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Smart Cities, Volume 4, Issue 1 (March 2021) – 23 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This study explores two approaches to smart city practice in South Korea. The first case (Gimpo) represents infrastructure-focused smart city innovation with a state-of-the-art city control center, while the other (Namyangju) focuses on creating a culture of innovation from within the city government with extensive employee training on Big Data analytics and emphasizing data-driven decision-making. Our study illustrates that creating a culture of innovation and establishing smart decision-making process, rather than investing in the technology and hardware, can facilitate a meaningful and sustainable smart city transformation that will continue after a mayoral leadership change. View this paper
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Article
Communication Vulnerabilities in Electric Mobility HCP Systems: A Semi-Quantitative Analysis
Smart Cities 2021, 4(1), 405-428; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/smartcities4010023 - 20 Mar 2021
Viewed by 593
Abstract
An electric mobility ecosystem, which resembles a human-centred cyber physical (HCP) system, consists of several interacting sub-systems that constantly communicate with each other. Cyber-security of such systems is an important aspect as vulnerability of one sub-system propagates to the entire system, thus putting [...] Read more.
An electric mobility ecosystem, which resembles a human-centred cyber physical (HCP) system, consists of several interacting sub-systems that constantly communicate with each other. Cyber-security of such systems is an important aspect as vulnerability of one sub-system propagates to the entire system, thus putting it into risk. Risk assessment requires modelling of threats and their impacts on the system. Due to lack of available information on all possible threats of a given system, it is generally more convenient to assess the level of vulnerabilities either qualitatively or semi-quantitatively. In this paper, we adopt the common vulnerability scoring system (CVSS) methodology in order to assess semi-quantitatively the vulnerabilities of the communication in electric mobility human-centred cyber physical systems. To this end, we present the most relevant sub-systems, their roles as well as exchanged information. Furthermore, we give the considered threats and corresponding security requirements. Using the CVSS methodology, we then conduct an analysis of vulnerabilities for every pair of communicating sub-systems. Among them, we show that the sub-systems between charging station operator (CSO) and electric vehicle supply equipment (charging box) as well as CSO and electric mobility service provider are the most vulnerable in the end-to-end chain of electric mobility. These results pave the way to system designers to assess the operational security risks, and hence to take the most adequate decisions, when implementing such electric mobility HCP systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges and Opportunities in Electromobility)
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Review
A Review on Electric Vehicles: Technologies and Challenges
Smart Cities 2021, 4(1), 372-404; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/smartcities4010022 - 15 Mar 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1636
Abstract
Electric Vehicles (EVs) are gaining momentum due to several factors, including the price reduction as well as the climate and environmental awareness. This paper reviews the advances of EVs regarding battery technology trends, charging methods, as well as new research challenges and open [...] Read more.
Electric Vehicles (EVs) are gaining momentum due to several factors, including the price reduction as well as the climate and environmental awareness. This paper reviews the advances of EVs regarding battery technology trends, charging methods, as well as new research challenges and open opportunities. More specifically, an analysis of the worldwide market situation of EVs and their future prospects is carried out. Given that one of the fundamental aspects in EVs is the battery, the paper presents a thorough review of the battery technologies—from the Lead-acid batteries to the Lithium-ion. Moreover, we review the different standards that are available for EVs charging process, as well as the power control and battery energy management proposals. Finally, we conclude our work by presenting our vision about what is expected in the near future within this field, as well as the research aspects that are still open for both industry and academic communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Smart Cities)
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Article
Concept Drift Adaptation Techniques in Distributed Environment for Real-World Data Streams
Smart Cities 2021, 4(1), 349-371; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/smartcities4010021 - 14 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 934
Abstract
Real-world data streams pose a unique challenge to the implementation of machine learning (ML) models and data analysis. A notable problem that has been introduced by the growth of Internet of Things (IoT) deployments across the smart city ecosystem is that the statistical [...] Read more.
Real-world data streams pose a unique challenge to the implementation of machine learning (ML) models and data analysis. A notable problem that has been introduced by the growth of Internet of Things (IoT) deployments across the smart city ecosystem is that the statistical properties of data streams can change over time, resulting in poor prediction performance and ineffective decisions. While concept drift detection methods aim to patch this problem, emerging communication and sensing technologies are generating a massive amount of data, requiring distributed environments to perform computation tasks across smart city administrative domains. In this article, we implement and test a number of state-of-the-art active concept drift detection algorithms for time series analysis within a distributed environment. We use real-world data streams and provide critical analysis of results retrieved. The challenges of implementing concept drift adaptation algorithms, along with their applications in smart cities, are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Edge Computing for Smart Cities)
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Article
Direct Passive Participation: Aiming for Accuracy and Citizen Safety in the Era of Big Data and the Smart City
Smart Cities 2021, 4(1), 336-348; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/smartcities4010020 - 10 Mar 2021
Viewed by 859
Abstract
The public services in our smart cities should enable our citizens to live sustainable, safe and healthy lifestyles and they should be designed inclusively. This article examines emerging data-driven methods of citizen engagement that promise to deliver effortless engagement and discusses their suitability [...] Read more.
The public services in our smart cities should enable our citizens to live sustainable, safe and healthy lifestyles and they should be designed inclusively. This article examines emerging data-driven methods of citizen engagement that promise to deliver effortless engagement and discusses their suitability for the task at hand. Passive participation views citizens as sensors and data mining is used to elicit meaning from the vast amounts of data generated in a city. Direct passive participation has a clear link between the creation and the use of the data whereas indirect passive participation does not require a link between creation and use. The Helsinki city bike share scheme has been selected as a case study to further explore the concept of direct passive participation. The case study shows that passive user generated data is a strong indicator of optimum city bike station sizing relative to the existing methods that are already in use. Indirect passive participation is an important area of development; however, it still needs to be developed further. In the meantime, direct passive participation can be one of the tools used to design inclusive services in a way that is safe and an accurate representation of the citizens’ needs. Full article
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Review
A Review of Car-Following Models and Modeling Tools for Human and Autonomous-Ready Driving Behaviors in Micro-Simulation
Smart Cities 2021, 4(1), 314-335; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/smartcities4010019 - 03 Mar 2021
Viewed by 1067
Abstract
The platform of a microscopic traffic simulation provides an opportunity to study the driving behavior of vehicles on a roadway system. Compared to traditional conventional cars with human drivers, the car-following behaviors of autonomous vehicles (AVs) and connected autonomous vehicles (CAVs) would be [...] Read more.
The platform of a microscopic traffic simulation provides an opportunity to study the driving behavior of vehicles on a roadway system. Compared to traditional conventional cars with human drivers, the car-following behaviors of autonomous vehicles (AVs) and connected autonomous vehicles (CAVs) would be quite different and hence require additional modeling efforts. This paper presents a thorough review of the literature on the car-following models used in prevalent micro-simulation tools for vehicles with both human and robot drivers. Specifically, the car-following logics such as the Wiedemann model and adaptive cruise control technology were reviewed based on the vehicle’s dynamic behavior and driving environments. In addition, some of the more recent “AV-ready (autonomous vehicles ready) tools” in micro-simulation platforms are also discussed in this paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Smart Cities)
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Article
Smart Cities and Big Data Analytics: A Data-Driven Decision-Making Use Case
Smart Cities 2021, 4(1), 286-313; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/smartcities4010018 - 28 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1085
Abstract
Interest in smart cities (SCs) and big data analytics (BDA) has increased in recent years, revealing the bond between the two fields. An SC is characterized as a complex system of systems involving various stakeholders, from planners to citizens. Within the context of [...] Read more.
Interest in smart cities (SCs) and big data analytics (BDA) has increased in recent years, revealing the bond between the two fields. An SC is characterized as a complex system of systems involving various stakeholders, from planners to citizens. Within the context of SCs, BDA offers potential as a data-driven decision-making enabler. Although there are abundant articles in the literature addressing BDA as a decision-making enabler in SCs, mainstream research addressing BDA and SCs focuses on either the technical aspects or smartening specific SC domains. A small fraction of these articles addresses the proposition of developing domain-independent BDA frameworks. This paper aims to answer the following research question: how can BDA be used as a data-driven decision-making enabler in SCs? Answering this requires us to also address the traits of domain-independent BDA frameworks in the SC context and the practical considerations in implementing a BDA framework for SCs’ decision-making. This paper’s main contribution is providing influential design considerations for BDA frameworks based on empirical foundations. These foundations are concluded through a use case of applying a BDA framework in an SC’s healthcare setting. The results reveal the ability of the BDA framework to support data-driven decision making in an SC. Full article
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Article
TreeVibes: Modern Tools for Global Monitoring of Trees for Borers
Smart Cities 2021, 4(1), 271-285; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/smartcities4010017 - 27 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1236
Abstract
Is there a wood-feeding insect inside a tree or wooden structure? We investigate several ways of how deep learning approaches can massively scan recordings of vibrations stemming from probed trees to infer their infestation state with wood-boring insects that feed and move inside [...] Read more.
Is there a wood-feeding insect inside a tree or wooden structure? We investigate several ways of how deep learning approaches can massively scan recordings of vibrations stemming from probed trees to infer their infestation state with wood-boring insects that feed and move inside wood. The recordings come from remotely controlled devices that sample the internal soundscape of trees on a 24/7 basis and wirelessly transmit brief recordings of the registered vibrations to a cloud server. We discuss the different sources of vibrations that can be picked up from trees in urban environments and how deep learning methods can focus on those originating from borers. Our goal is to match the problem of the accelerated—due to global trade and climate change— establishment of invasive xylophagus insects by increasing the capacity of inspection agencies. We aim at introducing permanent, cost-effective, automatic monitoring of trees based on deep learning techniques, in commodity entry points as well as in wild, urban and cultivated areas in order to effect large-scale, sustainable pest-risk analysis and management of wood boring insects such as those from the Cerambycidae family (longhorn beetles). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Edge Computing for Smart Cities)
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Article
A Dynamic Mobility Traffic Model Based on Two Modes of Transport in Smart Cities
Smart Cities 2021, 4(1), 253-270; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/smartcities4010016 - 22 Feb 2021
Viewed by 695
Abstract
This paper focuses on transportation models in smart cities. We propose a new dynamic mobility traffic (DMT) scheme which combines public buses and car ride-sharing. The main objective is to improve transportation by maximizing the riders’ satisfaction based on real-time data exchange between [...] Read more.
This paper focuses on transportation models in smart cities. We propose a new dynamic mobility traffic (DMT) scheme which combines public buses and car ride-sharing. The main objective is to improve transportation by maximizing the riders’ satisfaction based on real-time data exchange between the regional manager, the public buses, the car ride-sharing and the riders. OpenStreetMap and OMNET++ were used to implement a realistic scenario for the proposed model in a city like Ottawa. The DMT scheme was compared to a multi-loading system used for a school bus. Simulations showed that rider satisfaction was enhanced when a suitable combination of transportation modes was used. Additionally, compared to the other scheme, this DMT scheme can reduce the stress level of car ride-sharing and public buses during the day to the minimal level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Applied Science and Humanities for Smart Cities)
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Article
New Energy Policy Directions in the European Union Developing the Concept of Smart Cities
Smart Cities 2021, 4(1), 241-252; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/smartcities4010015 - 09 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 914
Abstract
In the context of the European Union promoting clean energy, sustainability and better living conditions for its citizens, the development of smarts cities is an initiative supported at the European Union level, in line with the new energy policies of the European Union [...] Read more.
In the context of the European Union promoting clean energy, sustainability and better living conditions for its citizens, the development of smarts cities is an initiative supported at the European Union level, in line with the new energy policies of the European Union promoted by the package “Clean Energy for All Europeans”. The concept of smart cities gains increasing importance in the European Union, a fact that is reflected in the project “European Innovation Partnership on Smart Cities and Communities” of the European Commission. Smart cities are a practical example of how the new energy policies shape the lives of the European Union citizens, trying to improve it. As a consequence, new business models arise in big cities, involving the use of technology for better living conditions. These new, technology-based business models are important, as they improve the life quality of the inhabitants, they reduce the climate change impact, and they contribute as well to job creation in the IT-industry, promoting innovation. They have as well a social impact, as they bring experts from energy policies, business, economics, legal and IT together in order to project a new type of city—the smart city. The research hypothesis of the present article is that there is a high acceptance towards the concept of smart cities at the European Union level and that this concept could be implemented with the help of information technology and of artificial intelligence. This way, legal provisions, economic measures and IT-tools work together in order to create synergy effects for better life quality of the citizens of the European Union. The research hypothesis is analyzed by means of the questionnaire as a qualitative research method and is as well assessed by using case studies (e.g., Austria, Finland, Romania). The novelty of the case studies is that the development of smart cities is analyzed due to the new trend towards sustainability in two countries with different living conditions in the European Union. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economy and Finance in Smart-Cities)
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Article
Transfer Learning by Similarity Centred Architecture Evolution for Multiple Residential Load Forecasting
Smart Cities 2021, 4(1), 217-240; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/smartcities4010014 - 01 Feb 2021
Viewed by 904
Abstract
The development from traditional low voltage grids to smart systems has become extensive and adopted worldwide. Expanding the demand response program to cover the residential sector raises a wide range of challenges. Short term load forecasting for residential consumers in a neighbourhood could [...] Read more.
The development from traditional low voltage grids to smart systems has become extensive and adopted worldwide. Expanding the demand response program to cover the residential sector raises a wide range of challenges. Short term load forecasting for residential consumers in a neighbourhood could lead to a better understanding of low voltage consumption behaviour. Nevertheless, users with similar characteristics can present diversity in consumption patterns. Consequently, transfer learning methods have become a useful tool to tackle differences among residential time series. This paper proposes a method combining evolutionary algorithms for neural architecture search with transfer learning to perform short term load forecasting in a neighbourhood with multiple household load consumption. The approach centres its efforts on neural architecture search using evolutionary algorithms. The neural architecture evolution process retains the patterns of the centre-most house, and later the architecture weights are adjusted for each house in a multihouse set from a neighbourhood. In addition, a sensitivity analysis was conducted to ensure model performance. Experimental results on a large dataset containing hourly load consumption for ten houses in London, Ontario showed that the performance of the proposed approach performs better than the compared techniques. Moreover, the proposed method presents the average accuracy performance of 3.17 points higher than the state-of-the-art LSTM one shot method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Energy Systems for Smart Cities)
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Article
Spatiotemporal Prediction of Theft Risk with Deep Inception-Residual Networks
Smart Cities 2021, 4(1), 204-216; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/smartcities4010013 - 29 Jan 2021
Viewed by 851
Abstract
Spatiotemporal prediction of crime is crucial for public safety and smart cities operation. As crime incidents are distributed sparsely across space and time, existing deep-learning methods constrained by coarse spatial scale offer only limited values in prediction of crime density. This paper proposes [...] Read more.
Spatiotemporal prediction of crime is crucial for public safety and smart cities operation. As crime incidents are distributed sparsely across space and time, existing deep-learning methods constrained by coarse spatial scale offer only limited values in prediction of crime density. This paper proposes the use of deep inception-residual networks (DIRNet) to conduct fine-grained, theft-related crime prediction based on non-emergency service request data (311 events). Specifically, it outlines the employment of inception units comprising asymmetrical convolution layers to draw low-level spatiotemporal dependencies hidden in crime events and complaint records in the 311 dataset. Afterward, this paper details how residual units can be applied to capture high-level spatiotemporal features from low-level spatiotemporal dependencies for the final prediction. The effectiveness of the proposed DIRNet is evaluated based on theft-related crime data and 311 data in New York City from 2010 to 2015. The results confirm that the DIRNet obtains an average F1 of 71%, which is better than other prediction models. Full article
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Technical Note
Quality Control Methods for Advanced Metering Infrastructure Data
Smart Cities 2021, 4(1), 195-203; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/smartcities4010012 - 28 Jan 2021
Viewed by 733
Abstract
While urban-scale building energy modeling is becoming increasingly common, it currently lacks standards, guidelines, or empirical validation against measured data. Empirical validation necessary to enable best practices is becoming increasingly tractable. The growing prevalence of advanced metering infrastructure has led to significant data [...] Read more.
While urban-scale building energy modeling is becoming increasingly common, it currently lacks standards, guidelines, or empirical validation against measured data. Empirical validation necessary to enable best practices is becoming increasingly tractable. The growing prevalence of advanced metering infrastructure has led to significant data regarding the energy consumption within individual buildings, but is something utilities and countries are still struggling to analyze and use wisely. In partnership with the Electric Power Board of Chattanooga, Tennessee, a crude OpenStudio/EnergyPlus model of over 178,000 buildings has been created and used to compare simulated energy against actual, 15-min, whole-building electrical consumption of each building. In this study, classifying building type is treated as a use case for quantifying performance associated with smart meter data. This article attempts to provide guidance for working with advanced metering infrastructure for buildings related to: quality control, pathological data classifications, statistical metrics on performance, a methodology for classifying building types, and assess accuracy. Advanced metering infrastructure was used to collect whole-building electricity consumption for 178,333 buildings, define equations for common data issues (missing values, zeros, and spiking), propose a new method for assigning building type, and empirically validate gaps between real buildings and existing prototypes using industry-standard accuracy metrics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Artificial Intelligence in Energy Systems)
Editorial
Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Smart Cities in 2020
Smart Cities 2021, 4(1), 192-194; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/smartcities4010011 - 27 Jan 2021
Viewed by 689
Abstract
Peer review is the driving force of journal development, and reviewers are gatekeepers who ensure that Smart Cities maintains its standards for the high quality of its published papers [...] Full article
Article
A Predictive Vehicle Ride Sharing Recommendation System for Smart Cities Commuting
Smart Cities 2021, 4(1), 177-191; https://doi.org/10.3390/smartcities4010010 - 27 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 845
Abstract
Smart Cities (or Cities 2.0) are an evolution in citizen habitation. In such cities, transport commuting is changing rapidly with the proliferation of contemporary vehicular technology. New models of vehicle ride sharing systems are changing the way citizens commute in their daily movement [...] Read more.
Smart Cities (or Cities 2.0) are an evolution in citizen habitation. In such cities, transport commuting is changing rapidly with the proliferation of contemporary vehicular technology. New models of vehicle ride sharing systems are changing the way citizens commute in their daily movement schedule. The use of a private vehicle per single passenger transportation is no longer viable in sustainable Smart Cities (SC) because of the vehicles’ resource allocation and urban pollution. The current research on car ride sharing systems is widely expanding in a range of contemporary technologies, however, without covering a multidisciplinary approach. In this paper, the focus is on performing a multidisciplinary research on car riding systems taking into consideration personalized user mobility behavior by providing next destination prediction as well as a recommender system based on riders’ personalized information. Specifically, it proposes a predictive vehicle ride sharing system for commuting, which has impact on the SC green ecosystem. The adopted system also provides a recommendation to citizens to select the persons they would like to commute with. An Artificial Intelligence (AI)-enabled weighted pattern matching model is used to assess user movement behavior in SC and provide the best predicted recommendation list of commuting users. Citizens are then able to engage a current trip to next destination with the more suitable user provided by the list. An experimented is conducted with real data from the municipality of New Philadelphia, in SC of Athens, Greece, to implement the proposed system and observe certain user movement behavior. The results are promising for the incorporation of the adopted system to other SCs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Edge Computing for Smart Cities)
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Article
Sustainable and Reliable Information and Communication Technology for Resilient Smart Cities
Smart Cities 2021, 4(1), 156-176; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/smartcities4010009 - 14 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1171
Abstract
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is at the heart of the smart city approach, which constitutes the next level of cities’ and communities’ development across the globe. Thereby, ICT serves as the gluing component enabling different domains to interact with each other and [...] Read more.
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is at the heart of the smart city approach, which constitutes the next level of cities’ and communities’ development across the globe. Thereby, ICT serves as the gluing component enabling different domains to interact with each other and facilitating the management and processing of vast amounts of data and information towards intelligently steering the cities’ infrastructure and processes, engaging the citizens and facilitating new services and applications in various aspects of urban life—e.g., supply chains, mobility, transportation, energy, citizens’ participation, public safety, interactions between citizens and the public administration, water management, parking and many other cases and domains. Hence, given the fundamental role of ICT in cities in the near future, it is of paramount importance to lay the ground for a sustainable and reliable ICT infrastructure, which can enable a city/community to respond in a resilient way to upcoming challenges, whilst increasing the quality of life for its citizens. A structured way of providing and maintaining an open and resilient ICT backbone for a city/community is constituted by the concept of an Open Urban Platform. Therefore, the current article presents the activities and developments necessary to achieve a resilient, standardized smart city, based on Open Urban Platforms (OUP) and the way these serve as a blueprint for each city/community towards the establishment of a sustainable and resilient ICT backbone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges for the Development of Sustainable Smart Cities)
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Letter
Miniaturized Pervasive Sensors for Indoor Health Monitoring in Smart Cities
Smart Cities 2021, 4(1), 146-155; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/smartcities4010008 - 10 Jan 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1187
Abstract
Sensors and electronics technologies are pivotal in several fields of science and engineering, especially in automation, industry and environment monitoring. Over the years, there have been continuous changes and advancements in design and miniaturization of sensors with the growth of their application areas. [...] Read more.
Sensors and electronics technologies are pivotal in several fields of science and engineering, especially in automation, industry and environment monitoring. Over the years, there have been continuous changes and advancements in design and miniaturization of sensors with the growth of their application areas. Challenges have arisen in the deployment, fabrication and calibration of modern sensors. Therefore, although the usage of sensors has greatly helped improving the quality of life, especially through their employment in many IoT (Internet of Things) applications, some threats and safety issues still remain unaddressed. In this paper, a brief review focusing on pervasive sensors used for health and indoor environment monitoring is given. Examples of technology advancements in air, water and radioactivity are discussed. This bird’s eye view suggests that solid-state pervasive sensors have become essential parts of all emerging applications related to monitoring of health and safety. Miniaturization, in combination with gamification approaches and machine learning techniques for processing large amounts of captured data, can successfully address and solve many issues of massive deployment. The development paradigm of Smart Cities should include both indoor and outdoor scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue mHealth in Smart Cities)
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Article
Interdependencies of Infrastructure Investment Decisions in Multi-Energy Systems—A Sensitivity Analysis for Urban Residential Areas
Smart Cities 2021, 4(1), 112-145; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/smartcities4010007 - 08 Jan 2021
Viewed by 891
Abstract
Considering the European Union (EU) climate targets, the heating sector should be decarbonized by 80% to 95% up to 2050. Thus, the macro-trends forecast increasing energy efficiency and focus on the use of renewable gas or the electrification of heat generation. This has [...] Read more.
Considering the European Union (EU) climate targets, the heating sector should be decarbonized by 80% to 95% up to 2050. Thus, the macro-trends forecast increasing energy efficiency and focus on the use of renewable gas or the electrification of heat generation. This has implications for the business models of urban electricity and in particular natural gas distribution network operators (DNOs): When the energy demand decreases, a disproportionately long grid is operated, which can cause a rise of grid charges and thus the gas price. This creates a situation in which a self-reinforcing feedback loop starts, which increases the risk of gas grid defection. We present a mixed integer linear optimization model to analyze the interdependencies between the electricity and gas DNOs’ and the building owners’ investment decisions during the transformation path. The results of the investigation in a real grid area are used to validate the simulation setup of a sensitivity analysis of 27 types of building collectives and five grid topologies, which provides a systematic insight into the interrelated system. Therefore, it is possible to identify building and grid configurations that increase the risk of a complete gas grid shutdown and those that should be operated as a flexibility option in a future renewable energy system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Energy Systems for Smart Cities)
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Perspective
Introducing the “15-Minute City”: Sustainability, Resilience and Place Identity in Future Post-Pandemic Cities
Smart Cities 2021, 4(1), 93-111; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/smartcities4010006 - 08 Jan 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 5984
Abstract
The socio-economic impacts on cities during the COVID-19 pandemic have been brutal, leading to increasing inequalities and record numbers of unemployment around the world. While cities endure lockdowns in order to ensure decent levels of health, the challenges linked to the unfolding of [...] Read more.
The socio-economic impacts on cities during the COVID-19 pandemic have been brutal, leading to increasing inequalities and record numbers of unemployment around the world. While cities endure lockdowns in order to ensure decent levels of health, the challenges linked to the unfolding of the pandemic have led to the need for a radical re-think of the city, leading to the re-emergence of a concept, initially proposed in 2016 by Carlos Moreno: the “15-Minute City”. The concept, offering a novel perspective of “chrono-urbanism”, adds to existing thematic of Smart Cities and the rhetoric of building more humane urban fabrics, outlined by Christopher Alexander, and that of building safer, more resilient, sustainable and inclusive cities, as depicted in the Sustainable Development Goal 11 of the United Nations. With the concept gaining ground in popular media and its subsequent adoption at policy level in a number of cities of varying scale and geographies, the present paper sets forth to introduce the concept, its origins, intent and future directions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Revisiting the Smart City Concept)
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Article
Smart Data-Driven Policy on Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS): Analysis of Drone Users in U.S. Cities
Smart Cities 2021, 4(1), 78-92; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/smartcities4010005 - 07 Jan 2021
Viewed by 748
Abstract
Realizing the benefits of drones while minimizing public concerns requires development and implementation of drone use policies that are grounded in an understanding of drone users and their behavior. This study aims to contribute to data-driven smart cities by filling our gap in [...] Read more.
Realizing the benefits of drones while minimizing public concerns requires development and implementation of drone use policies that are grounded in an understanding of drone users and their behavior. This study aims to contribute to data-driven smart cities by filling our gap in knowledge about city drone users and their compliance behavior. The literature review has identified the main factors affecting drone policy compliance. This study collects data via a national survey of adults on drone behavior and focuses on city drone users. The results show that city drone users are younger with more dispersed educational backgrounds and income distribution than those in the general population. Moreover, civic duty, trust in government, and knowledge about regulatory requirements are motivators for drone users to comply with drone regulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Cities and Data-driven Innovative Solutions)
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Article
A Survey of Enabling Technologies for Smart Communities
Smart Cities 2021, 4(1), 54-77; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/smartcities4010004 - 31 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1145
Abstract
In 2016, the Japanese Government publicized an initiative and a call to action for the implementation of a “Super Smart Society” announced as Society 5.0. The stated goal of Society 5.0 is to meet the various needs of the members of society through [...] Read more.
In 2016, the Japanese Government publicized an initiative and a call to action for the implementation of a “Super Smart Society” announced as Society 5.0. The stated goal of Society 5.0 is to meet the various needs of the members of society through the provisioning of goods and services to those who require them, when they are required and in the amount required, thus enabling the citizens to live an active and comfortable life. In spite of its genuine appeal, details of a feasible path to Society 5.0 are conspicuously missing. The first main goal of this survey is to suggest such an implementation path. Specifically, we define a Smart Community as a human-centric entity where technology is used to equip the citizenry with information and services that they can use to inform their decisions. The arbiter of this ecosystem of services is a Marketplace of Services that will reward services aligned with the wants and needs of the citizens, while discouraging the proliferation of those that are not. In the limit, the Smart Community we defined will morph into Society 5.0. At that point, the Marketplace of Services will become a platform for the co-creation of services by a close cooperation between the citizens and their government. The second objective and contribution of this survey paper is to review known technologies that, in our opinion, will play a significant role in the transition to Society 5.0. These technologies will be surveyed in chronological order, as newer technologies often extend old technologies while avoiding their limitations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in Smart Cities)
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Article
Smart City Strategies—Technology Push or Culture Pull? A Case Study Exploration of Gimpo and Namyangju, South Korea
Smart Cities 2021, 4(1), 41-53; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/smartcities4010003 - 24 Dec 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1706
Abstract
This study aims to address strategies, models, and the motivation behind smart cities by analyzing two smart city project cases in medium-sized cities, i.e., Gimpo and Namyangju in South Korea. The case of Smartopia Gimpo represents a top-down, infrastructure-focused smart city innovation that [...] Read more.
This study aims to address strategies, models, and the motivation behind smart cities by analyzing two smart city project cases in medium-sized cities, i.e., Gimpo and Namyangju in South Korea. The case of Smartopia Gimpo represents a top-down, infrastructure-focused smart city innovation that invested in building state-of-the-art big data infrastructure for crime prevention, traffic alleviation, environmental preservation, and disaster management. On the other hand, Namyangju 4.0 represents a strategy focused on internal process innovation through extensive employee training and education regarding smart city concepts and emphasizing data-driven (rather than infrastructure-driven) policy decision making. This study explores two smart city strategies and how they resulted in distinctively different outcomes. We found that instilling a culture of innovation through the training of government managers and frontline workers is a critical component in achieving a holistic and sustainable smart city transformation that can survive leadership changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Cities and Data-driven Innovative Solutions)
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Article
Sparse Measurement-Based Coordination of Electric Vehicle Charging Stations to Manage Congestions in Low Voltage Grids
Smart Cities 2021, 4(1), 17-40; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/smartcities4010002 - 22 Dec 2020
Viewed by 889
Abstract
The increasing use of distributed generation and electric vehicle charging stations provokes violations of the operational limits in low voltage grids. The mitigation of voltage limit violations is addressed by Volt/var control strategies, while thermal overload is avoided by using congestion management. Congestions [...] Read more.
The increasing use of distributed generation and electric vehicle charging stations provokes violations of the operational limits in low voltage grids. The mitigation of voltage limit violations is addressed by Volt/var control strategies, while thermal overload is avoided by using congestion management. Congestions in low voltage grids can be managed by coordinating the active power contributions of the connected elements. As a prerequisite, the system state must be carefully observed. This study presents and investigates a method for the sparse measurement-based detection of feeder congestions that bypasses the major hurdles of distribution system state estimation. Furthermore, the developed method is used to enable congestion management by the centralized coordination of the distributed electric vehicle charging stations. Different algorithms are presented and tested by conducting load flow simulations on a real urban low voltage grid for several scenarios. Results show that the proposed method reliably detects all congestions, but in some cases, overloads are detected when none are present. A minimal detection accuracy of 73.07% is found across all simulations. The coordination algorithms react to detected congestions by reducing the power consumption of the corresponding charging stations. When properly designed, this strategy avoids congestions reliably but conservatively. Unnecessary reduction of the charging power may occur. In total, the presented solution offers an acceptable performance while requiring low implementation effort; no complex adaptations are required after grid reinforcement and expansion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Energy Systems for Smart Cities)
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Article
Machine Committee Framework for Power Grid Disturbances Analysis Using Synchrophasors Data
Smart Cities 2021, 4(1), 1-16; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/smartcities4010001 - 22 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 699
Abstract
Events detection is a key challenge in power grid frequency disturbances analysis. Accurate detection of events is crucial for situational awareness of the power system. In this paper, we study the problem of events detection in power grid frequency disturbance analysis using synchrophasors [...] Read more.
Events detection is a key challenge in power grid frequency disturbances analysis. Accurate detection of events is crucial for situational awareness of the power system. In this paper, we study the problem of events detection in power grid frequency disturbance analysis using synchrophasors data streams. Current events detection approaches for power grid rely on individual detection algorithm. This study integrates some of the existing detection algorithms using the concept of machine committee to develop improved detection approaches for grid disturbance analysis. Specifically, we propose two algorithms—an Event Detection Machine Committee (EDMC) algorithm and a Change-Point Detection Machine Committee (CPDMC) algorithm. Both algorithms use parallel architecture to fuse detection knowledge of its individual methods to arrive at an overall output. The EDMC algorithm combines five individual event detection methods, while the CPDMC algorithm combines two change-point detection methods. Each method performs the detection task separately. The overall output of each algorithm is then computed using a voting strategy. The proposed algorithms are evaluated using three case studies of actual power grid disturbances. Compared with the individual results of the various detection methods, we found that the EDMC algorithm is a better fit for analyzing synchrophasors data; it improves the detection accuracy; and it is suitable for practical scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Artificial Intelligence in Energy Systems)
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