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Acoustics, Volume 3, Issue 1 (March 2021) – 15 articles

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Article
Linear Iterative Procedure to Solve a Rayleigh–Plesset Equation
Acoustics 2021, 3(1), 212-220; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/acoustics3010015 - 23 Mar 2021
Viewed by 942
Abstract
A nonlinear Rayleigh–Plesset equation for describing the behavior of a gas bubble in an acoustic field written in terms of bubble-volume variation is solved through a linear iterative procedure. The model is validated, and its accuracy and fast convergence are shown through the [...] Read more.
A nonlinear Rayleigh–Plesset equation for describing the behavior of a gas bubble in an acoustic field written in terms of bubble-volume variation is solved through a linear iterative procedure. The model is validated, and its accuracy and fast convergence are shown through the analysis of several examples of different physical meanings. The simplicity and usefulness of the presented method here in relation to the direct resolution of the whole nonlinear system, which is also discussed, make the method very attractive to solving a problem. This iterative method allows us to solve only linear systems instead of the nonlinear differential problem. Moreover, the implementation of the iterative algorithm includes a tolerance-dependent stopping criterion that is also tested. Full article
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Article
Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality for Inexpensive Recording Equipment
Acoustics 2021, 3(1), 200-211; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/acoustics3010014 - 10 Mar 2021
Viewed by 920
Abstract
This research studies the perceptual evaluation of speech signals using an inexpensive recording device. Different types of noise-reduction and electronic enhancement filters viz. Hamming window, high-pass filter (HPF), Wiener-filter and no-speech activity-cancelling were applied in compliance with the testing conditions such as P.835. [...] Read more.
This research studies the perceptual evaluation of speech signals using an inexpensive recording device. Different types of noise-reduction and electronic enhancement filters viz. Hamming window, high-pass filter (HPF), Wiener-filter and no-speech activity-cancelling were applied in compliance with the testing conditions such as P.835. In total, 41 volunteers participated in the study for identifying the effects of those filters following a repeatable approach. Performance was assessed in terms of advanced perceptual audio features. This study is believed to be beneficial for both users and device manufacturers as the suggested technique is relatively simple to embed in operational device algorithms or in the master GPU. Full article
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Article
Aerodynamic and Aeroacoustic Analysis of a Harmonically Morphing Airfoil Using Dynamic Meshing
Acoustics 2021, 3(1), 177-199; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/acoustics3010013 - 06 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1134
Abstract
This work explores the aerodynamic and aeroacoustic responses of an airfoil fitted with a harmonically morphing Trailing Edge Flap (TEF). An unsteady parametrization method adapted for harmonic morphing is introduced, and then coupled with dynamic meshing to drive the morphing process. The turbulence [...] Read more.
This work explores the aerodynamic and aeroacoustic responses of an airfoil fitted with a harmonically morphing Trailing Edge Flap (TEF). An unsteady parametrization method adapted for harmonic morphing is introduced, and then coupled with dynamic meshing to drive the morphing process. The turbulence characteristics are calculated using the hybrid Stress Blended Eddy Simulation (SBES) RANS-LES model. The far-field tonal noise is predicted using the Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings (FW-H) acoustic analogy method with corrections to account for spanwise effects using a correlation length of half the airfoil chord. At various morphing frequencies and amplitudes, the 2D aeroacoustic tonal noise spectra are obtained for a NACA 0012 airfoil at a low angle of attack (AoA = 4°), a Reynolds number of 0.62 × 106, and a Mach number of 0.115, respectively, and the dominant tonal frequencies are predicted correctly. The aerodynamic coefficients of the un-morphed configuration show good agreement with published experimental and 3D LES data. For the harmonically morphing TEF case, results show that it is possible to achieve up to a 3% increase in aerodynamic efficiency (L/D). Furthermore, the morphing slightly shifts the predominant tonal peak to higher frequencies, possibly due to the morphing TEF causing a breakup of large-scale shed vortices into smaller, higher frequency turbulent eddies. It appears that larger morphing amplitudes induce higher sound pressure levels (SPLs), and that all the morphing cases induce the shift in the main tonal peak to a higher frequency, with a maximum 1.5 dB reduction in predicted SPL. The proposed dynamic meshing approach incorporating an SBES model provides a reasonable estimation of the NACA 0012 far-field tonal noise at an affordable computational cost. Thus, it can be used as an efficient numerical tool to predict the emitted far-field tonal noise from a morphing wing at the design stage. Full article
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Article
Preserving Human Perspectives in Cultural Heritage Acoustics: Distance Cues and Proxemics in Aural Heritage Fieldwork
Acoustics 2021, 3(1), 156-176; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/acoustics3010012 - 03 Mar 2021
Viewed by 904
Abstract
We examine the praxis implications of our working definition of aural heritage: spatial acoustics as physically experienced by humans in cultural contexts; aligned with the aims of anthropological archaeology (the study of human life from materials). Here we report on human-centered acoustical [...] Read more.
We examine the praxis implications of our working definition of aural heritage: spatial acoustics as physically experienced by humans in cultural contexts; aligned with the aims of anthropological archaeology (the study of human life from materials). Here we report on human-centered acoustical data collection strategies from our project “Digital Preservation and Access to Aural Heritage via a Scalable, Extensible Method,” supported by the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) in the USA. The documentation and accurate translation of human sensory perspectives is fundamental to the ecological validity of cultural heritage fieldwork and the preservation of heritage acoustics. Auditory distance cues, which enable and constrain sonic communication, relate to proxemics, contextualized understandings of distance relationships that are fundamental to human social interactions. We propose that source–receiver locations in aural heritage measurements should be selected to represent a comprehensive range of proxemics according to site-contextualized spatial-use scenarios, and we identify and compare acoustical metrics for auditory distance cues from acoustical fieldwork we conducted using this strategy in three contrasting case-study heritage sites. This conceptual shift from architectural acoustical sampling to aural heritage sampling prioritizes culturally and physically plausible human auditory/sound-sensing perspectives and relates them to spatial proxemics as scaled architecturally. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Historical Acoustics)
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Article
Study and Improvement of Acoustic Conditions in Public Spaces of Shopping Malls
Acoustics 2021, 3(1), 137-155; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/acoustics3010011 - 22 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1067
Abstract
Acoustic comfort in shopping malls is one of the aspects that influence the shopping environment. Making enjoyable and comfortable retail and public spaces is demanded when designing and managing properties. This paper focuses on the study of the public spaces with a large [...] Read more.
Acoustic comfort in shopping malls is one of the aspects that influence the shopping environment. Making enjoyable and comfortable retail and public spaces is demanded when designing and managing properties. This paper focuses on the study of the public spaces with a large volume in the operating malls, which are perceived as acoustically uncomfortable. The main reason for poor acoustic conditions is a too long reverberation, as the measured reverberation time reached 4–5 s at middle frequencies. The usual way to improve the acoustics is to apply sound-absorbing materials on space surfaces. Two examples of improving acoustic conditions in food courts are given. In both cases, the reverberation time was reduced by about half, and changes in acoustics were considered significant and positive. It is shown the Sabine’s equation is valid for considered spaces. Average absorption coefficients are found by means of the Sabine’s equation and can be used for quick estimation of the reverberation time in similar spaces without the absorbing treatment. Based on the analysis of this and other studies, a method for qualitative assessment of the public space acoustics is proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Indoor Soundscape: Integrating Sound, Experience and Architecture)
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Article
London Street Noises: A Ground-Breaking Field Recording Campaign from 1928
Acoustics 2021, 3(1), 118-136; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/acoustics3010010 - 18 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1382
Abstract
In a leading article by Sir Percival Philips in the UK popular newspaper, the Daily Mail, July 16, 1928, came the following headlines: “Millions Lost by Noise – Cities’ Worst Plague – Menace to Nerves and Health – What is Being Done to [...] Read more.
In a leading article by Sir Percival Philips in the UK popular newspaper, the Daily Mail, July 16, 1928, came the following headlines: “Millions Lost by Noise – Cities’ Worst Plague – Menace to Nerves and Health – What is Being Done to Stop it”. The article was supported by research from Prof Henry J. Spooner, who had been researching and campaigning on the ill-effects of noise and its economic impact. The article sparked subsequent discussion and follow-up articles in the Daily Mail and its international partners. In an era of rapid technological change, that was on the cusp of implementing sound pressure measurements, the Daily Mail, in collaboration with the Columbia Graphophone Company Ltd, experimented with sound recording technology and commentary in the field to help communicate perceived loudness and identify the sources of “unnecessary noise”. This resulted in the making of series of environmental sound recordings from five locations across central London during September 1928, the findings of which were documented and discussed in the Daily Mail at the time, and two recordings commercially released by Columbia on shellac gramophone disc. This was probably the first concerted anti-noise campaign of this type and scale, requiring huge technological efforts. The regulatory bodies and politicians of the time reviewed and improved the policies around urban noise shortly after the presentation of the recordings, which were also broadcast from the BBC both nationally and internationally, and many members of the public congratulated and thanked the Daily Mail for such an initiative. Despite its unpreceded scale and impact, and the recent scholarly attention on the history of anti-noise campaigning, this paper charts and contextualises the Daily Mail’s London Street Noise campaign for the first time. As well as historical research, this data has also been used to start a longitudinal comparative study still underway, returning to make field recordings on the site on the 80th and 90th anniversaries and during the COVID-19 lockdown, and shared on the website londonstreetnoises.co.uk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Historical Acoustics)
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Article
An Experimental and Numerical Study on the Effect of Spacing between Two Helmholtz Resonators
Acoustics 2021, 3(1), 97-117; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/acoustics3010009 - 15 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1373
Abstract
This study investigates the acoustic performance of a system of two Helmholtz resonators experimentally and numerically. The distance between the Helmholtz resonators was varied to assess its effect on the acoustic performance of the system quantitatively. Experiments were performed using an impedance tube [...] Read more.
This study investigates the acoustic performance of a system of two Helmholtz resonators experimentally and numerically. The distance between the Helmholtz resonators was varied to assess its effect on the acoustic performance of the system quantitatively. Experiments were performed using an impedance tube with two instrumented Helmholtz resonators and several microphones along the impedance tube. The relation between the noise attenuation performance of the system and the distance between two resonators is presented in terms of the transmission loss, transmission coefficient, and change in the sound pressure level along the tube. The underlying mechanisms of the spacing effect are further elaborated by studying pressure and the particle velocity fields in the resonators obtained through finite element analysis. The results showed that there might exist an optimum resonators spacing for achieving maximum transmission loss. However, the maximum transmission loss is not accompanied by the broadest bandwidth of attenuation. The pressure field and the sound pressure level spectra of the pressure field inside the resonators showed that the maximum transmission loss is achieved when the resonators are spaced half wavelength of the associated resonance frequency wavelength and resonate in-phase. To achieve sound attenuation over a broad frequency bandwidth, a resonator spacing of a quarter of the wavelength is required, in which case the two resonators operate out-of-phase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resonators in Acoustics)
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Article
Virtual Sound Field of the Roman Theatre of Malaca
Acoustics 2021, 3(1), 78-96; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/acoustics3010008 - 14 Feb 2021
Viewed by 849
Abstract
In Hispania (present-day Spain and Portugal), there are 25 structures documented of classical Roman open-air theatres, of which 10 are in the south, in the Roman Baetica (Andalusia). The Baetica embraced the progress of urbanisation in the time of the Roman emperor Augustus, [...] Read more.
In Hispania (present-day Spain and Portugal), there are 25 structures documented of classical Roman open-air theatres, of which 10 are in the south, in the Roman Baetica (Andalusia). The Baetica embraced the progress of urbanisation in the time of the Roman emperor Augustus, where theatres, built in stone, were the foci of entertainment, performance, and propaganda of the empire. The Roman theatre in Malaga presents the archaeological remains of the main vestige of the Roman Malaca. It is located in the historical centre of the city, at the foot of the hill of the Muslim Alcazaba and was discovered in 1952. It is a medium-sized theatre whose design corresponds to a mixed construction that combines making use of the hillside for the terraces, in the manner of Greek theatres, with a major construction where rock is non-existent, thereby creating the necessary space for the stands. In this paper, the production process, adjustment, and validation of the 3D model of the theatre are analysed for the creation of a numerical predictive model of its sound field. Acoustic properties of the venue are examined and the effect of the Muslim Alcazaba and the hillside on the various acoustic descriptors is analysed. The results highlight the influence of this large stone surface mainly on the time decay parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Historical Acoustics)
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Article
The Social Construction of the Soundscape of the Castilian Cities (15th and 16th Centuries)
Acoustics 2021, 3(1), 60-77; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/acoustics3010007 - 03 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1031
Abstract
This paper seeks to develop some conceptual elements that articulated the social construction of the soundscape of the urban spaces of the kingdom of Castile (15th–16th centuries). We focus our attention on the revision of the normative spheres that structured the subjective universe [...] Read more.
This paper seeks to develop some conceptual elements that articulated the social construction of the soundscape of the urban spaces of the kingdom of Castile (15th–16th centuries). We focus our attention on the revision of the normative spheres that structured the subjective universe of the Castilian inhabitants, in order to notice and spot the different sound representations that intervened in the spatial and social configuration of the cities, their possible conflicts, and levels of acoustic tolerance. This proposal is part of the so-called “sensorial turn” in the Social Sciences, defined by David Howes as a cultural approach to the study of the senses as well as a sensorial approach to the study of culture. The research is carried out through the analysis of the sensory marks present in a documentary corpus made up of normative documents (municipal ordinances, books of agreement, chapter acts, diocesan synods, and royal dispositions) and judicial documents (General Archive of Simancas) combining methods of discourse analysis and the history of the senses. In the article, we argue and remark that the sound dimension operated as a device that acted in the shaping of the identity of places, since it contributed to define and delimit their use. This was reflected in the importance given by the authorities to the normative regulation of the community, which included a textual dimension in which the historical soundscape was imprinted, revealing the multiple social interactions that integrated it. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Historical Acoustics)
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Editorial
Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Acoustics in 2020
Acoustics 2021, 3(1), 58-59; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/acoustics3010006 - 28 Jan 2021
Viewed by 943
Abstract
Peer review is the driving force of journal development, and reviewers are gatekeepers who ensure that Acoustics maintains its standards for the high quality of its published papers [...] Full article
Article
Active Control of Submerged Systems by Moving Mass
Acoustics 2021, 3(1), 42-57; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/acoustics3010005 - 13 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 984
Abstract
In this study, the active vibration control of a rectangular plate submerged in water was investigated. Mass dampers were attached to the plate, and the system was modeled via assumed mode. Water is modeled as an inviscid fluid with moving boundaries at fluid–solid [...] Read more.
In this study, the active vibration control of a rectangular plate submerged in water was investigated. Mass dampers were attached to the plate, and the system was modeled via assumed mode. Water is modeled as an inviscid fluid with moving boundaries at fluid–solid interaction surfaces and applied forces on the plate being calculated by Bernoulli equation. The natural frequencies of the plate in vacuum and in water (for partial and fully submerged cases) found from numerical calculations are compared with experimental results to prove the accuracy of the model. Subsequently, for frequency computations, particular frequencies were chosen and active damping was applied for them. To actively control the plate’s vibration by a moving mass with static stable methods, the displacement data of some points were used as input. First, to increase the damping of target mode at low-frequency, the negative acceleration feedback control algorithm in modal-space was applied. Then, the decentralized method was examined. Both methods were successful in suppressing vibration of the submerged rectangular plate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Acoustics)
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Article
Plane and Surface Acoustic Waves Manipulation by Three-Dimensional Composite Phononic Pillars with 3D Bandgap and Defect Analysis
Acoustics 2021, 3(1), 25-41; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/acoustics3010004 - 08 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1109
Abstract
The current century witnessed an overwhelming research interest in phononic crystals (PnCs) and acoustic metamaterials (AMs) research owing to their fantastic properties in manipulating acoustic and elastic waves that are inconceivable from naturally occurring materials. Extensive research literature about the dynamical and mechanical [...] Read more.
The current century witnessed an overwhelming research interest in phononic crystals (PnCs) and acoustic metamaterials (AMs) research owing to their fantastic properties in manipulating acoustic and elastic waves that are inconceivable from naturally occurring materials. Extensive research literature about the dynamical and mechanical properties of acoustic metamaterials currently exists, and this maturing research field is now finding possible industrial and infrastructural applications. The present study proposes a novel 3D composite multilayered phononic pillars capable of inducing two-dimensional and three-dimensional complete bandgaps (BGs). A phononic structure that consisted of silicon and tungsten layers was subjected to both plane and surface acoustic waves in three-dimensional and two-dimensional periodic systems, respectively. By frequency response study, the wave attenuation, trapping/localization, transmission, and defect analysis was carried out for both plane and surface acoustic waves. In the bandgap, the localized defect state was studied for both plane and surface acoustic waves separately. At the defect state, the localization of both plane and surface acoustic waves was observed. By varying the defect size, the localized frequency can be made tailorable. The study is based on a numerical technique, and it is validated by comparison with a reported theoretical work. The findings may provide a new perspective and insight for the designs and applications of three-dimensional phononic crystals for surface acoustic wave and plane wave manipulation, particularly for energy harvesting, sensing, focusing and waves isolation/attenuation purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Acoustical Materials)
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Review
Ecological Validity of Immersive Virtual Reality (IVR) Techniques for the Perception of Urban Sound Environments
Acoustics 2021, 3(1), 11-24; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/acoustics3010003 - 25 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1521
Abstract
Immersive Virtual Reality (IVR) is a simulated technology used to deliver multisensory information to people under different environmental conditions. When IVR is generally applied in urban planning and soundscape research, it reveals attractive possibilities for the assessment of urban sound environments with higher [...] Read more.
Immersive Virtual Reality (IVR) is a simulated technology used to deliver multisensory information to people under different environmental conditions. When IVR is generally applied in urban planning and soundscape research, it reveals attractive possibilities for the assessment of urban sound environments with higher immersion for human participation. In virtual sound environments, various topics and measures are designed to collect subjective responses from participants under simulated laboratory conditions. Soundscape or noise assessment studies during virtual experiences adopt an evaluation approach similar to in situ methods. This paper aims to review the approaches that are utilized to assess the ecological validity of IVR for the perception of urban sound environments and the necessary technologies during audio–visual reproduction to establish a dynamic IVR experience that ensures ecological validity. The review shows that, through the use of laboratory tests including subjective response surveys, cognitive performance tests and physiological responses, the ecological validity of IVR can be assessed for the perception of urban sound environments. The reproduction system with head-tracking functions synchronizing spatial audio and visual stimuli (e.g., head-mounted displays (HMDs) with first-order Ambisonics (FOA)-tracked binaural playback) represents the prevailing trend to achieve high ecological validity. These studies potentially contribute to the outcomes of a normalized evaluation framework for subjective soundscape and noise assessments in virtual environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Featured Review in Acoustics Science)
Article
Use of Ultrasound Microscopy for Ex Vivo Analysis of Acoustic Impedance in Mouse Liver with Steatohepatitis
Acoustics 2021, 3(1), 3-10; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/acoustics3010002 - 24 Dec 2020
Viewed by 920
Abstract
Scanning acoustic microscopy reveals information on histology and acoustic impedance through tissues. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether acoustic impedance values in the liver over time reflect the progression of steatohepatitis through different grades and stages, and whether this [...] Read more.
Scanning acoustic microscopy reveals information on histology and acoustic impedance through tissues. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether acoustic impedance values in the liver over time reflect the progression of steatohepatitis through different grades and stages, and whether this approach can visualize histologic features of the disease. Mice were divided into two groups: a control group and a steatohepatitis group prepared by keeping the mice on a methionine and choline-deficient diet for 56 weeks. The hepatic lobe was excised for measurement of impedance and observation of microscopic structure using a commercially available scanning acoustic microscopy system with a central frequency of 320 MHz. Scanning acoustic microscopy revealed that acoustic impedance through liver tissue with steatohepatitis temporarily decreased with the degree of fat deposition and then increased in parallel with the progression of inflammation and fibrosis. However, the acoustic images obtained did not allow discrimination of detailed microstructures from those seen using light microscopy. In conclusion, estimation of acoustic impedance appears to have potential clinical applications, such as for monitoring or follow-up studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Acoustics in Biomedical Engineering)
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Editorial
Acoustics: First 100 Papers Published
Acoustics 2021, 3(1), 1-2; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/acoustics3010001 - 24 Dec 2020
Viewed by 979
Abstract
Acoustics (ISSN 2624-599X) is an open access peer-reviewed journal published quarterly online by MDPI [...] Full article
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