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Gastrointest. Disord., Volume 3, Issue 1 (March 2021) – 6 articles

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Review
Clinical Impact of Sarcopenia on Gastrointestinal Tumors
Gastrointest. Disord. 2021, 3(1), 51-60; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gidisord3010006 - 23 Mar 2021
Viewed by 610
Abstract
Preoperative risk stratification in cancer surgery is important to improve treatment and outcome. Sarcopenia is defined by progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength and is now getting attention as a poor prognostic factor. The purpose of this review was [...] Read more.
Preoperative risk stratification in cancer surgery is important to improve treatment and outcome. Sarcopenia is defined by progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength and is now getting attention as a poor prognostic factor. The purpose of this review was to explore the impact of sarcopenia on short and long-term outcomes in patients undergoing surgical resection of gastrointestinal tumors. Recent studies suggest that sarcopenia contributes to postoperative complications and overall survival. The relatively simple evaluability, as well as its modifiable nature, provides an intriguing potential for sarcopenia to be included in standard preoperative clinical evaluation. Such evaluations can provide physicians with important information to target high-risk individuals with prophylactic measures and eventually improve surgical outcomes. Full article
Article
Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome Clinical Presentation, Pathophysiology, and Management: Description of Four Cases
Gastrointest. Disord. 2021, 3(1), 44-50; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gidisord3010005 - 26 Feb 2021
Viewed by 960
Abstract
Median arcuate ligament syndrome (MALS), otherwise called celiac artery compression syndrome (CACS), is an uncommon disorder that results from an anatomical compression of the celiac axis and/or celiac ganglion by the MAL. Patients typically present with abdominal pain of unknown etiology exacerbated by [...] Read more.
Median arcuate ligament syndrome (MALS), otherwise called celiac artery compression syndrome (CACS), is an uncommon disorder that results from an anatomical compression of the celiac axis and/or celiac ganglion by the MAL. Patients typically present with abdominal pain of unknown etiology exacerbated by eating along with nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. MALS is a diagnosis of exclusion that should be considered in patients with severe upper abdominal pain, which does not correlate with the objective findings. The cardinal feature which is elicited in the diagnosis of MALS relies on imaging studies of the celiac artery, demonstrating narrowing during expiration. The definitive treatment is the median arcuate ligament’s surgical release to achieve surgical decompression of the celiac plexus by division of the MAL. This article describes our experience with this entity, focusing on symptom presentation, diagnostic challenges, and management, including long-term follow-up in four cases. Full article
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Review
Unfolded Protein Response and Crohn’s Diseases: A Molecular Mechanism of Wound Healing in the Gut
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Gastrointest. Disord. 2021, 3(1), 31-43; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gidisord3010004 - 10 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 658
Abstract
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress triggers a series of signaling and transcriptional events termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). Severe ER stress is associated with the development of fibrosis in different organs, including lung, liver, kidney, heart, and intestine. ER stress is an essential [...] Read more.
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress triggers a series of signaling and transcriptional events termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). Severe ER stress is associated with the development of fibrosis in different organs, including lung, liver, kidney, heart, and intestine. ER stress is an essential response of epithelial and immune cells in the pathogenesis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), including Crohn’s disease (CD). Intestinal epithelial cells are susceptible to ER stress-mediated damage due to secretion of a large amount of proteins that are involved in mucosal defense. In other cells, ER stress is linked to myofibroblast activation, extracellular matrix production, macrophage polarization, and immune cell differentiation. This review focuses on the role of the UPR in the pathogenesis in IBD from an immunologic perspective. The roles of macrophage and mesenchymal cells in the UPR from in vitro and in vivo animal models are discussed. The links between ER stress and other signaling pathways, such as senescence and autophagy, are introduced. Recent advances in the understanding of the epigenetic regulation of the UPR signaling are also updated here. The future directions of development of the UPR research and therapeutic strategies to manipulate ER stress levels are also reviewed. Full article
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Editorial
Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Gastrointestinal Disorders in 2020
Gastrointest. Disord. 2021, 3(1), 29-30; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gidisord3010003 - 27 Jan 2021
Viewed by 766
Abstract
The editorial team greatly appreciates the reviewers who have dedicated their considerable time and expertise to the journal’s rigorous editorial process over the past 12 months, regardless of whether the papers are finally published or not [...] Full article
Communication
Disease-Related Knowledge in New Zealand Children with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) and Their Parents
Gastrointest. Disord. 2021, 3(1), 23-28; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gidisord3010002 - 14 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 900
Abstract
Insufficient disease-related knowledge can be a barrier to the effective management of the unpredictable and lifelong course of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Patients with chronic illnesses have high non-adherence rates, with direct clinical consequences. While no single intervention strategy can improve the adherence [...] Read more.
Insufficient disease-related knowledge can be a barrier to the effective management of the unpredictable and lifelong course of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Patients with chronic illnesses have high non-adherence rates, with direct clinical consequences. While no single intervention strategy can improve the adherence of all patients, the success of attempts to improve patient adherence depends upon the realistic assessment of patients’ knowledge and their understanding of the regimen. The aim of this study was to assess the disease-specific knowledge of the parents and patients with IBD in the South Island of New Zealand, and identify areas of poor knowledge. Families of children diagnosed with IBD were asked to complete the IBD Knowledge Inventory Device (IBD-KID). Patients 10 years and older were asked to participate along with their parents. Of 110 families, 91 responded, with completed questionnaires received from 153 parents and 66 patients. Overall, parents scored significantly higher (13.64 ± 3.88) than their children (10.03 ± 4.07; p < 0.001). Areas of poor knowledge included aspects of treatment (both conventional and alternative), along with long-term disease outcomes. This study has shown clear areas of concern in this population’s disease-specific knowledge of their disease. This should be addressed through targeted education for both the patient and the parents to improve not only their knowledge, but also their adherence and disease self-management. Full article
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Review
Role of Her-2 in Gastrointestinal Tumours beyond Gastric Cancer: A Tool for Precision Medicine
Gastrointest. Disord. 2021, 3(1), 1-22; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gidisord3010001 - 22 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1558
Abstract
Gastrointestinal (GI) tumors account for a quarter of all the cancer burden and a third of the global cancer-related mortality. Among them, some cancers retain a dismal prognosis; therefore, newer and innovative therapies are urgently needed in priority disease areas of high-unmet medical [...] Read more.
Gastrointestinal (GI) tumors account for a quarter of all the cancer burden and a third of the global cancer-related mortality. Among them, some cancers retain a dismal prognosis; therefore, newer and innovative therapies are urgently needed in priority disease areas of high-unmet medical need. In this context, HER2 could be a relevant prognostic and predictive biomarker acting as a target for specific drugs. However, if the role of HER2 has been object of investigation for several years in gastric cancer, it is not well established in other GI malignancies. The aim of this narrative review was to portray the current landscape of the potential role of HER2 as a predictive biomarker for GI tumors beyond gastric cancer. In colon cancer, the benefit from anti-HER2 therapies is less clear than in gastric neoplasms for the lack of controlled studies. Pancreatic, biliary tract adenocarcinomas and hepatocarcinoma may derive a less clear clinical benefit by using anti-HER2 agents in HER2 positive tumors. Overall, the results are promising and seem to suggest that the integration of multiple modalities of therapies can optimize the cancer care. However, further prospective trials are needed to validate the use of personalized targeted therapies in this field. Full article
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