Next Article in Journal
Characterization of Adobe Blocks: Point-Load Assessment as a Complementary Study of Damaged Buildings and Samples
Next Article in Special Issue
Identification of Pre-1950 Synthetic Organic Pigments in Artists’ Paints. A Non-Invasive Approach Using Handheld Raman Spectroscopy
Previous Article in Journal
Revisiting the Conditions of Authenticity for Built Heritage in Areas of Conflict
Previous Article in Special Issue
Yellow Lake Pigments from Weld in Art: Investigating the Winsor & Newton 19th Century Archive
Article

Exploring Liu Kang’s Paris Practice (1929–1932): Insight into Painting Materials and Technique

1
Heritage Conservation Centre, National Heritage Board, 32 Jurong Port Rd, Singapore 619104, Singapore
2
Department of Painting Technology and Techniques, Institute for Conservation, Restoration and Study of Cultural Heritage, Nicolaus Copernicus University, ul. Sienkiewicza 30/32, 87-100 Toruń, Poland
3
Department of Telecommunications and Teleinformatics, Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Wybrzeże Stanisława Wyspiańskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Diego Tamburini
Received: 26 April 2021 / Revised: 14 May 2021 / Accepted: 16 May 2021 / Published: 19 May 2021
This paper presents the results of an extensive study of 14 paintings by the pioneering Singapore artist Liu Kang (1911–2004). The paintings are from the National Gallery Singapore and Liu family collections. The aim of the study is to elucidate the painting technique and materials from the artist’s early oeuvre, Paris, spanning the period from 1929 to 1932. The artworks were studied with a wide array of non- and micro-invasive analytical techniques, supplemented with the historical information derived from the Liu family archives and contemporary colourmen catalogues. The results showed that the artist was able to create compositions with a limited colour palette and had a preferential use of commercially available ultramarine, viridian, chrome yellow, iron oxides, organic reds, lead white, and bone black bound in oil that was highlighted. This study identified other minor pigments that appeared as hue modifications or were used sporadically, such as cobalt blue, Prussian blue, emerald green, cadmium yellow, cobalt yellow, and zinc white. With regard to the painting technique, the artist explored different styles and demonstrated a continuous development of his brushwork and was undoubtedly influenced by Modernists’ artworks. This comprehensive technical study of Liu Kang’s paintings from the Paris phase may assist art historians and conservators in the evaluation of the artist’s early career and aid conservation diagnostics and treatment of his artworks. Furthermore, the identified painting materials can be compared with those used by other artists active in Paris during the same period. View Full-Text
Keywords: Liu Kang; SEM-EDS; MA-XRF; FTIR; IRFC; X-RAY; RTI; hidden paintings; pigments Liu Kang; SEM-EDS; MA-XRF; FTIR; IRFC; X-RAY; RTI; hidden paintings; pigments
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Lizun, D.; Kurkiewicz, T.; Szczupak, B. Exploring Liu Kang’s Paris Practice (1929–1932): Insight into Painting Materials and Technique. Heritage 2021, 4, 828-863. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage4020046

AMA Style

Lizun D, Kurkiewicz T, Szczupak B. Exploring Liu Kang’s Paris Practice (1929–1932): Insight into Painting Materials and Technique. Heritage. 2021; 4(2):828-863. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage4020046

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lizun, Damian, Teresa Kurkiewicz, and Bogusław Szczupak. 2021. "Exploring Liu Kang’s Paris Practice (1929–1932): Insight into Painting Materials and Technique" Heritage 4, no. 2: 828-863. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage4020046

Find Other Styles

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop