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Review

A Review on Electric Vehicles: Technologies and Challenges

1
Computer Science and System Engineering Department (DIIS), University of Zaragoza, Atarazana, 2, 44003 Teruel, Spain
2
IDLab—Faculty of Applied Engineering, University of Antwerp—imec, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 January 2021 / Revised: 5 March 2021 / Accepted: 5 March 2021 / Published: 15 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Smart Cities)
Electric Vehicles (EVs) are gaining momentum due to several factors, including the price reduction as well as the climate and environmental awareness. This paper reviews the advances of EVs regarding battery technology trends, charging methods, as well as new research challenges and open opportunities. More specifically, an analysis of the worldwide market situation of EVs and their future prospects is carried out. Given that one of the fundamental aspects in EVs is the battery, the paper presents a thorough review of the battery technologies—from the Lead-acid batteries to the Lithium-ion. Moreover, we review the different standards that are available for EVs charging process, as well as the power control and battery energy management proposals. Finally, we conclude our work by presenting our vision about what is expected in the near future within this field, as well as the research aspects that are still open for both industry and academic communities. View Full-Text
Keywords: Electric Vehicles; Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle; battery charging; batteries technology; charging modes; EV plugs Electric Vehicles; Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle; battery charging; batteries technology; charging modes; EV plugs
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sanguesa, J.A.; Torres-Sanz, V.; Garrido, P.; Martinez, F.J.; Marquez-Barja, J.M. A Review on Electric Vehicles: Technologies and Challenges. Smart Cities 2021, 4, 372-404. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/smartcities4010022

AMA Style

Sanguesa JA, Torres-Sanz V, Garrido P, Martinez FJ, Marquez-Barja JM. A Review on Electric Vehicles: Technologies and Challenges. Smart Cities. 2021; 4(1):372-404. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/smartcities4010022

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sanguesa, Julio A., Vicente Torres-Sanz, Piedad Garrido, Francisco J. Martinez, and Johann M. Marquez-Barja 2021. "A Review on Electric Vehicles: Technologies and Challenges" Smart Cities 4, no. 1: 372-404. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/smartcities4010022

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