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J, Volume 4, Issue 1 (March 2021) – 5 articles

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Review
Antihypertensives’ Rock around the Clock
J 2021, 4(1), 62-81; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/j4010005 - 18 Mar 2021
Viewed by 838
Abstract
Although homeostasis is a commonly accepted concept, there is incontrovertible evidence that biological processes and functions are variable and that variability occurs in cycles. In order to explain and understand dysregulation, which has not been embraced by homeostatic principles, the allostatic model has [...] Read more.
Although homeostasis is a commonly accepted concept, there is incontrovertible evidence that biological processes and functions are variable and that variability occurs in cycles. In order to explain and understand dysregulation, which has not been embraced by homeostatic principles, the allostatic model has emerged as the first serious challenge to homeostasis, going beyond its homeostatic roots. Circadian rhythm is the predominant variation in the body, and it is a pattern according to which many physiological and pathological events occur. As there is strong experimental and clinical evidence that blood pressure fluctuations undergo circadian rhythm, there is equally strong evidence that targeted time therapy for hypertension provides a better outcome of the disease. The research has gone even further throughout the development and approval process for the use of pulsatile drug release systems, which can be considered as an option for an even more convenient dosage regimen of the medicines needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicine & Pharmacology)
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Perspective
Wastewater Refinery: Producing Multiple Valuable Outputs from Wastewater
J 2021, 4(1), 51-61; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/j4010004 - 27 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 720
Abstract
A wastewater refinery is a multifunctional solution that combines different technologies and processing schemes to recover a spectrum of valuable materials from municipal or industrial wastewater. The concept of wastewater refinery introduces a new perspective on wastewater treatment and management. It aims at [...] Read more.
A wastewater refinery is a multifunctional solution that combines different technologies and processing schemes to recover a spectrum of valuable materials from municipal or industrial wastewater. The concept of wastewater refinery introduces a new perspective on wastewater treatment and management. It aims at making the most of wastewater constituents by co-producing different worthful outputs, such as water, energy, nitrogen, sulfide, and phosphorous. This can turn the treatment of wastewater from a major cost into a source of profit. The wastewater refinery approach is well aligned with the concept of the circular economy. A case study on Qatar’s wastewater revealed the potential recovery of significant quantities of valuable resources embodied in the country’s wastewater. Valorization of organic constituents and the recovery of nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfide should be given priority. To facilitate the adoption of the wastewater refinery concept, research is required to explore technical and economic bottlenecks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Sciences)
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Editorial
Acknowledgment to Reviewers of J in 2020
J 2021, 4(1), 49-50; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/j4010003 - 18 Jan 2021
Viewed by 527
Abstract
Peer review is the driving force of journal development, and reviewers are gatekeepers who ensure that J maintains its standards for the high quality of its published papers [...] Full article
Article
Time- and Frequency-Domain Steady-State Solutions of Nonlinear Motional Eddy Currents Problems
J 2021, 4(1), 22-48; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/j4010002 - 08 Jan 2021
Viewed by 981
Abstract
This paper presents a comparison of different time- and frequency-domain solvers for the steady-state simulation of the eddy current phenomena, due to the motion of a permanent magnet array, occurring in the soft-magnetic stator core of electrical machines that exhibits nonlinear material characteristics. [...] Read more.
This paper presents a comparison of different time- and frequency-domain solvers for the steady-state simulation of the eddy current phenomena, due to the motion of a permanent magnet array, occurring in the soft-magnetic stator core of electrical machines that exhibits nonlinear material characteristics. Three different dynamic solvers are implemented in the framework of the isogeometric analysis, namely the traditional time-stepping backward-Euler technique, the space-time Galerkin approach, and the harmonic balance method, which operates in the frequency domain. Two-dimensional electrical machine benchmarks, consisting of both slotless and slotted stator core, are considered to establish the accuracy, convergence, and computational efficiency of the presented solvers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computation of Electromagnetic Fields)
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Review
Water-Driven Music Technologies through Centuries
J 2021, 4(1), 1-21; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/j4010001 - 22 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1058
Abstract
Water-driven music technology has been one of the primary sources of human leisure from prehistoric times up until the present. Water powered, along with air pressure organs, have been used throughout history. One of them was an organ of fountains located inside a [...] Read more.
Water-driven music technology has been one of the primary sources of human leisure from prehistoric times up until the present. Water powered, along with air pressure organs, have been used throughout history. One of them was an organ of fountains located inside a formal garden. Throughout ancient mythology, several different gods have been linked to music in many civilizations, in particular, Minoa, Mehrgarh, and Gandhara. Water deities were usually significant amid civilizations located next to a sea or an ocean, or even a great river like the Indus River in Pakistan, the Nile River in the Middle East or the Ganga River in India. These fountains performed a wide range of songs from Classical to contemporary Arabic, and even included other worldly music. The study of water-driven music technology demonstrates the diachronic evolution and the revelation that ancient people had impressive knowledge of the engineering needed for water exploitation and manipulation. This revelation is still both fascinating and intriguing for today’s water engineers. This paper also shows the relationship between water in nature and music, and furthermore, how nature has inspired composers throughout history. This research shows the sustainability of different kinds of water-driven musical instruments, not only through their use in past centuries, but their relevance in music therapy and other purposes of today. This study is useful for researchers in the fields of history, music, engineering and sustainable development. Full article
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