revealed a significant correlation between Cr and Ni, Cd and Ni and Cd and Pb contents in the city soils. Regarding the results obtained in this long monitoring campaign, Lisbon’s soils can be considered as having low levels of pollution by these metals. Full article
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Article
Characterization of Plant Growth-Promoting Traits and Inoculation Effects on Triticum durum of Actinomycetes Isolates under Salt Stress Conditions
Soil Syst. 2021, 5(2), 26; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soilsystems5020026 - 10 Apr 2021
Viewed by 668
Abstract
This study aimed to characterize the halotolerant capability, in vitro, of selected actinomycetes strains and to evaluate their competence in promoting halo stress tolerance in durum wheat in a greenhouse experiment. Fourteen isolates were tested for phosphate solubilization, indole acetic acid, hydrocyanic acid, [...] Read more.
This study aimed to characterize the halotolerant capability, in vitro, of selected actinomycetes strains and to evaluate their competence in promoting halo stress tolerance in durum wheat in a greenhouse experiment. Fourteen isolates were tested for phosphate solubilization, indole acetic acid, hydrocyanic acid, and ammonia production under different salt concentrations (i.e., 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.5 M NaCl). The presence of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity was also investigated. Salinity tolerance was evaluated in durum wheat through plant growth and development parameters: shoot and root length, dry and ash-free dry weight, and the total chlorophyll content, as well as proline accumulation. In vitro assays have shown that the strains can solubilize inorganic phosphate and produce indole acetic acid, hydrocyanic acid, and ammonia under different salt concentrations. Most of the strains (86%) had 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity, with significant amounts of α-ketobutyric acid. In the greenhouse experiment, inoculation with actinomycetes strains improved the morpho-biochemical parameters of durum wheat plants, which also recorded significantly higher content of chlorophylls and proline than those uninoculated, both under normal and stressed conditions. Our results suggest that inoculation of halotolerant actinomycetes can mitigate the negative effects of salt stress and allow normal growth and development of durum wheat plants. Full article
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Editorial
Soil Systems: Change in Editor-In-Chief: Future Aims and Scopes
Soil Syst. 2021, 5(2), 25; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soilsystems5020025 - 09 Apr 2021
Viewed by 553
Abstract
With this Editorial, I wish to inform our readers that in February 2021, I became the new coordinator of the Editors (Editor in Chief) of Soil Systems [...] Full article
Article
Flood Pulse Irrigation of Meadows Shapes Soil Chemical and Microbial Parameters More Than Mineral Fertilization
Soil Syst. 2021, 5(2), 24; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soilsystems5020024 - 02 Apr 2021
Viewed by 627
Abstract
While mineral fertilization increases agricultural yields, it also bears the risk of contaminating non-target ecosystems and negatively affecting soil chemical parameters and microbial communities. This calls for alternative and more sustainable agricultural practices that reduce the use of fertilizers. Flood pulse irrigation could [...] Read more.
While mineral fertilization increases agricultural yields, it also bears the risk of contaminating non-target ecosystems and negatively affecting soil chemical parameters and microbial communities. This calls for alternative and more sustainable agricultural practices that reduce the use of fertilizers. Flood pulse irrigation could be an alternative to mineral fertilization of hay meadows, since it increases the yield with little or no application of fertilizer. However, the positive and negative implications of flood pulse irrigation on soil chemical parameters and particularly soil microbial communities are still largely unknown. In this study, we assessed shifts in soil microbial communities (SMC) as a response to changes in soil chemical parameters after flood pulse irrigation and/or fertilization of meadows. We determined soil chemical (Corg, Ntot, water extractable N, P, K, pH) and microbial (phospholipid-derived fatty acids, PLFA) parameters of 12 meadows in a 2 × 2 factorial design, comprising flood pulse irrigation and fertilization. Corg, Ntot, and water content as well as microbial biomass were higher in flood-irrigated than in non-flooded soils. Soil microbial biomass positively correlated with Corg, Ntot, and water extractable N. Gram-negative bacteria significantly increased, whereas the fungi/bacteria ratio significantly decreased in flood-irrigated soils compared to non-flooded soils. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were positively correlated with soil pH. Flood pulse irrigation seemed to promote the build-up of a larger soil carbon and nitrogen pool as well as higher water content and microbial biomass. By this, it potentially mitigated negative mineral fertilization effects such as changed soil pH and reduced carbon use efficiency. We conclude that flood pulse irrigation may represent a sustainable alternative to mineral fertilization. Full article
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Article
Drought and Anthropogenic Effects on Acacia Populations: A Case Study from the Hyper-Arid Southern Israel
Soil Syst. 2021, 5(2), 23; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soilsystems5020023 - 01 Apr 2021
Viewed by 620
Abstract
Acacia encompasses a keystone genus across the Middle Eastern and African drylands. This study assesses the dynamics of Acacia populations in two ephemeral stream channels (Nahal Naomi and Nahal Yael) in the hyper-arid Arava region following the establishment of a dam in the [...] Read more.
Acacia encompasses a keystone genus across the Middle Eastern and African drylands. This study assesses the dynamics of Acacia populations in two ephemeral stream channels (Nahal Naomi and Nahal Yael) in the hyper-arid Arava region following the establishment of a dam in the upstream channel of Nahal Yael and a long-term regional drought episode. The assessments were conducted at the individual and population levels, for a period of 45 years (during 1972, 1994 and 2017). In Nahal Naomi, the population increased by 35% during 1972–1994 (a relatively rainy period) and experienced low mortality (net change of +1.6% year−1). However, following a regional drought episode between 1995 and 2009, this population decreased by 57% (net change of −2.5% year−1). In Nahal Yael, the acacia population declined by 66% during 1972–1994 (net change of −1.6% year−1). Between 1994–2017, this population was co-affected by dam and drought, with no recruitment, and declined by 70% (net change of −2.0% year−1). By examining the tree’s specific location, species, age and state of preservation of dead individuals, we identified factors that influence tree mortality, and highlighted the adverse impacts of natural and anthropogenic disturbances on Acacia populations in hyper-arid environments. Full article
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Article
Sorption and Desorption of Vanadate, Arsenate and Chromate by Two Volcanic Soils of Equatorial Africa
Soil Syst. 2021, 5(2), 22; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/soilsystems5020022 - 01 Apr 2021
Viewed by 643
Abstract
Sorption of oxyanions by soils and mineral surfaces is of interest due to their role as nutrients or pollutants. Volcanic soils are variable charge soils, rich in active forms of aluminum and iron, and capable of sorbing anions. Sorption and desorption of vanadate, [...] Read more.
Sorption of oxyanions by soils and mineral surfaces is of interest due to their role as nutrients or pollutants. Volcanic soils are variable charge soils, rich in active forms of aluminum and iron, and capable of sorbing anions. Sorption and desorption of vanadate, arsenate, and chromate by two African andosols was studied in laboratory experiments. Sorption isotherms were determined by equilibrating at 293 K soil samples with oxyanion solutions of concentrations between 0 and 100 mg L−1 V, As, or Cr, equivalent to 0−2.0 mmol V L−1, 0−1.3 mmol As L−1, and 0−1.9 mmol Cr L−1, in NaNO3; V, As, or Cr were determined by ICP-mass spectrometry in the equilibrium solution. After sorption, the soil samples were equilibrated with 0.02 M NaNO3 to study desorption. The isotherms were adjusted to mathematical models. After desorption with NaNO3, desorption experiments were carried out with a 1 mM phosphate. The sorption of vanadate and arsenate was greater than 90% of the amount added, while the chromate sorption was much lower (19–97%). The sorption by the Silandic Andosol is attributed to non-crystalline Fe and Al, while in the Vitric Andosol, crystalline iron species play a relevant role. The V and Cr sorption isotherms fitted to the Freundlich model, while the As sorption isotherms conformed to the Temkin model. For the highest concentrations of oxyanions in the equilibrating solution, the sorbed concentrations were 37–38 mmol V kg−1, 25 mmol As kg−1, and 7.2–8.8 mmol Cr kg−1. The desorption was low for V and As and high for Cr. The comparison of the sorption and desorption isotherms reveals a pronounced hysteresis for V in both andosols and for Cr in the Silandic Andosol. Phosphate induced almost no V desorption, moderate As desorption, and considerable Cr desorption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sorption Processes in Soils and Sediments)
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