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Article

Interdependencies of Infrastructure Investment Decisions in Multi-Energy Systems—A Sensitivity Analysis for Urban Residential Areas

1
Grid Planning and Operation Division, Fraunhofer Institute for Energy Economics and Energy System Technology, 34119 Kassel, Germany
2
Grid Planning Department, Stadtwerke Bamberg Energy and Water Supply Company, 96052 Bamberg, Germany
3
Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Applied Science Coburg, 96450 Coburg, Germany
4
Department of Energy Management and Power System Operation, University of Kassel, 34119 Kassel, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 December 2020 / Revised: 28 December 2020 / Accepted: 5 January 2021 / Published: 8 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Energy Systems for Smart Cities)
Considering the European Union (EU) climate targets, the heating sector should be decarbonized by 80% to 95% up to 2050. Thus, the macro-trends forecast increasing energy efficiency and focus on the use of renewable gas or the electrification of heat generation. This has implications for the business models of urban electricity and in particular natural gas distribution network operators (DNOs): When the energy demand decreases, a disproportionately long grid is operated, which can cause a rise of grid charges and thus the gas price. This creates a situation in which a self-reinforcing feedback loop starts, which increases the risk of gas grid defection. We present a mixed integer linear optimization model to analyze the interdependencies between the electricity and gas DNOs’ and the building owners’ investment decisions during the transformation path. The results of the investigation in a real grid area are used to validate the simulation setup of a sensitivity analysis of 27 types of building collectives and five grid topologies, which provides a systematic insight into the interrelated system. Therefore, it is possible to identify building and grid configurations that increase the risk of a complete gas grid shutdown and those that should be operated as a flexibility option in a future renewable energy system. View Full-Text
Keywords: urban energy systems; business dynamics; built environment; smart energy markets; multi-energy systems; economic optimization; strategic decision making; distribution grid planning; gas grid defection; natural gas grid; electricity grid urban energy systems; business dynamics; built environment; smart energy markets; multi-energy systems; economic optimization; strategic decision making; distribution grid planning; gas grid defection; natural gas grid; electricity grid
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MDPI and ACS Style

Then, D.; Bauer, J.; Kneiske, T.M.; Braun, M. Interdependencies of Infrastructure Investment Decisions in Multi-Energy Systems—A Sensitivity Analysis for Urban Residential Areas. Smart Cities 2021, 4, 112-145. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/smartcities4010007

AMA Style

Then D, Bauer J, Kneiske TM, Braun M. Interdependencies of Infrastructure Investment Decisions in Multi-Energy Systems—A Sensitivity Analysis for Urban Residential Areas. Smart Cities. 2021; 4(1):112-145. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/smartcities4010007

Chicago/Turabian Style

Then, Daniel, Johannes Bauer, Tanja M. Kneiske, and Martin Braun. 2021. "Interdependencies of Infrastructure Investment Decisions in Multi-Energy Systems—A Sensitivity Analysis for Urban Residential Areas" Smart Cities 4, no. 1: 112-145. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/smartcities4010007

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