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Gastrointest. Disord., Volume 3, Issue 3 (September 2021) – 6 articles

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Opinion
Crohn’s Disease: The infectious Disease Incorporated’s Perspective
Gastrointest. Disord. 2021, 3(3), 138-141; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gidisord3030015 - 25 Aug 2021
Viewed by 283
Abstract
Infectious Diseases Incorporated (IDI) is an infectious disease think-tank, established in 1973. Crohn’s disease (CD) is a chronic, recurrent disease of the gastrointestinal tract that has reached epidemic proportions within industrialized nations. CD is said to be without cure. Since 2003, therapeutic interventions [...] Read more.
Infectious Diseases Incorporated (IDI) is an infectious disease think-tank, established in 1973. Crohn’s disease (CD) is a chronic, recurrent disease of the gastrointestinal tract that has reached epidemic proportions within industrialized nations. CD is said to be without cure. Since 2003, therapeutic interventions have focused on disruption of the pro-inflammatory Th1 response against an unknown antigen. In 2015, the Hruska Postulate was introduced and, in so doing, explained how, in the absence of acquired immunity, newborn infection by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis could cause fixation of the immune system’s Th1 response against the organism. The Hruska Postulate was utilized to answer all the documented epidemiological facts embedded in the natural history of Crohn’s disease and, in particular, why breastfeeding confers protection against the future development of Crohn’s disease. It is Infectious Diseases Incorporated’s (IDI) stated opinion that Crohn’s disease is both preventable and curable if treated appropriately in its early stages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crohn's Disease: Symptoms, Causes, Management and Treatment)
Case Report
Sustained Crohn’s Disease Remission with an Exclusive Elemental and Exclusion Diet: A Case Report
Gastrointest. Disord. 2021, 3(3), 129-137; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gidisord3030014 - 12 Aug 2021
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Abstract
The incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases, such as Crohn’s disease (CD), is increasing worldwide. Despite several new therapeutics to treat CD, many patients fail to respond to their medications and inevitably face surgical resection. While genetics plays a role in CD, environmental factors [...] Read more.
The incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases, such as Crohn’s disease (CD), is increasing worldwide. Despite several new therapeutics to treat CD, many patients fail to respond to their medications and inevitably face surgical resection. While genetics plays a role in CD, environmental factors are potential triggers. Recent research from the past few years suggest that pro-inflammatory foods are associated with an increased risk of CD. Some studies have shown the benefit of including exclusion diets, such as the specific carbohydrate diet (SCD) and exclusive elemental diets, to induce CD remission, but published data is limited. This case study explores how an exclusive elemental and exclusion diet helped induce clinical and biochemical remission and radiologic healing in a young adult male who had failed to achieve remission using standard medical treatment. C-reactive protein (CRP), fecal calprotectin, and magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) served as objective markers of inflammation in this study. Full article
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Correction
Correction: Farrukh, A.; Mayberry, J. Apparent Disparities in Hospital Admission and Biologic Use in the Management of Inflammatory Bowel Disease between 2014–2018 in Some Black and Ethnic Minority (BEM) Populations in England. Gastrointest. Disord. 2020, 2, 144–151
Gastrointest. Disord. 2021, 3(3), 127-128; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gidisord3030013 - 10 Aug 2021
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Abstract
The authors wish to make the following correction to this paper [...] Full article
Review
Climate Change and Enteric Infections in the Canadian Arctic: Do We Know What’s on the Horizon?
Gastrointest. Disord. 2021, 3(3), 113-126; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gidisord3030012 - 10 Aug 2021
Viewed by 427
Abstract
The Canadian Arctic has a long history with diarrheal disease, including outbreaks of campylobacteriosis, giardiasis, and salmonellosis. Due to climate change, the Canadian Arctic is experiencing rapid environmental transformation, which not only threatens the livelihood of local Indigenous Peoples, but also supports the [...] Read more.
The Canadian Arctic has a long history with diarrheal disease, including outbreaks of campylobacteriosis, giardiasis, and salmonellosis. Due to climate change, the Canadian Arctic is experiencing rapid environmental transformation, which not only threatens the livelihood of local Indigenous Peoples, but also supports the spread, frequency, and intensity of enteric pathogen outbreaks. Advances in diagnostic testing and detection have brought to attention the current burden of disease due to Cryptosporidium, Campylobacter, and Helicobacter pylori. As climate change is known to influence pathogen transmission (e.g., food and water), Arctic communities need support in developing prevention and surveillance strategies that are culturally appropriate. This review aims to provide an overview of how climate change is currently and is expected to impact enteric pathogens in the Canadian Arctic. Full article
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Article
Cardiomyocyte-Specific Circulating Cell-Free Methylated DNA in Esophageal Cancer Patients Treated with Chemoradiation
Gastrointest. Disord. 2021, 3(3), 100-112; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gidisord3030011 - 30 Jul 2021
Viewed by 297
Abstract
Thoracic high-dose radiation therapy (RT) for cancer has been associated with early and late cardiac toxicity. To assess altered rates of cardiomyocyte cell death due to RT we monitored changes in cardiomyocyte-specific, cell-free methylated DNA (cfDNA) shed into the circulation. Eleven patients with [...] Read more.
Thoracic high-dose radiation therapy (RT) for cancer has been associated with early and late cardiac toxicity. To assess altered rates of cardiomyocyte cell death due to RT we monitored changes in cardiomyocyte-specific, cell-free methylated DNA (cfDNA) shed into the circulation. Eleven patients with distal esophageal cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation to 50.4 Gy (RT) and concurrent carboplatin and paclitaxel were enrolled. Subjects underwent fasting blood draws prior to the initiation and after completion of RT as well as 4–6 months following RT. An island of six unmethylated CpGs in the FAM101A locus was used to identify cardiomyocyte-specific cfDNA in serum. After bisulfite treatment this specific cfDNA was quantified by amplicon sequencing at a depth of >35,000 reads/molecule. Cardiomyocyte-specific cfDNA was detectable before RT in the majority of patient samples and showed some distinct changes during the course of treatment and recovery. We propose that patient-specific cardiac damages in response to the treatment are indicated by these changes although co-morbidities may obscure treatment-specific events. Full article
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Editorial
Aspects of the Pathogenesis and Management of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Gastrointest. Disord. 2021, 3(3), 96-99; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gidisord3030010 - 28 Jul 2021
Viewed by 338
Abstract
Over the last two decades, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been diagnosed more often in many countries around the world, including in parts of the world where IBD was previously uncommon [...] Full article
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