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Article

Micro-Stratigraphical Investigation on Corrosion Layers in Ancient Bronze Artefacts of Urartian Period by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy-Dispersive Spectrometry, and Optical Microscopy

1
SMATCH-Scientific Methodologies Applied to Cultural Heritage, c/o Department of Chemistry, University of Rome “La Sapienza”, P.le Aldo Moro, 5, 00185 Rome, Italy
2
Opificio delle Pietre Dure e Laboratori di Restauro, Viale Filippo Strozzi 1, 50129 Florence, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Agresti Juri
Received: 25 August 2021 / Revised: 15 September 2021 / Accepted: 16 September 2021 / Published: 19 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of Archaeological Copper Alloys)
The results of the analysis on some fragments of bronze belts and a bowl discovered from southwestern Armenia at the Yegheghnadzor archaeological site are discussed. The samples are dated to the 7–6th millennium BCE from the Urartian period. The artefacts were corroded, and a multilayer structure was formed. To study the stratigraphy of layers and their composition, the samples have been analyzed using SEM-EDS (Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy-Dispersive Spectrometry) and OM (Optical Microscopy) techniques. The bronze finds appear with the typical incrustations rich in alloy alteration compounds. Concentrations of copper and tin in the alloys were quantified by SEM-EDS: the pattern and the percentage of the alloy are the same for the belts. Regarding the bowl sample, it is constituted by two foils perfectly in contact but different in color, thickness, and composition. The results evidenced that only two elements participate in forming the alloy composition in the samples: Cu and Sn. The tin content is variable from 7.75% to 13.56%. Other elements such as Ag, As, Fe, Ni, P, Pb, Sb, and Zn make up less than 1% and can be considered as impurities. View Full-Text
Keywords: bronze belts; bowl; SEM-EDS; OM; Urartu bronze belts; bowl; SEM-EDS; OM; Urartu
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MDPI and ACS Style

Keheyan, Y.; Lanterna, G. Micro-Stratigraphical Investigation on Corrosion Layers in Ancient Bronze Artefacts of Urartian Period by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy-Dispersive Spectrometry, and Optical Microscopy. Heritage 2021, 4, 2526-2543. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage4030143

AMA Style

Keheyan Y, Lanterna G. Micro-Stratigraphical Investigation on Corrosion Layers in Ancient Bronze Artefacts of Urartian Period by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy-Dispersive Spectrometry, and Optical Microscopy. Heritage. 2021; 4(3):2526-2543. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage4030143

Chicago/Turabian Style

Keheyan, Yeghis, and Giancarlo Lanterna. 2021. "Micro-Stratigraphical Investigation on Corrosion Layers in Ancient Bronze Artefacts of Urartian Period by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy-Dispersive Spectrometry, and Optical Microscopy" Heritage 4, no. 3: 2526-2543. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/heritage4030143

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