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Forecasting, Volume 2, Issue 4 (December 2020) – 9 articles

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Open AccessArticle
Valuation Models Applied to Value-Based Management—Application to the Case of UK Companies with Problems
Forecasting 2020, 2(4), 549-565; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/forecast2040029 - 11 Dec 2020
Viewed by 478
Abstract
Many still rightly wonder whether accounting numbers affect business value. Basic questions are “why?” and “how?” We aim at promoting an objective choice on how optimizing the most suitable valuation methods under a “value-based management” framework through some performance measurement systems. First, we [...] Read more.
Many still rightly wonder whether accounting numbers affect business value. Basic questions are “why?” and “how?” We aim at promoting an objective choice on how optimizing the most suitable valuation methods under a “value-based management” framework through some performance measurement systems. First, we present a comprehensive review of valuation methods. Three valuations methods, (i) Free Cash Flow Valuation Model (FCFVM), (ii) Residual Earning Valuation Model (REVM) and (iii) Abnormal Earning Growth Model (AEGM), are presented. We point out advantages and limitations. As applications, the proofs of our findings are illustrated on three study cases: Marks & Spencer’s (M&S’s) business pattern (size and growth prospect), which had a recently advertised valuation “problem”, and two comparable companies, Tesco and Sainsbury’s, all three chosen for multiple-based valuation. For the purpose, two value drivers are chosen, EnV/EBIT (entity value/earnings before interests and taxes) and the corresponding EnV/Sales. Thus, the question whether accounting numbers through models based on mathematical economics truly affect business value has an answer: “Maybe, yes”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Forecasting the Business Cycle and Financial Markets)
Open AccessArticle
Mean Field Bias-Aware State Updating via Variational Assimilation of Streamflow into Distributed Hydrologic Models
Forecasting 2020, 2(4), 526-548; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/forecast2040028 - 11 Dec 2020
Viewed by 435
Abstract
When there exist catchment-wide biases in the distributed hydrologic model states, state updating based on streamflow assimilation at the catchment outlet tends to over- and under-adjust model states close to and away from the outlet, respectively. This is due to the greater sensitivity [...] Read more.
When there exist catchment-wide biases in the distributed hydrologic model states, state updating based on streamflow assimilation at the catchment outlet tends to over- and under-adjust model states close to and away from the outlet, respectively. This is due to the greater sensitivity of the simulated outlet flow to the model states that are located more closely to the outlet in the hydraulic sense, and the subsequent overcompensation of the states in the more influential grid boxes to make up for the larger scale bias. In this work, we describe Mean Field Bias (MFB)-aware variational (VAR) assimilation, or MVAR, to address the above. MVAR performs bi-scale state updating of the distributed hydrologic model using streamflow observations in which MFB in the model states are first corrected at the catchment scale before the resulting states are adjusted at the grid box scale. We comparatively evaluate MVAR with conventional VAR based on streamflow assimilation into the distributed Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting model for a headwater catchment. Compared to VAR, MVAR adjusts model states at remote cells by larger margins and reduces the Mean Squared Error of streamflow analysis by 2–8% at the outlet Tiff City, and by 1–10% at the interior location Lanagan. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hydrological Forecasting)
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Open AccessArticle
Bankruptcy Prediction: The Case of the Greek Market
Forecasting 2020, 2(4), 505-525; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/forecast2040027 - 03 Dec 2020
Viewed by 482
Abstract
Financial bankruptcy prediction is an essential issue in emerging economies taking into consideration the economic upheaval that can be caused by business failures. The research on bankruptcy prediction is of the utmost importance as it aims to build statistical models that can distinguish [...] Read more.
Financial bankruptcy prediction is an essential issue in emerging economies taking into consideration the economic upheaval that can be caused by business failures. The research on bankruptcy prediction is of the utmost importance as it aims to build statistical models that can distinguish healthy firms from financially distressed ones. This paper explores the applicability of the four most used approaches to predict financial bankruptcy using data concerning the case of Greece. A comparison of linear discriminant analysis, logit, decision trees and neural networks is performed. The results show that discriminant analysis is slightly superior to the other methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Forecasting the Business Cycle and Financial Markets)
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Open AccessArticle
Sun Position Identification in Sky Images for Nowcasting Application
Forecasting 2020, 2(4), 488-504; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/forecast2040026 - 16 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 460
Abstract
Very-short-term photovoltaic power forecast, namely nowcasting, is gaining increasing attention to face grid stability issues and to optimize microgrid energy management systems in the presence of large penetration of renewable energy sources. In order to identify local phenomena as sharp ramps in photovoltaic [...] Read more.
Very-short-term photovoltaic power forecast, namely nowcasting, is gaining increasing attention to face grid stability issues and to optimize microgrid energy management systems in the presence of large penetration of renewable energy sources. In order to identify local phenomena as sharp ramps in photovoltaic production, whole sky images can be used effectively. The first step in the implementation of new and effective nowcasting algorithms is the identification of Sun positions. In this paper, three different techniques (solar angle-based, image processing-based, and neural network-based techniques) are proposed, described, and compared. These techniques are tested on real images obtained with a camera installed at SolarTechLab at Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy. Finally, the three techniques are compared by introducing some performance parameters aiming to evaluate of their reliability, accuracy, and computational effort. The neural network-based technique obtains the best performance: in fact, this method is able to identify accurately the Sun position and to estimate it when the Sun is covered by clouds. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Photovoltaic Output Power Estimation and Baseline Prediction Approach for a Residential Distribution Network with Behind-the-Meter Systems
Forecasting 2020, 2(4), 470-487; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/forecast2040025 - 02 Nov 2020
Viewed by 596
Abstract
Considering that most of the photovoltaic (PV) data are behind-the-meter (BTM), there is a great challenge to implement effective demand response projects and make a precise customer baseline (CBL) prediction. To solve the problem, this paper proposes a data-driven PV output power estimation [...] Read more.
Considering that most of the photovoltaic (PV) data are behind-the-meter (BTM), there is a great challenge to implement effective demand response projects and make a precise customer baseline (CBL) prediction. To solve the problem, this paper proposes a data-driven PV output power estimation approach using only net load data, temperature data, and solar irradiation data. We first obtain the relationship between delta actual load and delta temperature by calculating the delta net load from matching the net load of irradiation for an approximate day with the least squares method. Then we match and make a difference of the net load with similar electricity consumption behavior to establish the relationship between delta PV output power and delta irradiation. Finally, we get the PV output power and implement PV-load decoupling by modifying the relationship between delta PV and delta irradiation. The case studies verify the effectiveness of the approach and it provides an important reference to perform PV-load decoupling and CBL prediction in a residential distribution network with BTM PV systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Forecasting)
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Open AccessArticle
Application of a Semi-Empirical Dynamic Model to Forecast the Propagation of the COVID-19 Epidemics in Spain
Forecasting 2020, 2(4), 452-469; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/forecast2040024 - 22 Oct 2020
Viewed by 592
Abstract
A semiempirical model, based in the logistic map, was developed to forecast the different phases of the COVID-19 epidemic. This paper shows the mathematical model and a proposal for its calibration. Specific results are shown for Spain. Four phases were considered: non-controlled evolution; [...] Read more.
A semiempirical model, based in the logistic map, was developed to forecast the different phases of the COVID-19 epidemic. This paper shows the mathematical model and a proposal for its calibration. Specific results are shown for Spain. Four phases were considered: non-controlled evolution; total lock-down; partial easing of the lock-down; and a phased lock-down easing. For no control the model predicted the infection of a 25% of the Spanish population, 1 million would need intensive care and 700,000 direct deaths. For total lock-down the model predicted 194,000 symptomatic infected, 85,700 hospitalized, 8600 patients needing an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and 19,500 deaths. The peak was predicted between the 29 March/3 April. For the third phase, with a daily rate r=1.03, the model predicted 400,000 infections and 46,000±15,000 deaths. The real r was below 1%, and a revision with updated parameters provided a prediction of 250,000 infected and 29,000±15,000 deaths. The reported values by the end of May were 282,870 infected and 28,552 deaths. After easing of the lock-down the model predicted that the health system would not saturate if r was kept below 1.02. This model provided good accuracy during epidemics development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Forecasting)
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Open AccessArticle
Cost Estimating Using a New Learning Curve Theory for Non-Constant Production Rates
Forecasting 2020, 2(4), 429-451; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/forecast2040023 - 16 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 586
Abstract
Traditional learning curve theory assumes a constant learning rate regardless of the number of units produced. However, a collection of theoretical and empirical evidence indicates that learning rates decrease as more units are produced in some cases. These diminishing learning rates cause traditional [...] Read more.
Traditional learning curve theory assumes a constant learning rate regardless of the number of units produced. However, a collection of theoretical and empirical evidence indicates that learning rates decrease as more units are produced in some cases. These diminishing learning rates cause traditional learning curves to underestimate required resources, potentially resulting in cost overruns. A diminishing learning rate model, namely Boone’s learning curve, was recently developed to model this phenomenon. This research confirms that Boone’s learning curve systematically reduced error in modeling observed learning curves using production data from 169 Department of Defense end-items. However, high amounts of variability in error reduction precluded concluding the degree to which Boone’s learning curve reduced error on average. This research further justifies the necessity of a diminishing learning rate forecasting model and assesses a potential solution to model diminishing learning rates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Forecasting)
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Open AccessArticle
A Hybrid Method for the Run-Of-The-River Hydroelectric Power Plant Energy Forecast: HYPE Hydrological Model and Neural Network
Forecasting 2020, 2(4), 410-428; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/forecast2040022 - 15 Oct 2020
Viewed by 474
Abstract
The increasing penetration of non-programmable renewable energy sources (RES) is enforcing the need for accurate power production forecasts. In the category of hydroelectric plants, Run of the River (RoR) plants belong to the class of non-programmable RES. Data-driven models are nowadays the most [...] Read more.
The increasing penetration of non-programmable renewable energy sources (RES) is enforcing the need for accurate power production forecasts. In the category of hydroelectric plants, Run of the River (RoR) plants belong to the class of non-programmable RES. Data-driven models are nowadays the most widely adopted methodologies in hydropower forecast. Among all, the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) proved to be highly successful in production forecast. Widely adopted and equally important for hydropower generation forecast is the HYdrological Predictions for the Environment (HYPE), a semi-distributed hydrological Rainfall–Runoff model. A novel hybrid method, providing HYPE sub-basins flow computation as input to an ANN, is here introduced and tested both with and without the adoption of a decomposition approach. In the former case, two ANNs are trained to forecast the trend and the residual of the production, respectively, to be then summed up to the previously extracted seasonality component and get the power forecast. These results have been compared to those obtained from the adoption of a ANN with rainfalls in input, again with and without decomposition approach. The methods have been assessed by forecasting the Run-of-the-River hydroelectric power plant energy for the year 2017. Besides, the forecasts of 15 power plants output have been fairly compared in order to identify the most accurate forecasting technique. The here proposed hybrid method (HYPE and ANN) has shown to be the most accurate in all the considered study cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Energy Forecasting)
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Open AccessArticle
Are Issuer Margins Fairly Stated? Evidence from the Issuer Estimated Value for Retail Structured Products
Forecasting 2020, 2(4), 387-409; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/forecast2040021 - 29 Sep 2020
Viewed by 587
Abstract
From 2014 to 2018, issuers of retail structured products in Germany established and calculated the Issuer Estimated Value (IEV), a fair value designed to offer more transparency for retail investors. By reporting the IEV in the product information sheet, banks implicitly make a [...] Read more.
From 2014 to 2018, issuers of retail structured products in Germany established and calculated the Issuer Estimated Value (IEV), a fair value designed to offer more transparency for retail investors. By reporting the IEV in the product information sheet, banks implicitly make a statement on their expected gross margin and, as one of the first papers, we provide an empirical study of the fairness of these disclosed figures. On a sample of discount and capped bonus certificates, we find that reported issuer margins can be verified using standard option pricing models and we illustrate that hedging costs take on an important role for structured product valuation. Consequently, the answer to the raised question in the title seems to be an (initial) ‘yes’ for our chosen product sample. Even though in 2018 the IEV calculations have been replaced by similar margin and cost statements due to the newly introduced Packaged Retail and Insurance-based Investment Products Regulation, this finding might still be a good guide for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Forecasting the Business Cycle and Financial Markets)
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