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Corros. Mater. Degrad., Volume 1, Issue 3 (December 2020) – 5 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Corrosion is a naturally occurring phenomenon, and the formulation of more protective coatings that can be employed to prevent or minimise corrosion is especially important in the modern world. The opportunities to develop new protective coatings have never been so rich with the emergence of a host of new two-dimensional materials. In this review, the corrosion protection afforded by graphene is described and discussed, highlighting issues with galvanic corrosion and the more encouraging results obtained with functionalised graphene oxide. This is then followed with an account of graphene-like materials, including hexagonal boron nitride and graphitic carbon nitride. View this paper.
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Open AccessReview
Modification, Degradation and Evaluation of a Few Organic Coatings for Some Marine Applications
Corros. Mater. Degrad. 2020, 1(3), 408-442; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cmd1030019 - 21 Dec 2020
Viewed by 511
Abstract
Organic coatings for marine applications must have great corrosion protection and antifouling performance. This review presents an overview of recent investigations into coating microstructure, corrosion protection performance, antifouling behavior, and evaluation methods, particularly the substrate effect and environmental influence on coating protectiveness, aiming [...] Read more.
Organic coatings for marine applications must have great corrosion protection and antifouling performance. This review presents an overview of recent investigations into coating microstructure, corrosion protection performance, antifouling behavior, and evaluation methods, particularly the substrate effect and environmental influence on coating protectiveness, aiming to improve operational practice in the coating industry. The review indicates that the presence of defects in an organic coating is the root cause of the corrosion damage of the coating. The protection performance of a coating system can be enhanced by proper treatment of the substrate and physical modification of the coating. Environmental factors may synergistically accelerate the coating degradation. The long-term protection performance of a coating system is extremely difficult to predict without coating defect information. Non-fouling coating and self-repairing coatings may be promising antifouling approaches. Based on the review, some important research topics are suggested, such as the exploration of rapid evaluation methods, the development of long-term cost-effective antifouling coatings in real marine environments. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Indirect Galvanostatic Pulse in Wenner Configuration: Numerical Insights into Its Physical Aspect and Its Ability to Locate Highly Corroding Areas in Macrocell Corrosion of Steel in Concrete
Corros. Mater. Degrad. 2020, 1(3), 373-407; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cmd1030018 - 21 Dec 2020
Viewed by 569
Abstract
The use of indirect electrical techniques is gaining interest for monitoring the corrosion of steel in concrete as they do not require any connection to the rebar. In this paper, we provide insights into the physical aspects of the indirect galvanostatic pulse (GP) [...] Read more.
The use of indirect electrical techniques is gaining interest for monitoring the corrosion of steel in concrete as they do not require any connection to the rebar. In this paper, we provide insights into the physical aspects of the indirect galvanostatic pulse (GP) method in the Wenner configuration. Considering uniform corrosion, the instantaneous ohmic drop is decreased due to the presence of the rebar, which acts as a short-circuit. However, we observed that this phenomenon is independent of the electrochemical parameters of the Butler–Volmer equation. They are, however, responsible for the nonlinear decrease of the current that polarizes the rebar over time, especially for a passive rebar due to its high polarization resistance. This evolution of the resulting potential difference with time is explained by the increase of the potential difference related to concrete resistance and the global decrease of the potential difference related to the polarization resistance of the rebar. The indirect GP technique is then fundamentally different than the conventional one in three-electrode configuration, as here the steady-state potential is not only representative of polarization resistance but also of concrete resistance. Considering non-uniform corrosion, the presence of a small anodic area disturbs the current distribution in the material. This is essentially due to the different capability of anodic and cathodic areas to consume the impressed current, resulting in slowing down the evolution of the transient potential as compared to uniform corrosion. Hence, highly corroding areas have a greater effect on the transient potential than on the steady-state one. The use of this temporal evolution is thus recommended to qualitatively detect anodic areas. For the estimation of their length and position, which is one of the main current problematic issue when performing any measurement on reinforced concrete (RC) structures with conventional techniques, we suggest adjusting the probe spacing to modulate the sensitivity of the technique. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Application of AFM-Based Techniques in Studies of Corrosion and Corrosion Inhibition of Metallic Alloys
Corros. Mater. Degrad. 2020, 1(3), 345-372; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cmd1030017 - 07 Nov 2020
Viewed by 822
Abstract
In this review several scanning probe microscopy techniques are briefly discussed as valuable assets for corrosionists to study corrosion susceptibility and inhibition of metals and alloys at sub-micrometer resolution. At the beginning, the review provides the reader with background of atomic force microscopy [...] Read more.
In this review several scanning probe microscopy techniques are briefly discussed as valuable assets for corrosionists to study corrosion susceptibility and inhibition of metals and alloys at sub-micrometer resolution. At the beginning, the review provides the reader with background of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and related techniques such as scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM) and electrochemical AFM (EC-AFM). Afterwards, the review presents the current state of corrosion research and specific applications of the techniques in studying important metallic materials for the aircraft and automotive industries. Different corrosion mechanisms of metallic materials are addressed emphasizing the role of intermetallic inclusions, grain boundaries, and impurities as focal points for corrosion initiation and development. The presented information demonstrates the importance of localized studies using AFM-based techniques in understanding corrosion mechanisms of metallic materials and developing efficient means of corrosion prevention. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Probabilistic Corrosion Initiation Model for Coastal Concrete Structures
Corros. Mater. Degrad. 2020, 1(3), 328-344; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cmd1030016 - 16 Oct 2020
Viewed by 628
Abstract
Corrosion of the reinforced concrete (RC) structures has been affecting the major infrastructures in U.S. and in other continents, causing the recent several bridge collapses and incidents. While the theoretical understanding is well-established, the reliable prediction of the corrosion process in the RC [...] Read more.
Corrosion of the reinforced concrete (RC) structures has been affecting the major infrastructures in U.S. and in other continents, causing the recent several bridge collapses and incidents. While the theoretical understanding is well-established, the reliable prediction of the corrosion process in the RC structural systems has hardly been successful due to the inherent uncertainties existed in the electrochemical corrosion process and the associated material and environmental conditions. The paper proposes a computational framework to develop evidence-based probabilistic corrosion initiation models for the reinforcing steels in the RC structures, which predicts the corrosion initiation time and quantifies the inherent variances considering various acting parameters. The framework includes: probabilistic modeling with Bayesian updating based on the sets of previously generated experimental data; Bayesian model/parameter selection considering various parameters, such as material properties and environmental conditions; corrosion reliability analyses to predict the probabilities of the corrosion initiation at given time t, structural configurations, and environmental conditions; and sensitivity analyses to measure and to rank the influences of each acting parameter and its uncertainty to the probabilities of the corrosion initiation. Total of 284 sets of experimental data exposed to the coastal atmospheric environments are used for the modeling. The goal of the Bayesian model selection presented in this paper is to obtain the most accurate and unbiased model using the simplest form of expression. The developed example corrosion model is currently limited to the initiation of diffusion-induced corrosion. The model can be updated, improved, or modified upon future available sets of data. The research contributes to the decision making to improve the corrosion reliability, corrosion control, and further the structural reliability of corroding structures. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Review of Recent Developments in the Formulation of Graphene-Based Coatings for the Corrosion Protection of Metals and Alloys
Corros. Mater. Degrad. 2020, 1(3), 296-327; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cmd1030015 - 25 Sep 2020
Viewed by 961
Abstract
Corrosion is a naturally occurring phenomenon and there is continuous interest in the development of new and more protective coatings or films that can be employed to prevent or minimise corrosion. In this review the corrosion protection afforded by two-dimensional graphene is described [...] Read more.
Corrosion is a naturally occurring phenomenon and there is continuous interest in the development of new and more protective coatings or films that can be employed to prevent or minimise corrosion. In this review the corrosion protection afforded by two-dimensional graphene is described and discussed. Following a short introduction to corrosion, the application of graphene in the formulation of coatings and films is introduced. Initially, reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and metallic like graphene layers are reviewed, highlighting the issues with galvanic corrosion. Then the more successful graphene oxide (GO), functionalised GO and polymer grafted GO-modified coatings are introduced, where the functionalisation and grafting are tailored to optimise dispersion of graphene fillers. This is followed by rGO coupled with zinc rich coatings or conducting polymers, GO combined with sol-gels, layered double hydroxides or metal organic frameworks as protective coatings, where again the dispersion of the graphene sheets becomes important in the design of protective coatings. The role of graphene in the photocathodic protection of metals and alloys is briefly introduced, while graphene-like emerging materials, such as hexagonal boron nitride, h-BN, and graphitic carbon nitride, g-C3N4, are then highlighted. Full article
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