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Heritage, Volume 4, Issue 1 (March 2021) – 31 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Over the past 30 years, deep insights have been given into the production of murex purple, its coloring and medicinal properties, and the technology of its application, as a result of multidisciplinary research findings. This paper accounts for a significant input in the extensive recent literature, yet far from being exhaustive, on the investigation of the chemical composition of purple, either dye or pigment, as well as on the factors that may affect and differentiate the color at all stages of production and the dyeing process. It presents the outcome of cross-research among archeologists and physical scientists and comparatively examines analytical results on several purple finds, pigments, and paints, coming from the excavations of Akrotiri and Raos on Thera and Trianda on Rhodes, all contemporarily dating from the early Late Bronze Age in the Aegean. View this paper
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Article
On-Site Raman Spectroscopic Study of Beads from the Necropolis of Vohemar, Northern Madagascar (>13th C.)
Heritage 2021, 4(1), 524-540; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage4010031 - 18 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 770
Abstract
In the late 19th century, ancient tombs were discovered near the village of Vohemar at the northeastern point of Madagascar, and subsequent excavations during the French period (1896–1945) revealed the presence of a major necropolis active from ~13th to 18th centuries. Some artefacts [...] Read more.
In the late 19th century, ancient tombs were discovered near the village of Vohemar at the northeastern point of Madagascar, and subsequent excavations during the French period (1896–1945) revealed the presence of a major necropolis active from ~13th to 18th centuries. Some artefacts (Chinese ceramic shards and glass trade beads) recovered from these excavations was sent to France and now in part belong to the collection of the Musée d’Histoire Naturelle, Nimes. Carnelian and glass trade beads were analyzed with a mobile Raman spectrometer, which identified different materials (soda-lime glass, quartz/moganite, carnelian/citrine, chalcedony) and coloring agents (Naples yellow, cassiterite, amber chromophore, transition metal ions, etc.). The results are compared with those obtained on beads excavated at different sites of Southern Africa and at Mayotte Island, and it appears that (most of) the beads come from southern Asia and Europe. The results confirmed the role that northern Madagascar played within the maritime networks of the Western Indian Ocean during the 15th–16th century. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers)
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Stone Architectural Decoration in Burji Era: The Northern Mausoleum in the Khanqah of Al-Nasir Faraj Ibn Barquq (Cairo). Contribution to the Knowledge and Conservation Assessment
Heritage 2021, 4(1), 507-523; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage4010030 - 16 Mar 2021
Viewed by 591
Abstract
The conservation of monuments in Cairo represents a complex matter, influenced by the cultural context, the intrinsic features of a vast and heterogeneous architectural heritage, and the environmental conditions. Monument vulnerability levels strongly need to be systematized to delineate adequate programs of control, [...] Read more.
The conservation of monuments in Cairo represents a complex matter, influenced by the cultural context, the intrinsic features of a vast and heterogeneous architectural heritage, and the environmental conditions. Monument vulnerability levels strongly need to be systematized to delineate adequate programs of control, management, and intervention. Despite their leading role in the Egyptian architectural heritage, many monuments experience a critical state of conservation. Here, we report the results of a multi-scale investigation of the northern mausoleum in the complex of the Khanqah of Al-Nasir Faraj Ibn Barquq, located in the Islamic cemetery of Al-Qarafa Al-Kubra (Cairo, Egypt). Our research aims to increase the knowledge on the decorative stones used in the mausoleum and their decay processes. The investigation has been focused on the two areas of the building covered by a colored stone-slabs pattern: the floor and the qibla wall. A detailed architectural survey, carried out through photogrammetric techniques, provided a three-dimensional morphological knowledge of the mausoleum, upgrading the available surveys made about 50 years ago. The distribution of the materials has been verified by visual analysis, integrated by the first detailed mineralogical and petrographic characterization made on this mausoleum. The digital survey of the stone surfaces and the mineralogical, chemical, and petrographic analyses allowed a systematic mapping of the decay phenomena and some insights on the morphological alteration of single elements. The obtained results indicate a capillary rise of groundwaters and airborne pollution as the main degradation processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geosciences for Cultural Heritage and Archaeology)
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Article
The Search of St. Peter’s Memory ad catacumbas in the Cemeterial Area ad Duos Lauros in Rome
Heritage 2021, 4(1), 479-506; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage4010029 - 06 Mar 2021
Viewed by 1950
Abstract
The purpose of our study is to research Peter’s memory ad catacumbas. According to the Depositio Martyrum—a document of the late Emperor Constantine period—there was no memory of the first St. Peter’s Basilica on the Vatican Hill. We start with a [...] Read more.
The purpose of our study is to research Peter’s memory ad catacumbas. According to the Depositio Martyrum—a document of the late Emperor Constantine period—there was no memory of the first St. Peter’s Basilica on the Vatican Hill. We start with a critical analysis on the Roman Basilica attributed to Emperor Constantine in Liber Pontificalis, then we deepen the search of Peter’s memory in the catacombs of the Sts. Marcellinus and Peter (ad Duos Lauros), also known as Tor Pignattara. Indeed, the basilica and mausoleum built in this cemeterial area are the only buildings attributable, with certainty, to Emperor Constantine, who wished to be buried in the mausoleum, close to an apostle. Besides some striking archeological finds on Peter’s memory already discovered near a particular cubicle in these catacombs, a geometrical and mathematical study of the unusual architectonic characteristics of the basilica and mausoleum of Tor Pignattara shows that the buildings were part of a single architectonic plan, very likely designed for coding data useful to locate Peter’s burial site unambiguously, in the area of the cubicle mentioned. Full article
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Article
The Vocational School of Sintra and Its Contribution to Heritage Education
Heritage 2021, 4(1), 466-478; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage4010028 - 05 Mar 2021
Viewed by 548
Abstract
This paper aims to share the experience acquired with students of the 3rd year (namely the 12th grade of the Portuguese educational system) at the Vocational School for the Recovery of Heritage of Sintra in the Course of Studies for Conservation and Restoration [...] Read more.
This paper aims to share the experience acquired with students of the 3rd year (namely the 12th grade of the Portuguese educational system) at the Vocational School for the Recovery of Heritage of Sintra in the Course of Studies for Conservation and Restoration Assistants in the field of Plaster Restoration, in the classes of Work-Related Training and Analytical Methods of Examination and Laboratory Analysis, by carrying out theoretical-practical work and training in a work context specifically focused on Portuguese heritage, demonstrating how practical classes motivate students and prepare them for future professional work. This vocational course helps students to reflect and question themselves on the role of “looking” at heritage. Thus, its cross information, both interdisciplinary and from the historical-artistic context of the monument, will provide a better perspective over its materiality and its use. In situ learning awakens students to the reality of work. The notion that they are helping to maintain the memory of ancestors credits them and gives them confidence in their work. After presenting their Final Year Projects, they look at heritage with a more awakened vision. With this, they have the perception that they have contributed to the reconstruction of memory, their cultural heritage. Full article
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Article
A “Smartly Functional” Urban 3D Model: A New Way to Preserve the State of Health and Quality of a Complex Masonry Structure
Heritage 2021, 4(1), 437-465; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage4010027 - 25 Feb 2021
Viewed by 729
Abstract
The 3D model is the primary information of an integrated support system for the assessment of structural safety under vertical loads and seismic vulnerability of a masonry building. The available approaches for evaluating seismic demand and capacity still appear inadequate and today aims [...] Read more.
The 3D model is the primary information of an integrated support system for the assessment of structural safety under vertical loads and seismic vulnerability of a masonry building. The available approaches for evaluating seismic demand and capacity still appear inadequate and today aims to improve the process of knowledge of the seismic behavior of masonry structures and of the reliability of the numerical analysis of evaluation methods. Discrete modeling approaches (macro-elements) can lead to more reliable results if accurate surveys of the geometry and construction details of the masonry structure are used, especially in contexts where advise against the execution of invasive on-site tests for assessments both under vertical and seismic loads, limiting the investigation campaigns. In order to improve digital processes, oriented to the knowledge of the state of health and quality of a masonry structure, this study illustrates a new overture to virtual modeling and assessment of the structural safety of this type of work. The survey and relief methodology here proposed integrates digital data sensors—configured within an IoT (Internet of Things) network—in a geometric model with a level of accurate and precise detail, processed downstream of the laser scanner and photogrammetric survey of the single masonry building, as “S. Domenico Church in the “Sassi” of Matera. Full article
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Article
Yellow Lake Pigments from Weld in Art: Investigating the Winsor & Newton 19th Century Archive
Heritage 2021, 4(1), 422-436; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage4010026 - 25 Feb 2021
Viewed by 954
Abstract
Weld (Reseda luteola) was one of the main sources of yellow dyes used for dyeing textiles and to prepare artists’ pigments in Europe until the 19th century. For the first time, this work explores the technology of preparing weld lake pigments [...] Read more.
Weld (Reseda luteola) was one of the main sources of yellow dyes used for dyeing textiles and to prepare artists’ pigments in Europe until the 19th century. For the first time, this work explores the technology of preparing weld lake pigments in the 19th century by Winsor & Newton (W&N), a renowned supplier of artists’ materials. Five recipes were discovered in the W&N 19th century Archive Database and reconstructed in the laboratory. W&N was extracting weld in neutral and basic media, and preparing the insoluble lake by complexation with Al3+ in the form of alum (KAl(SO4)2•12H2O) or hydrated alumina (Al(OH)3). Five yellow lake pigments were successfully obtained and characterized by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detector (HPLC-DAD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Their chromatographic profiles display as main yellows, luteolin 7-O-glucoside (Lut-7-O-glu) or both Lut-7-O-glu plus luteolin 3′,7-O-glucoside (Lut-3’,7-O-glu). In two of the processes, the presence of gypsum (CaSO4•2H2O) was unequivocally detected by FTIR, being formed as a by-product. This work offers the first identification of weld lake pigments’ characteristic infrared bands. The W&N Database proved again to be a unique source of information on 19th-century artists’ materials and their commercial preparation. The knowledge gain is essential to ensure effective conservation and authentication procedures. Full article
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Article
Quasi-Static Nonlinear Seismic Assessment of a Fourth Century A.D. Roman Aqueduct in Istanbul, Turkey
Heritage 2021, 4(1), 401-421; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage4010025 - 20 Feb 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 842
Abstract
The majority of architectural heritage consists of load-bearing masonry components made up of stone units and relatively weak mortar joints, yielding potential weak planes for masonry structures where tension and shear failures are expected to occur. Advanced nonlinear analyses are required to simulate [...] Read more.
The majority of architectural heritage consists of load-bearing masonry components made up of stone units and relatively weak mortar joints, yielding potential weak planes for masonry structures where tension and shear failures are expected to occur. Advanced nonlinear analyses are required to simulate these phenomena and predict the corresponding nonlinear structural behavior of historic masonry constructions. In this context, this paper presents a model of a stone masonry Roman aqueduct (the Valens Aqueduct), constructed in the fourth century A.D. in Istanbul, Turkey, to explore the seismic capacity and behavior using the discrete element method (DEM). The employed modeling approach comprises distinct rigid blocks interacting along their boundaries based on the point-contact hypothesis. Thus, the discontinuous stone skeleton of the masonry aqueduct is represented explicitly in the computational model. First, a validation study was conducted on the laboratory experiment to demonstrate the capabilities of the adopted modeling approach. Then, a discontinuum model representing the Valens Aqueduct was used to assess the seismic capacity of the structure under gradually increasing lateral forces. The numerical simulations gave insight into the structural response of the aqueduct from the elastic range to total collapse. Additionally, parametric research was performed considering joint properties, namely the joint tensile strength, contact stiffness, joint friction angle, and compressive strength of the masonry, to quantify the effects of contact parameters on the displacement response of the DEM model. Further inferences were made regarding the modeling parameters, and practical conclusions were derived. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers)
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Article
Correlation of Environmental Parameters and the Water Saturation Induced Deterioration of Earthen Archaeological Sites: The Case of World Heritage Liangzhu City, China
Heritage 2021, 4(1), 387-400; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage4010024 - 19 Feb 2021
Viewed by 435
Abstract
This paper proposes a combined methodology for the quantitative analysis of the correlations between the monitored influencing environmental factors and the water saturation induced deterioration of earthen relics in a humid area. The Archaeological Ruins of Liangzhu City that have been exposed and [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a combined methodology for the quantitative analysis of the correlations between the monitored influencing environmental factors and the water saturation induced deterioration of earthen relics in a humid area. The Archaeological Ruins of Liangzhu City that have been exposed and severely damaged in a humid environment with high water content and dry–wet cycles are chosen as examples. A monitoring system including atmospheric, groundwater, soil moisture conditions, and images of the surface was installed. Based on the proposed methodology, 11 key influencing indexes involving groundwater, soil moisture and temperature at different depths, atmospheric radiation, and rainfall for the water saturation induced deterioration are investigated, and their correlation is described by a regression model. The weight rankings of influencing factors to the deterioration of the research area are calculated. The results can help quantitatively control the atmospheric environment where the earthen relics are located and can promote the conservation of the archaeological ruins in the humid environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Applications in Archaeology and Cultural Heritage)
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Article
World Heritage on the Move: Abandoning the Assessment of Authenticity to Meet the Challenges of the Twenty-First Century
Heritage 2021, 4(1), 371-386; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage4010023 - 12 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1594
Abstract
At a time when climate change, conflicts, disasters, and other global crises and challenges are increasingly affecting World Heritage properties, the utility of conservation assessment standards must be rethought. This article proposes abandoning the assessment of authenticity to treat properties less as “things”, [...] Read more.
At a time when climate change, conflicts, disasters, and other global crises and challenges are increasingly affecting World Heritage properties, the utility of conservation assessment standards must be rethought. This article proposes abandoning the assessment of authenticity to treat properties less as “things”, deemed authentic or not, and more as evolving “processes” that embrace continuity and compatible change, which, it is argued, helps meet the challenges of the twenty-first century, namely climate change mitigation and adaptation; building back better after conflicts, disasters, or pandemics; and, ultimately, achieving sustainable development goals. Drawing on policy analysis and a wide range of literature, the article explains why authenticity is not a useful concept and why the idea of “heritage as process” is more relevant to the contemporary world. It shows how this idea can be put into effect and linked to Outstanding Universal Value, integrity, protection and management, which are already requirements in UNESCO’s Operational Guidelines for the implementation of the World Heritage Convention. In doing so, it contributes to aligning the implementation of the Convention with that of the global agendas of our time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cultural Heritage)
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Article
Understanding Deterioration due to Salt and Ice Crystallization in Scandinavian Massive Brick Masonry
Heritage 2021, 4(1), 349-370; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage4010022 - 11 Feb 2021
Viewed by 943
Abstract
Extensive durability problems such as weathering and degradation are found in historic Scandinavian brick masonry buildings, especially from the neo-Gothic period. These are largely due to the crystallization of salts and frost action in the bricks and mortars. This article aims to show [...] Read more.
Extensive durability problems such as weathering and degradation are found in historic Scandinavian brick masonry buildings, especially from the neo-Gothic period. These are largely due to the crystallization of salts and frost action in the bricks and mortars. This article aims to show and illustrate which salts and crystals are found in historic brick masonry buildings and to describe their appearance and behavior. An additional aim is to explore possibilities of preventing salt-related damage on internal masonry wall surfaces, such as using hemp-lime sacrificial plaster beneath the plaster. The objective is to show the mechanisms behind salt-related problems and to perform a case study and a laboratory study on salt-damaged brick masonry containing sodium sulphate. In order to prevent and stop damage to the masonry, it is important to be able to identify the nature of the salt damage and the type of salt that caused the damage. Neo-Gothic brick masonry buildings require well-planned, continuous maintenance of the masonry. It is therefore of the utmost importance to have an understanding of the complex functions of the masonry and of the salts that can cause damage to these historic buildings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment and Protection of Cultural Heritage Masonry Structures)
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Article
A Stochastic View of Varying Styles in Art Paintings
Heritage 2021, 4(1), 333-348; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage4010021 - 11 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1055
Abstract
A physical process is characterized as complex when it is difficult to analyze and explain in a simple way, and even more difficult to predict. The complexity within an art painting is expected to be high, possibly comparable to that of nature. Herein, [...] Read more.
A physical process is characterized as complex when it is difficult to analyze and explain in a simple way, and even more difficult to predict. The complexity within an art painting is expected to be high, possibly comparable to that of nature. Herein, we apply a 2D stochastic methodology to images of both portrait photography and artistic portraits, the latter belonging to different genres of art, with the aim to better understand their variability in quantitative terms. To quantify the dependence structure and variability, we estimate the Hurst parameter, which is a common dependence metric for hydrometeorological processes. We also seek connections between the identified stochastic patterns and the desideratum that each art movement aimed to express. Results show remarkable stochastic similarities between portrait paintings, linked to philosophical, cultural and theological characteristics of each period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers)
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Article
Construction of Interpretation and Presentation System of Cultural Heritage Site: An Analysis of the Old City, Zuoying
Heritage 2021, 4(1), 316-332; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage4010020 - 10 Feb 2021
Viewed by 572
Abstract
Interpretation and presentation is an essential component of the whole heritage conservation process. In response to the new opportunities and challenges arising from the changing perspectives on heritage conservation, the development of display technologies and the rise of cultural tourism, it becomes a [...] Read more.
Interpretation and presentation is an essential component of the whole heritage conservation process. In response to the new opportunities and challenges arising from the changing perspectives on heritage conservation, the development of display technologies and the rise of cultural tourism, it becomes a challenging task for cultural heritage institutions to construct a systematic interpretation and presentation system of a cultural heritage site that can effectively communicate heritage significance and value to the public and provide visitors with positive and valuable experience. From four main aspects (site, technology, public, and education and research), this research provides a comprehensive overview of the implementation details of the interpretation and presentation system of Old Zuoying City, which is considered an unprecedented large-scale cultural heritage preservation plan in Taiwan, through participative site investigation and in-depth interviews, thereby providing a reference for the construction, implementation, and management of interpretation and presentation system at cultural heritage sites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cultural Heritage: Current Threats and Opportunities)
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Article
Detection and Identification of Possible Gel Residues on the Surface of Paintings after Cleaning Treatments
Heritage 2021, 4(1), 304-315; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage4010019 - 07 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 580
Abstract
Important features required for gels used for the cleaning of paintings are viscoelastic properties ensuring good adaptability to the morphology of the surfaces and complete gel removal after application. Poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-borax gels containing different liquid phases are often used as cleaning [...] Read more.
Important features required for gels used for the cleaning of paintings are viscoelastic properties ensuring good adaptability to the morphology of the surfaces and complete gel removal after application. Poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-borax gels containing different liquid phases are often used as cleaning materials, but still little is known about their ability to leave no residues. This study reports the development of an analytical method based on attenuated total reflectance–Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and pyrolysis–gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) for the identification of PVA-borax gel residues on mock-ups and on works of art after cleaning treatments. The effect of additives in the formulation (i.e., poly (ethylene oxide)) and of clearing treatments with organic solvents after the gel removal was assessed both with respect to the effectiveness of the cleaning and the presence of residues on the painted surfaces. The results obtained show that clearing the surfaces with cotton swabs and organic solvents after the application of the gel is necessary to ensure a good removal of gel residues. Moreover, Py-GC/MS analyses in single-ion-monitoring (SIM) mode are more sensitive and selective, allowing the detection of gel residues even on surfaces where no residue is detected by ATR-FTIR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers)
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Article
Digital Artifacts and Landscapes. Experimenting with Placemaking at the Impero Project
Heritage 2021, 4(1), 281-303; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage4010018 - 06 Feb 2021
Viewed by 727
Abstract
This paper describes the public archaeology approach and placemaking experiment at the Etruscan and Roman site of Podere Cannicci in Tuscany (Italy), drawing from the previous experience at three other archaeological sites along the Tyrrhenian coast. After three years of excavations at the [...] Read more.
This paper describes the public archaeology approach and placemaking experiment at the Etruscan and Roman site of Podere Cannicci in Tuscany (Italy), drawing from the previous experience at three other archaeological sites along the Tyrrhenian coast. After three years of excavations at the IMPERO Project (Interconnected Mobility of People and Economy along the River Ombrone), the team has begun a side project to develop new strategies for communicating the results of the research. These include, but are not limited to, an app which displays augmented reality and 3D reconstructions of both the site and the material culture. The project uses digital narratives to engage local communities and scholars in the interpretation and reconstruction of ancient landscapes along with the middle valley of the Ombrone river. This approach also has the potential to support and sustain local tourism, providing an original experience for visitors. Moreover, the solution allows people from all over the world to be connected with the ongoing research and its results, as everything will be published on a dedicated website. Full article
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Editorial
Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Heritage in 2020
Heritage 2021, 4(1), 278-280; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage4010017 - 26 Jan 2021
Viewed by 558
Abstract
Peer review is the driving force of journal development, and reviewers are gatekeepers who ensure that Heritage maintains its standards for the high quality of its published papers [...] Full article
Article
Reproduction and Testing of Display Options for the Slide-Based Artwork Slides de Cavalete (1978–1979) by Ângelo de Sousa: An Experimental Study
Heritage 2021, 4(1), 260-277; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage4010016 - 26 Jan 2021
Viewed by 449
Abstract
Slides de cavalete | Easel slides (1978–1979) is a slide-based artwork by the Portuguese artist Ângelo de Sousa (1938–2011), composed of one-hundred colour slides. Each image was produced by capturing different proportions of red, green, and blue (RGB) lights to obtain colour gradations. [...] Read more.
Slides de cavalete | Easel slides (1978–1979) is a slide-based artwork by the Portuguese artist Ângelo de Sousa (1938–2011), composed of one-hundred colour slides. Each image was produced by capturing different proportions of red, green, and blue (RGB) lights to obtain colour gradations. The artwork was first presented in the exhibition A Fotografia como Arte/A Arte como Fotografia | Photography as Art/Art as Photography in 1979. Associated with this exhibition, documentary evidence was found during the present study providing specific instruction on how to display the artwork (possibly unknown until now). According to that documentation, the artist wanted the work to be projected on a canvas mounted in an easel with a 19th century semblance, using a slide projector. In the last two exhibitions, carried out in 2017, after the artist had passed, the work was displayed as a digital projection, without the previously mentioned sculptural components. It was considered that this deviation from the first presentation could have led to a misunderstanding of the work. Thus, an exhibition of this artwork was prepared in a room at the Library of Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia. This was built as an experimental laboratory, having as one of its important objectives to test the variability of the work projected with a slide projector and a digital projector, following the display setup defined by the artist. For four days, the visitors were shown the work displayed under these two distinct scenarios of presentation. The visitors were also asked to fill out a questionnaire, to capture their perception about the variance of the work. The data obtained in the questionnaire and during the exhibition reinforced the decision to expose Slides de cavalete using the original technology. The public preferred the quality and beauty of the image using the slide projector, highlighting as positive aspects more granularity and warmer hue as well as higher depth of the images. Additionally, the production process behind Slides de cavalete was studied, based on documentation discovered in the artist’s archive and on reproductions, to enrich our perception of the work, in particular the complexity of creating the sfumato effects, and to understand the impact of changing the display technology. The results obtained made it possible to identify the main steps of making these slides, and this knowledge was shared with visitors in a workshop, integrated in this experimental laboratory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Artistic Heritage)
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Article
Visible and “Invisible” Aspects of Historic Mediterranean Metropolises Perpetually Emerging through Augmented Reality
Heritage 2021, 4(1), 249-259; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage4010015 - 24 Jan 2021
Viewed by 514
Abstract
Alexandria and Istanbul, through diverse texts and writers, meet and intersect in their attempt to reconstruct and rebuild the metropolis’s character. Our method advocates spatiotemporal events in augmented literature that enable reflection of the palimpsest of historical frames. On a higher level, what [...] Read more.
Alexandria and Istanbul, through diverse texts and writers, meet and intersect in their attempt to reconstruct and rebuild the metropolis’s character. Our method advocates spatiotemporal events in augmented literature that enable reflection of the palimpsest of historical frames. On a higher level, what we propose in this work is the dialogic field between the two metropolises, as it could be provided by novels’ chronotopes with the aid of augmented reality. We undertake a twofold task, to reveal the awareness of the connections between places and the connection and attachment of particular spaces, by unifying two approaches. First, Ecocriticism that comprises the ways in which novels express socio-cultural frameworks of the natural environment. The second approach is based on the strong interrelations of place engagement with collective and cultural memory. The linking of both urban, spatial geometry and topology with the waterscape for both metropolises, in our proposed conceptualization of a chronotope-based augmented continuum, endeavors to provide, firstly, the dialogic relations between the two metropolises, between each metropolis and the waterscape and, secondly, between urbanscape and waterscape and the novels’ fictional frameworks. Within the framework of the augmented reality, we synthesize the writers’ fictional cities with the factual surroundings of the metropolises in order to reconstruct the fragmented natural and architectural urban views in the continuity of the urban fabric, thus ending up proposing a dynamic repository of the metropolis landscape’s natural, collective and cultural memory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cultural Heritage: Current Threats and Opportunities)
Article
The Tuscany Masonry Database Website
Heritage 2021, 4(1), 230-248; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage4010014 - 22 Jan 2021
Viewed by 709
Abstract
The Tuscany Masonry Database (TMDB) is an online database containing the results and the complete experimental data of in situ experimental tests carried out on masonry panels of masonry buildings located in the Tuscany Region (Italy), starting from 1990. The results can be [...] Read more.
The Tuscany Masonry Database (TMDB) is an online database containing the results and the complete experimental data of in situ experimental tests carried out on masonry panels of masonry buildings located in the Tuscany Region (Italy), starting from 1990. The results can be freely downloaded by users after registration on the site. To date, the TMDB includes 142 georeferenced tests, comprising 50 diagonal tests, 5 compression tests, and 87 flat-jack tests. In addition, there are tests on the components, such as compression tests on blocks, penetrometric testing on mortar, macroscopic or microscopic analysis of mortar, and coring. The results are supported by a qualitative description of the masonry texture and are compared with the reference values of the mechanical characteristics proposed by the Italian Building Code. The data come from scientific literature and are the result of collaborations between the Seismic Sector of the Tuscany Region and some Tuscan University Laboratories, or they are shared by private test laboratories mainly acting in Tuscany. The TMDB was developed and is constantly updated by the authors to provide support to researchers and freelance engineers in the knowledge process phase of masonry buildings, as well as for that of particular structures, such as heritage buildings. Furthermore, it allows for the filling of the lack of particularity of masonry classification and for the consideration of particular masonry types existing in local areas, for which there are no literature data or specific experimentation. Further tests are currently being processed to be included in the database, and divulgation activity on the project is foreseen. Furthermore, national and international collaborations are underway for the expansion of the database, with the aim of unifying test procedures and updating the codes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seismic Vulnerability Assessment for Heritage Buildings)
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Principal Component Analysis (PCA) Combined with Naturally Occurring Crystallization Inhibitors: An Integrated Strategy for a more Sustainable Control of Salt Decay in Built Heritage
Heritage 2021, 4(1), 220-229; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage4010013 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 555
Abstract
Salt inhibitors have been receiving increasing attention as potential innovative systems to counteract salt damage by preventing crystallisation of the salts within the natural stone structure—and related disruptive action—of built heritage. Especially, we focus on biomass-derived inhibitor systems featuring complete solubility in water [...] Read more.
Salt inhibitors have been receiving increasing attention as potential innovative systems to counteract salt damage by preventing crystallisation of the salts within the natural stone structure—and related disruptive action—of built heritage. Especially, we focus on biomass-derived inhibitor systems featuring complete solubility in water or alcohol and intrinsic non-toxicity. Moving from the promising results obtained, the present study aims to develop research concerning the possibility of rationalizing the collected data sets and making them amenable to statistical analysis. This paper reports on an exploratory application of one of the most powerful methods in chemometrics, i.e., principal component analysis (PCA), in this area. It will be seen that this method is a promising tool to extract information from a series of tests to optimize them and to reduce the level of “noise” present in the data collected, i.e., unnecessary information or experimental errors, and to suggest new directions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers)
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Review
Granite Landscapes, Geodiversity and Geoheritage—Global Context
Heritage 2021, 4(1), 198-219; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage4010012 - 18 Jan 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 681
Abstract
Granite geomorphological sceneries are important components of global geoheritage, but international awareness of their significance seems insufficient. Based on existing literature, ten distinctive types of relief are identified, along with several sub-types, and an overview of medium-size and minor landforms characteristic for granite [...] Read more.
Granite geomorphological sceneries are important components of global geoheritage, but international awareness of their significance seems insufficient. Based on existing literature, ten distinctive types of relief are identified, along with several sub-types, and an overview of medium-size and minor landforms characteristic for granite terrains is provided. Collectively, they tell stories about landscape evolution and environmental changes over geological timescale, having also considerable aesthetic values in many cases. Nevertheless, representation of granite landscapes and landforms on the UNESCO World Heritage List and within the UNESCO Global Geopark network is relatively scarce and only a few properties have been awarded World Heritage status in recognition of their scientific value or unique scenery. Much more often, reasons for inscription resided elsewhere, in biodiversity or cultural heritage values, despite very high geomorphological significance. To facilitate future global comparative analysis a framework is proposed that can be used for this purpose. Full article
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Article
Characterizing Color Quality, Damage to Artwork, and Light Intensity of Multi-Primary LEDs for Museums
Heritage 2021, 4(1), 188-197; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage4010011 - 17 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 585
Abstract
Light causes damage when it is absorbed by sensitive artwork, such as oil paintings. However, light is needed to initiate vision and display artwork. The dilemma between visibility and damage, coupled with the inverse relationship between color quality and energy efficiency, poses a [...] Read more.
Light causes damage when it is absorbed by sensitive artwork, such as oil paintings. However, light is needed to initiate vision and display artwork. The dilemma between visibility and damage, coupled with the inverse relationship between color quality and energy efficiency, poses a challenge for curators, conservators, and lighting designers in identifying optimal light sources. Multi-primary LEDs can provide great flexibility in terms of color quality, damage reduction, and energy efficiency for artwork illumination. However, there are no established metrics that quantify the output variability or highlight the trade-offs between different metrics. Here, various metrics related to museum lighting (damage, the color quality of paintings, illuminance, luminous efficacy of radiation) are analyzed using a voxelated 3-D volume. The continuous data in each dimension of the 3-D volume are converted to discrete data by identifying a significant minimum value (unit voxel). Resulting discretized 3-D volumes display the trade-offs between selected measures. It is possible to quantify the volume of the graph by summing unique voxels, which enables comparison of the performance of different light sources. The proposed representation model can be used for individual pigments or paintings with numerous pigments. The proposed method can be the foundation of a damage appearance model (DAM). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Technologies Applied to Cultural Heritage)
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Article
Review and New Evidence on the Molluscan Purple Pigment Used in the Early Late Bronze Age Aegean Wall Paintings
Heritage 2021, 4(1), 171-187; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage4010010 - 14 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1216
Abstract
The production and use of the pigment extracted from the murex molluscs is discussed here in association with the purple textile dyeing industry in the Prehistoric Aegean. “True” purple has been identified in a number of archaeological finds dating from the early Late [...] Read more.
The production and use of the pigment extracted from the murex molluscs is discussed here in association with the purple textile dyeing industry in the Prehistoric Aegean. “True” purple has been identified in a number of archaeological finds dating from the early Late Bronze Age, found in old and recent excavations at three different but contemporary sites: Akrotiri and Raos on Thera, and Trianda on Rhodes. The chemical composition of the shellfish purple pigment either found in lump form or applied on wall paintings is discussed in relation to the archaeological context of several examined finds and with reference to Pliny’s purpurissum. The results of a comprehensive methodology combining new data obtained with molecular spectroscopies (microRaman and FTIR) and already reported data obtained with high performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode array detector (HPLC–DAD) applied to samples of the murex purple finds are discussed in comparison to published data relating to few other instances of analytically proven murex purple pigment found in the Aegean over the timespan of its documented exploitation. Full article
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Communication
Real and Promoted Aesthetic Properties of Geosites: New Empirical Evidence from SW Russia
Heritage 2021, 4(1), 160-170; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage4010009 - 14 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 543
Abstract
Aesthetic properties of natural heritage objects are determined by their physical properties. Online promotion of these objects to potential tourists requires adequate representation of these properties on web pages. The Shum waterfall is a small, but notable and tourism-important geosite of southwestern Russia. [...] Read more.
Aesthetic properties of natural heritage objects are determined by their physical properties. Online promotion of these objects to potential tourists requires adequate representation of these properties on web pages. The Shum waterfall is a small, but notable and tourism-important geosite of southwestern Russia. Its real aesthetic properties were examined in the field, and 20 web pages devoted to local tourism were examined to judge its promoted aesthetic properties. Eleven criteria of the common tourists’ judgments of beauty were used for this purpose. A significant discrepancy between the real and promoted properties is found. Particularly, the web pages exaggerate the scale of the waterfall and do not mention crowds of tourists. This may cause disappointment of the latter. The findings of the present study allow for making several practical recommendations for more efficient promotion of the Shum waterfall, as well as providing general advice to the geotourism industry. Full article
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Article
An Open System for Collection and Automatic Recognition of Pottery through Neural Network Algorithms
Heritage 2021, 4(1), 140-159; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage4010008 - 13 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 649
Abstract
In the last ten years, artificial intelligence (AI) techniques have been applied in archaeology. The ArchAIDE project realised an AI-based application to recognise archaeological pottery. Pottery is of paramount importance for understanding archaeological contexts. However, recognition of ceramics is still a manual, time-consuming [...] Read more.
In the last ten years, artificial intelligence (AI) techniques have been applied in archaeology. The ArchAIDE project realised an AI-based application to recognise archaeological pottery. Pottery is of paramount importance for understanding archaeological contexts. However, recognition of ceramics is still a manual, time-consuming activity, reliant on analogue catalogues. The project developed two complementary machine-learning tools to propose identifications based on images captured on-site, for optimising and economising this process, while retaining key decision points necessary to create trusted results. One method relies on the shape of a potsherd; the other is based on decorative features. For the shape-based recognition, a novel deep-learning architecture was employed, integrating shape information from points along the inner and outer profile of a sherd. The decoration classifier is based on relatively standard architectures used in image recognition. In both cases, training the algorithms meant facing challenges related to real-world archaeological data: the scarcity of labelled data; extreme imbalance between instances of different categories; and the need to take note of minute differentiating features. Finally, the creation of a desktop and mobile application that integrates the AI classifiers provides an easy-to-use interface for pottery classification and storing pottery data. Full article
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Article
A Citizen Science Approach to Build a Knowledge Base and Cadastre on Earth Buildings in the Weinviertel Region, Austria
Heritage 2021, 4(1), 125-139; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage4010007 - 13 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 747
Abstract
Clay played a decisive role as a building material in the Austrian Weinviertel region. Its traditional use in vernacular architecture started to disappear in the 19th century, triggered, for example, by upcoming industrial processes to produce construction materials such as burnt bricks, and [...] Read more.
Clay played a decisive role as a building material in the Austrian Weinviertel region. Its traditional use in vernacular architecture started to disappear in the 19th century, triggered, for example, by upcoming industrial processes to produce construction materials such as burnt bricks, and by making them available as mass building products in course of the time—even for vernacular purpose and at remote places. Following a debate on ecological sustainability during the last decades, the striking advantages of clay as a building material have been rediscovered. However, to support restoration activities and develop new uses, a vital and profound knowledge of properties of the local clay and its traditional local use is required. It is therefore important to increase the knowledge of this unique heritage among the local population and the scientific community. This article aims to present the development of an earth building cadastre (Lehmbaukataster) based on an innovative Citizen Science approach using mobile technologies for activating and integrating the local population with specific local and historical knowledge of earth architecture in the Weinviertel. The results show that citizens can provide essential information to develop a cadastre on earth buildings. Supported by a web application with GPS location facilities, camera, and low entry barriers, citizens can contribute to the expansion of the scientific database. The research results are a strong impetus for the development of strategies for the valorization and protection of cultural heritage. Full article
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Article
Quantitative Assessment of Impact and Sensitivity of Imaging Spectroscopy for Monitoring of Ageing of Archival Documents
Heritage 2021, 4(1), 105-124; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage4010006 - 12 Jan 2021
Viewed by 550
Abstract
Ageing of historical documents often results in changes in the optical properties of the constituent materials. Imaging spectroscopy (IS) can be a valuable tool for monitoring of such changes, if the method fulfils two important conditions. Firstly, compared to natural ageing, the accumulated [...] Read more.
Ageing of historical documents often results in changes in the optical properties of the constituent materials. Imaging spectroscopy (IS) can be a valuable tool for monitoring of such changes, if the method fulfils two important conditions. Firstly, compared to natural ageing, the accumulated light dose from repeated measurements of the monitored document must not induce any significant degradation. Secondly, the monitoring instrumentation and procedures should be sensitive enough to detect changes in the materials before they become visible. We present experimental methods to evaluate the suitability of IS instrumentation for monitoring purposes. In the first set of experiments, the impact of repeated monitoring measurements was determined using a set of Blue Wool Standard materials. In the second set of experiments, the capability of the instrument to detect spectral changes was tested using ISO standard materials and several documents representative of European archive collections. It is concluded that the tested hyperspectral instrument is suitable for monitoring of the colour change of documents during display. The described experimental approach can be recommended to test the suitability of other imaging spectroscopy instruments for monitoring applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Technologies Applied to Cultural Heritage)
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Article
Lime Production in the Late Chalcolithic Period: The Case of Arslantepe (Eastern Anatolia)
Heritage 2021, 4(1), 91-104; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage4010005 - 12 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 728
Abstract
Plaster and mortar samples from Arslantepe (Turkey) hold potential to provide unique information about the lime production and adhibition during the Late Chalcolithic period (4th millennium BCE). A multi-analytical approach including polarized light microscopy (PLM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), and scanning electron microscopy [...] Read more.
Plaster and mortar samples from Arslantepe (Turkey) hold potential to provide unique information about the lime production and adhibition during the Late Chalcolithic period (4th millennium BCE). A multi-analytical approach including polarized light microscopy (PLM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) has been applied to characterize mortar samples from temple C and elite residences dated back to the late Chalcolithic 3–4 (3800–3400 BCE). A marly limestone has been identified as starting raw material for the lime production, probably coming from two different sources (local and brought from a different part of the Malatya plain). Moreover, different aggregate selection and the use of different production techniques were also detected in the samples, which are probably related to the function of the buildings. Evidence of a re-plastering process was also detected in the two elite houses, which probably refers to a routine maintenance process. Full article
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Article
A Semi-Automatic Reconstruction of Archaeological Pottery Fragments from 2D Images Using Wavelet Transformation
Heritage 2021, 4(1), 76-90; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage4010004 - 06 Jan 2021
Viewed by 762
Abstract
The problem of matching fragments of three-dimensional (3D) objects has gained increasing attention, and several approaches have been developed to solve this problem. To date, however, to the best knowledge of the authors, there is no computer-based method supporting archaeologists in this activity. [...] Read more.
The problem of matching fragments of three-dimensional (3D) objects has gained increasing attention, and several approaches have been developed to solve this problem. To date, however, to the best knowledge of the authors, there is no computer-based method supporting archaeologists in this activity. For this purpose, in this paper, a semi-automatic approach is proposed for the reconstruction of archaeological pottery fragments based on two-dimensional (2D) images. Firstly, the method, considering the curves as features, involves the extraction of edge curves by applying the Canny filter algorithm to the fragments’ image. Next, the wavelet transformation method is used to fit the edge curves and obtain the approximation coefficients. Then, the correlation coefficients between fragments are computed and the matching of fragments is done by comparing their values. The proposed approach is tested on some real cases. The results of the experimentation show, if compared with the state-of-the-art, that the method seems to be efficient and accurate in the reconstruction of pottery from 2D images of their fragments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Application of Imaging in Cultural Heritage)
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Article
After They Fell Silent: The Nature and Fate of the Ship Bells Associated with the Vessels Scrapped for the Washington Arms Limitation Treaty of 1922
Heritage 2021, 4(1), 32-75; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage4010003 - 30 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 640
Abstract
The Washington Arms Limitation Treaty 1922 was arguably one the most significant disarmament treaties of the first half of the 20th century. It can be shown that the heritage items associated with this treaty are still extant. Ship’s bells are one of the [...] Read more.
The Washington Arms Limitation Treaty 1922 was arguably one the most significant disarmament treaties of the first half of the 20th century. It can be shown that the heritage items associated with this treaty are still extant. Ship’s bells are one of the few moveable objects that are specific to the operational life of a ship and are therefore highly symbolic in representing a vessel. This paper surveys which bells of the ships scrapped under conditions of the Washington Arms Limitation Treaty are known to exist. A typology of ship’s bells has been developed to understand the nature of bell provisioning to vessels newly commissioned into the U.S. Navy. Each of the countries associated with the Washington Treaty have divergent disposal practices with respect to navy property, and this is reflected in both the prevalence and nature of custodianship of ship’s bells from this period. Such procedures range from the U.S. requirement commanding all surplus Navy property to be deemed government property upon ship deactivation, to the British practice of vending ship’s bells to private parties at public sales. However, ship’s bells, like many obsolete functional items, can be regarded as iconic in terms of heritage and therefore warrant attention for future preservation and presentation in the public domain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers)
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Article
Roman Model-Books as a Resource for Digital Architectural Reconstructions
Heritage 2021, 4(1), 20-31; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage4010002 - 26 Dec 2020
Viewed by 627
Abstract
Upon examination of Roman landscape paintings preserved in situ and in museums of Naples and Rome, additional evidence has been found for the additive character of creation of imaginary landscapes as well as evidence for using standardized elements and whole scene compositions in [...] Read more.
Upon examination of Roman landscape paintings preserved in situ and in museums of Naples and Rome, additional evidence has been found for the additive character of creation of imaginary landscapes as well as evidence for using standardized elements and whole scene compositions in Roman painting. This attitude is compared to the modern way of creating virtual landscapes—computer game level design and the process called “kitbashing”. I propose that both these processes share the same task to create a familiar landscape using a visual language understandable to its contemporary viewer, but also a very similar method of using predefined elements. Full article
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