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Corros. Mater. Degrad., Volume 5, Issue 1 (March 2024) – 6 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Corrosion on the interface between a metal alloy, such as steel, and a wet, permeable, non-metallic medium is of significant practical interest. Examples include the interface between steel and water, as well as certain types of atmospheres, concretes, soils, or deposits, such as macro- or micro-biological surface films. The initiation of corrosion depends on both the metal, the medium, and their spatial variability. For (near-)homogeneous, semi-infinite media with sufficient interfacial contact, pitting, crevice, and general corrosion are controlled principally by the metal’s (micro-)characteristics. However, they may be overshadowed by the corrosion that is caused by the macro-characteristics of the medium. Long-term corrosion is probably controlled by the build-up of corrosion products. View this paper
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15 pages, 5911 KiB  
Review
Distinctive Oxide Films Develop on the Surface of FeCrAl as the Environment Changes for Nuclear Fuel Cladding
by Haozheng Qu, Liang Yin, Michael Larsen and Raul B. Rebak
Corros. Mater. Degrad. 2024, 5(1), 109-123; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cmd5010006 - 18 Mar 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1198
Abstract
The corrosion-resistant properties of IronChromium–Aluminum (FeCrAl) alloys have been known for nearly a century. Since the 1950s, they have been explored for application in the generation of nuclear power. In the last decade, the focus has been on the use of FeCrAl as [...] Read more.
The corrosion-resistant properties of IronChromium–Aluminum (FeCrAl) alloys have been known for nearly a century. Since the 1950s, they have been explored for application in the generation of nuclear power. In the last decade, the focus has been on the use of FeCrAl as cladding for uranium dioxide fuel in light water reactors (LWRs). The corrosion resistance of this alloy depends on the oxide that it can develop on the surface. In LWRs in the vicinity of 300 °C, the external surface oxide of the FeCrAl cladding could be rich in Fe under oxidizing conditions but rich in Cr under reducing conditions. If there is an accident and the cladding is exposed to superheated steam, the cladding will protect itself by developing an alpha aluminum film on the surface. Full article
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17 pages, 3169 KiB  
Article
The AA7075–CS1018 Galvanic Couple under Evaporating Droplets
by Marvin Montoya, Juan Genesca and Rodrigo Montoya
Corros. Mater. Degrad. 2024, 5(1), 92-108; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cmd5010005 - 7 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1263
Abstract
The galvanic corrosion behavior of the AA7075–CS1018 couple was examined in dynamic electrolytes using the ZRA technique. A modified electrochemical setup was developed to support the use of thin-film gel and liquid electrolytes on metallic surfaces. This allowed the collection of chemical information, [...] Read more.
The galvanic corrosion behavior of the AA7075–CS1018 couple was examined in dynamic electrolytes using the ZRA technique. A modified electrochemical setup was developed to support the use of thin-film gel and liquid electrolytes on metallic surfaces. This allowed the collection of chemical information, left behind by the liquid electrolyte during evaporation, through a thin-film gel. The analysis of the gel electrolyte film confirmed the acidification on AA7075 and the alkalinization on CS1018 but also offered novel insights on their dependence on the galvanic current. The galvanic current was proportional to the initial NaCl concentration in the range of 0.01 to 0.06 M. However, due to continuous evaporation, the NaCl concentration increased, limiting oxygen diffusion and decreasing the galvanic current, especially for electrolytes exceeding 0.06 M. The galvanic current was determined by considering the dynamic evolution (caused by the evaporation of the electrolyte film) of both the thickness of the electrolyte and its concentration. Full article
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19 pages, 6045 KiB  
Article
Performance of Phenolic-Epoxy Coatings after Exposure to High Temperatures
by Saleh Ahmed, Katerina Lepkova, Xiao Sun, William D. A. Rickard and Thunyaluk Pojtanabuntoeng
Corros. Mater. Degrad. 2024, 5(1), 73-91; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cmd5010004 - 29 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1521
Abstract
Phenolic-epoxy coatings, which are designed to protect substrates from thermal damage, are widely applied in many fields. There remains an inadequate understanding of how such coatings change during their service life after exposure to various temperature conditions. To further elucidate this issue, this [...] Read more.
Phenolic-epoxy coatings, which are designed to protect substrates from thermal damage, are widely applied in many fields. There remains an inadequate understanding of how such coatings change during their service life after exposure to various temperature conditions. To further elucidate this issue, this case study investigated the effects of high temperatures on carbon steel panels coated with phenolic epoxy and exposed to different heating conditions. A general trend of decreasing barrier performance was observed after exposure to 150 °C for 3 d, as evidenced by the appearance of cracks on the panel surfaces. In contrast, the coating performance improved after exposure to isothermal conditions (120 °C) or thermal cycling from room temperature to 120 °C, as indicated by the increased low-frequency impedance modulus values of the coating. This unexpected improvement was further examined by characterising the coatings using transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), pull-off adhesion tests, and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). The maximum pull-off adhesion force (24.9 ± 3.6 MPa) was measured after thermal cycling for 40 d. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Corrosion Protection by Coatings)
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21 pages, 6709 KiB  
Review
Corrosion at the Steel–Medium Interface
by Robert E. Melchers
Corros. Mater. Degrad. 2024, 5(1), 52-72; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cmd5010003 - 29 Jan 2024
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1696
Abstract
Corrosion on the interface between a metal alloy, such as steel, and a wet, permeable non-metallic medium is of considerable practical interest. Examples include the interface between steel and water, the atmosphere or concrete, as for steel reinforcement bars; between metal and soil, [...] Read more.
Corrosion on the interface between a metal alloy, such as steel, and a wet, permeable non-metallic medium is of considerable practical interest. Examples include the interface between steel and water, the atmosphere or concrete, as for steel reinforcement bars; between metal and soil, as for buried cast iron or steel pipes; deposits of some type, as in under-deposit corrosion; and the interface with insulation, protective coatings, or macro- or micro-biological agents. In all cases, corrosion initiation depends on the characteristics of the interfacial zone, both of the metal and the medium, and the spatial variability. For (near-)homogeneous semi-infinite media with good interfacial contact, the pitting, crevices and general corrosion of the metal will be largely controlled by the metal (micro-)characteristics, including its inclusions, imperfections and surface roughness. In other cases, these may be overshadowed by the macro-characteristics of the medium and the degree of interfacial contact, possibly with severe resulting corrosion. Where the build-up of corrosion products can occur at the interface, they will dominate longer-term corrosion and govern the long-term corrosion rate. For media of finite thickness, diffusion issues and material deterioration may also be involved. The practical implications are outlined. It is argued that with the presence of a suitable medium, it is possible to achieve negligible long-term corrosion but only if certain practical actions are taken. Full article
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27 pages, 25503 KiB  
Article
Effect of Microstructure on Corrosion Behavior of Cold Sprayed Aluminum Alloy 5083
by Munsu Kim, Lorena Perez-Andrade, Luke N. Brewer and Gregory W. Kubacki
Corros. Mater. Degrad. 2024, 5(1), 27-51; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cmd5010002 - 16 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1869
Abstract
This paper investigates the effect of the microstructure on the corrosion behavior of cold sprayed (CS) AA5083 compared to its wrought counterpart. It has been shown that the microstructure of CS aluminum alloys, such as AA2024, AA6061, and AA7075, affects their corrosion behavior; [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the effect of the microstructure on the corrosion behavior of cold sprayed (CS) AA5083 compared to its wrought counterpart. It has been shown that the microstructure of CS aluminum alloys, such as AA2024, AA6061, and AA7075, affects their corrosion behavior; however, investigations of the corrosion behavior of CS AA5083 with a direct comparison to wrought AA5083 have been limited. The microstructure and corrosion behavior of CS AA5083 were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD), electrochemical and immersion tests, and ASTM G67. The CS process resulted in microstructural changes, such as the size and spatial distribution of intermetallic particles, grain size, and misorientation. The refined grain size and intermetallic particles along prior particle boundaries stimulated the initiation and propagation of localized corrosion. Electrochemical tests presented enhanced anodic kinetics with high pitting susceptibility, giving rise to extensive localized corrosion in CS AA5083. The ASTM G67 test demonstrated significantly higher mass loss for CS AA5083 compared to its wrought counterpart due to preferential attack within prior particle boundary regions in the CS microstructure. Possible mechanisms of intergranular corrosion (IGC) propagation at prior particle boundary regions have been discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Corrosion Protection by Coatings)
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26 pages, 6729 KiB  
Article
Microbial Communities in Model Seawater-Compensated Fuel Ballast Tanks: Biodegradation and Biocorrosion Stimulated by Marine Sediments
by Kathleen E. Duncan, Lina E. Dominici, Mark A. Nanny, Irene A. Davidova, Brian H. Harriman and Joseph M. Suflita
Corros. Mater. Degrad. 2024, 5(1), 1-26; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cmd5010001 - 3 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1766
Abstract
Some naval vessels add seawater to carbon steel fuel ballast tanks to maintain stability during fuel consumption. Marine sediments often contaminate ballast tank fluids and have been implicated in stimulating fuel biodegradation and enhancing biocorrosion. The impact of the marine sediment was evaluated [...] Read more.
Some naval vessels add seawater to carbon steel fuel ballast tanks to maintain stability during fuel consumption. Marine sediments often contaminate ballast tank fluids and have been implicated in stimulating fuel biodegradation and enhancing biocorrosion. The impact of the marine sediment was evaluated in model ballast tank reactors containing seawater, fuel (petroleum-F76, Fischer–Tropsch F76, or a 1:1 mixture), and carbon steel coupons. Control reactors did not receive fuel. The marine sediment was added to the reactors after 400 days and incubated for another year. Sediment addition produced higher estimated bacterial numbers and enhanced sulfate reduction. Ferrous sulfides were detected on all coupons, but pitting corrosion was only identified on coupons exposed to FT-F76. Aerobic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria increased, and the level of dissolved iron decreased, consistent with the stimulation of aerobic hydrocarbon degradation by iron. We propose that sediments provide an inoculum of hydrocarbon-degrading microbes that are stimulated by dissolved iron released during steel corrosion. Hydrocarbon degradation provides intermediates for use by sulfate-reducing bacteria and reduces the level of fuel components inhibitory to anaerobic bacteria. The synergistic effect of dissolved iron produced by corrosion, biodegradable fuels, and iron-stimulated hydrocarbon-degrading microbes is a poorly recognized but potentially significant biocorrosion mechanism. Full article
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