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Smart Cities, Volume 4, Issue 3 (September 2021) – 17 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The adoption of more sustainable transportation solutions is an important trend in cities, which has resulted in many initiatives toward the use of bicycles and other alternative means. Although highly desired to relieve multiple urban problems, the existing cycling infrastructure in urban areas may present adverse conditions that may affect the health and safety of cyclists and other alternative transportation users. Therefore, in order to further support the transition of urban mobility to a more sustainable configuration, the quality of cycling paths concerning its adverse conditions has to be properly evaluated. In this article, a comprehensive multiparameter system based on multiple independent subsystems is proposed, covering data acquisition, processing, and visualization phases. View this paper.
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Article
Application of Deep Learning on UAV-Based Aerial Images for Flood Detection
Smart Cities 2021, 4(3), 1220-1242; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/smartcities4030065 - 18 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 754
Abstract
Floods are one of the most fatal and devastating disasters, instigating an immense loss of human lives and damage to property, infrastructure, and agricultural lands. To cater to this, there is a need to develop and implement real-time flood management systems that could [...] Read more.
Floods are one of the most fatal and devastating disasters, instigating an immense loss of human lives and damage to property, infrastructure, and agricultural lands. To cater to this, there is a need to develop and implement real-time flood management systems that could instantly detect flooded regions to initiate relief activities as early as possible. Current imaging systems, relying on satellites, have demonstrated low accuracy and delayed response, making them unreliable and impractical to be used in emergency responses to natural disasters such as flooding. This research employs Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to develop an automated imaging system that can identify inundated areas from aerial images. The Haar cascade classifier was explored in the case study to detect landmarks such as roads and buildings from the aerial images captured by UAVs and identify flooded areas. The extracted landmarks are added to the training dataset that is used to train a deep learning algorithm. Experimental results show that buildings and roads can be detected from the images with 91% and 94% accuracy, respectively. The overall accuracy of 91% is recorded in classifying flooded and non-flooded regions from the input case study images. The system has shown promising results on test images belonging to both pre- and post-flood classes. The flood relief and rescue workers can quickly locate flooded regions and rescue stranded people using this system. Such real-time flood inundation systems will help transform the disaster management systems in line with modern smart cities initiatives. Full article
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Review
Cloud-Based IoT Applications and Their Roles in Smart Cities
Smart Cities 2021, 4(3), 1196-1219; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/smartcities4030064 - 17 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 687
Abstract
A smart city is an urbanization region that collects data using several digital and physical devices. The information collected from such devices is used efficiently to manage revenues, resources, and assets, etc., while the information obtained from such devices is utilized to boost [...] Read more.
A smart city is an urbanization region that collects data using several digital and physical devices. The information collected from such devices is used efficiently to manage revenues, resources, and assets, etc., while the information obtained from such devices is utilized to boost performance throughout the city. Cloud-based Internet of Things (IoT) applications could help smart cities that contain information gathered from citizens, devices, homes, and other things. This information is processed and analyzed to monitor and manage transportation networks, electric utilities, resources management, water supply systems, waste management, crime detection, security mechanisms, proficiency, digital library, healthcare facilities, and other opportunities. A cloud service provider offers public cloud services that can update the IoT environment, enabling third-party activities to embed IoT data within electronic devices executing on the IoT. In this paper, the author explored cloud-based IoT applications and their roles in smart cities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cloud-Based IoT Applications for Smart Cities)
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Article
Optimal Planning of Electrical Appliance of Residential Units in a Smart Home Network Using Cloud Services
Smart Cities 2021, 4(3), 1173-1195; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/smartcities4030063 - 16 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 561
Abstract
One of the important aspects of realizing smart cities is developing smart homes/buildings and, from the energy perspective, designing and implementing an efficient smart home area energy management system (HAEMS) is vital. To be effective, the HAEMS should include various electrical appliances as [...] Read more.
One of the important aspects of realizing smart cities is developing smart homes/buildings and, from the energy perspective, designing and implementing an efficient smart home area energy management system (HAEMS) is vital. To be effective, the HAEMS should include various electrical appliances as well as local distributed/renewable energy resources and energy storage systems, with the whole system as a microgrid. However, the collecting and processing of the data associated with these appliances/resources are challenging in terms of the required sensors/communication infrastructure and computational burden. Thanks to the internet-of-things and cloud computing technologies, the physical requirements for handling the data have been provided; however, they demand suitable optimization/management schemes. In this article, a HAEMS is developed using cloud services to increase the accuracy and speed of the data processing. A management protocol is proposed that provides an optimal schedule for a day-ahead operation of the electrical equipment of smart residential homes under welfare indicators. The proposed system comprises three layers: (1) sensors associated with the home appliances and generation/storage units, (2) local fog nodes, and (3) a cloud where the information is processed bilaterally with HAEMS and the hourly optimal operation of appliances/generation/storage units is planned. The neural network and genetic algorithm (GA) are used as part of the HAEMS program. The neural network is used to predict the amount of workload corresponding to users’ requests. Improving the load factor and the economic efficiency are considered as the objective function that is optimized using GA. Numerical studies are performed in the MATLAB platform and the results are compared with a conventional method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Section Smart Grids)
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Article
Data Co-Operatives through Data Sovereignty
Smart Cities 2021, 4(3), 1158-1172; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/smartcities4030062 - 05 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2667
Abstract
Against the widespread assumption that data are the oil of the 21st century, this article offers an alternative conceptual framework, interpretation, and pathway around data and smart city nexus to subvert surveillance capitalism in light of emerging and further promising practical cases. This [...] Read more.
Against the widespread assumption that data are the oil of the 21st century, this article offers an alternative conceptual framework, interpretation, and pathway around data and smart city nexus to subvert surveillance capitalism in light of emerging and further promising practical cases. This article illustrates an open debate in data governance and the data justice field related to current trends and challenges in smart cities, resulting in a new approach advocated for and recently coined by the UN-Habitat programme ‘People-Centred Smart Cities’. Particularly, this feature article sheds light on two intertwined notions that articulate the technopolitical dimension of the ‘People-Centred Smart Cities’ approach: data co-operatives and data sovereignty. Data co-operatives are emerging as a way to share and own data through peer-to-peer (p2p) repositories and data sovereignty is being claimed as a digital right for communities/citizens. Consequently, this feature article aims to open up new research avenues around ‘People-Centred Smart Cities’ approach: First, it elucidates how data co-operatives through data sovereignty could be articulated as long as co-developed with communities connected to the long history and analysis of the various forms of co-operatives (technopolitical dimension). Second, it prospectively anticipates the city–regional dimension encompassing data colonialism and data devolution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Smart Cities)
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Article
Intrusion Detection in Critical Infrastructures: A Literature Review
Smart Cities 2021, 4(3), 1146-1157; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/smartcities4030061 - 28 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 718
Abstract
Over the years, the digitization of all aspects of life in modern societies is considered an acquired advantage. However, like the terrestrial world, the digital world is not perfect and many dangers and threats are present. In the present work, we conduct a [...] Read more.
Over the years, the digitization of all aspects of life in modern societies is considered an acquired advantage. However, like the terrestrial world, the digital world is not perfect and many dangers and threats are present. In the present work, we conduct a systematic review on the methods of network detection and cyber attacks that can take place in a critical infrastructure. As is shown, the implementation of a system that learns from the system behavior (machine learning), on multiple levels and spots any diversity, is one of the most effective solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Section Smart Grids)
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Article
The “ReadyPark” Collaborative Parking Search Strategy
Smart Cities 2021, 4(3), 1130-1145; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/smartcities4030060 - 12 Aug 2021
Viewed by 615
Abstract
Many of us have experienced this when driving in the city, we had to “turn for hours” to find a parking space. To attenuate this drawback, this paper proposes a collaborative parking search strategy based on the reality of a drivers network in [...] Read more.
Many of us have experienced this when driving in the city, we had to “turn for hours” to find a parking space. To attenuate this drawback, this paper proposes a collaborative parking search strategy based on the reality of a drivers network in which, depending on his/her role at a given time, each one can help the others to find public on-street parking spots. To highlight a situation of parking spot scarcity, we assume the extreme case where there is no free space and the only solution to park is to swap with a parked car that leaves its location. Under this assumption, agent-based modelling and simulations allow to compare the ReadyPark solution with the classical approach that consists, by luck, in taking the place of a nearby car that is leaving its spot. Full article
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Communication
Determinants of Smart City Commitment among Citizens from a Middle City in Argentina
Smart Cities 2021, 4(3), 1113-1129; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/smartcities4030059 - 06 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 579
Abstract
This paper aims to examine the determinants of smart-city commitment across individuals from Bahía Blanca, Argentina. Literature has identified different factors explaining citizens’ commitment to smart cities, such as education, age, labor condition, and other more subjective factors, such as trust and awareness [...] Read more.
This paper aims to examine the determinants of smart-city commitment across individuals from Bahía Blanca, Argentina. Literature has identified different factors explaining citizens’ commitment to smart cities, such as education, age, labor condition, and other more subjective factors, such as trust and awareness about the smart-city concept. A mediator factor of smart commitment is e-readiness or digital readiness, that is, the level of preparedness to properly exploit internet opportunities such as e-government and e-commerce. To achieve this goal, we used a survey conducted on 97 citizens (followers of the Moderniza Bahía Facebook) from the city of Bahía Blanca, Argentina. By estimating a structural equation model, we found that higher levels of ICT use are associated with higher levels of smart-city commitment and that higher awareness of the smart-city concept is related to higher levels of smart-city commitment. Sociodemographic factors such as age and labor condition also explain ICT use. Full article
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Article
Dynamic Restaurants Quality Mapping Using Online User Reviews
Smart Cities 2021, 4(3), 1104-1112; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/smartcities4030058 - 02 Aug 2021
Viewed by 648
Abstract
Millions of users post comments to TripAdvisor daily, together with a numeric evaluation of their experience using a rating scale of between 1 and 5 stars. At the same time, inspectors dispatched by national and local authorities visit restaurant premises regularly to audit [...] Read more.
Millions of users post comments to TripAdvisor daily, together with a numeric evaluation of their experience using a rating scale of between 1 and 5 stars. At the same time, inspectors dispatched by national and local authorities visit restaurant premises regularly to audit hygiene standards, safe food practices, and overall cleanliness. The purpose of our study is to analyze the use of online-generated reviews (OGRs) as a tool to complement official restaurant inspection procedures. Our case study-based approach, with the help of a Python-based scraping library, consists of collecting OGR data from TripAdvisor and comparing them to extant restaurants’ health inspection reports. Our findings reveal that a correlation does exist between OGRs and national health system scorings. In other words, OGRs were found to provide valid indicators of restaurant quality based on inspection ratings and can thus contribute to the prevention of foodborne illness among citizens in real time. The originality of the paper resides in the use of big data and social network data as a an easily accessible, zero-cost, and complementary tool in disease prevention systems. Incorporated in restaurant management dashboards, it will aid in determining what action plans are necessary to improve quality and customer experience on the premises. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systems, Applications and Services for Smart Health)
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Article
A Data-Driven Situational Awareness System for Enhanced Air Cargo Operations Emergency Control
Smart Cities 2021, 4(3), 1087-1103; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/smartcities4030057 - 24 Jul 2021
Viewed by 732
Abstract
Based on the constant need for safety and operational cost optimization, the air-cargo industry is continually evolving in the context of Industry 4.0. Used wisely, data can help the industry to provide critical resilience that will allow authorities to take proper measures/actions in [...] Read more.
Based on the constant need for safety and operational cost optimization, the air-cargo industry is continually evolving in the context of Industry 4.0. Used wisely, data can help the industry to provide critical resilience that will allow authorities to take proper measures/actions in response to unexpected disasters and secure societal protection. The “INTELLICONT” project combines state-of-the-art technologies blended with novel solutions to improve the loading/unloading time, the structural status awareness, and the safety and security of the air-cargo related operations (prior to, during, and after the flight), as well as to enhance their capabilities related to the execution of their duties. The suggested system is contextually aligned and harmonized with the existing international and EU regulations. In the present work, the remote monitoring and control system for intelligent aircraft cargo containers have been presented from the software perspective. The intelligent containers integrate three types of sensors, Structural Health Monitoring, fire suppression, and locking status indication. The focus has been given to the design and development of a Human Machine Interface (HMI) capable to visualize all related data for better and safer control of the aircraft cargo. It is shown that the system can contribute to making the air transportations safer, environmentally friendlier, faster and with the lowest possible cost. Full article
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Article
iBikeSafe: A Multi-Parameter System for Monitoring, Evaluation and Visualization of Cycling Paths in Smart Cities Targeted at Cycling Adverse Conditions
Smart Cities 2021, 4(3), 1058-1086; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/smartcities4030056 - 24 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 822
Abstract
The fast transformation of the urban centers, pushed by the impacts of climatic changes and the dramatic events of the COVID-19 Pandemic, will profoundly influence our daily mobility. This resulted scenario is expected to favor adopting cleaner and flexible modal solutions centered on [...] Read more.
The fast transformation of the urban centers, pushed by the impacts of climatic changes and the dramatic events of the COVID-19 Pandemic, will profoundly influence our daily mobility. This resulted scenario is expected to favor adopting cleaner and flexible modal solutions centered on bicycles and scooters, especially as last-mile options. However, as the use of bicycles has rapidly increased, cyclists have been subject to adverse conditions that may affect their health and safety when cycling in urban areas. Therefore, whereas cities should implement mechanisms to monitor and evaluate adverse conditions in cycling paths, cyclists should have some effective mechanism to visualize the indirect quality of cycling paths, eventually supporting choosing more appropriate routes. Therefore, this article proposes a comprehensive multi-parameter system based on multiple independent subsystems, covering all phases of data collecting, formatting, transmission, and processing related to the monitoring, evaluating, and visualizing the quality of cycling paths in the perspective of adverse conditions that affect cyclist. The formal interactions of all modules are carefully described, as well as implementation and deployment details. Additionally, a case study is considered for a large city in Brazil, demonstrating how the proposed system can be adopted in a real scenario. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Internet of Things)
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Article
Electric Vehicle Integration into Road Transportation, Intelligent Transportation, and Electric Power Systems: An Abu Dhabi Case Study
Smart Cities 2021, 4(3), 1039-1057; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/smartcities4030055 - 23 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 695
Abstract
Recently, electric vehicles (EV) have gained much attention as a potential enabling technology to support CO2 emissions reduction targets. Relative to their internal combustion vehicle counterparts, EVs consume less energy per unit distance, and add the benefit of not emitting any carbon [...] Read more.
Recently, electric vehicles (EV) have gained much attention as a potential enabling technology to support CO2 emissions reduction targets. Relative to their internal combustion vehicle counterparts, EVs consume less energy per unit distance, and add the benefit of not emitting any carbon dioxide in operation and instead shift their emissions to the existing local fleet of power generation. However, the true success of EVs depends on their successful integration with the supporting infrastructure systems. Building upon the recently published methodology for the same purpose, this paper presents a “systems-of-systems” case study assessing the impacts of EVs on these three systems in the context of Abu Dhabi. For the physical transportation system, a microscopic discrete-time traffic operations simulator is used to predict the kinematic state of the EV fleet over the duration of one day. For the impact on the intelligent transportation system (ITS), the integration of EVs into Abu Dhabi is studied using a multi-domain matrix (MDM) of the Abu Dhabi Department of Transportation ITS. Finally, for the impact on the electric power system, the EV traffic flow patterns from the CMS are used to calculate the timing and magnitude of charging loads. The paper concludes with the need for an intelligent transportation-energy system (ITES) which would coordinate traffic and energy management functionality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Smart Urban Infrastructures)
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Article
A Holistic Intersection Rating System (HIRS)—A Novel Methodology to Measure the Holistic Operational Performance of Signalized Urban Intersections
Smart Cities 2021, 4(3), 1018-1038; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/smartcities4030054 - 19 Jul 2021
Viewed by 658
Abstract
Signalized urban intersections are key components of urban transportation networks. They are traditionally viewed and designed as primarily motorized traffic facilities, and thus their physical and operational designs have traditionally aimed at maximizing traffic throughput subject to constraints dictated by vehicular safety requirements [...] Read more.
Signalized urban intersections are key components of urban transportation networks. They are traditionally viewed and designed as primarily motorized traffic facilities, and thus their physical and operational designs have traditionally aimed at maximizing traffic throughput subject to constraints dictated by vehicular safety requirements and pedestrian crossing needs. Seen from a holistic viewpoint, urban intersections are hubs or effective centers of community activities of which traffic flow is only one. Those hubs have direct and indirect impacts on the overlapping traffic functionalities, the environment, public health, community wellbeing, and the local economy. This study proposes a new rating system, the Holistic Intersection Rating System (HIRS), aimed at appraising signalized intersections from a more inclusive viewpoint. This appraisal covers traffic functionality, sustainability, and public health and community wellbeing. This rating system can be used as a guide to conceive, plan, or design new intersections or revamp existing ones. HIRS rates signalized urban intersections based on the level of use of relevant enabling technologies, and the physical and operational designs that allow those intersections to operate holistically, thus leading to a more human-centric and sustainable operational performance. HIRS was validated using a panel of experts in construction, transportation, and public health. The Relative Importance Index (RII) method was used to weigh the HIRS features. The rating system was piloted on a sample of 20 intersections in different cities in the UAE. The results revealed glaring gaps in services to or the consideration of pedestrians, cyclists, and nearby households. The sample intersections scored a mean of 32% on the public health and community wellbeing section, 37% on the pedestrian subsection, and 15% on the cyclist subsection. Such relatively low scores serve as indicators of areas for improvements, and if mapped to their specific features and their relative weights, specific physical and operations designs and technology integration can be identified as actionable items for inclusion in plans and/or designs. Full article
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Article
IoT-Enabled Solid Waste Management in Smart Cities
Smart Cities 2021, 4(3), 1004-1017; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/smartcities4030053 - 14 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 971
Abstract
The Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm plays a vital role for improving smart city applications by tracking and managing city processes in real-time. One of the most significant issues associated with smart city applications is solid waste management, which has a negative impact [...] Read more.
The Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm plays a vital role for improving smart city applications by tracking and managing city processes in real-time. One of the most significant issues associated with smart city applications is solid waste management, which has a negative impact on our society’s health and the environment. The traditional waste management process begins with waste created by city residents and disposed of in garbage bins at the source. Municipal department trucks collect garbage and move it to recycling centers on a fixed schedule. Municipalities and waste management companies fail to keep up with outdoor containers, making it impossible to determine when to clean them or when they are full. This work proposes an IoT-enabled solid waste management system for smart cities to overcome the limitations of the traditional waste management systems. The proposed architecture consists of two types of end sensor nodes: PBLMU (Public Bin Level Monitoring Unit) and HBLMU (Home Bin Level Monitoring Unit), which are used to track bins in public and residential areas, respectively. The PBLMUs and HBLMUs measure the unfilled level of the trash bin and its location data, process it, and transmit it to a central monitoring station for storage and analysis. An intelligent Graphical User Interface (GUI) enables the waste collection authority to view and evaluate the unfilled status of each trash bin. To validate the proposed system architecture, the following significant experiments were conducted: (a) Eight trash bins were equipped with PBLMUs and connected to a LoRaWAN network and another eight trash bins were equipped with HBLMUs and connected to a Wi-Fi network. The trash bins were filled with wastes at different levels and the corresponding unfilled levels of every trash bin were monitored through the intelligent GUI. (b) An experimental setup was arranged to measure the sleep current and active current contributions of a PBLMU to estimate its average current consumption. (c) The life expectancy of a PBLMU was estimated as approximately 70 days under hypothetical conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT-Enabled Waste Management in Smart Cities)
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Article
Using IoT in Supply Chain Risk Management, to Enable Collaboration between Business, Community, and Government
by
Smart Cities 2021, 4(3), 995-1003; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/smartcities4030052 - 14 Jul 2021
Viewed by 658
Abstract
The internet of things (IoT) and social media provide information related to disasters that could help businesses to strategically mitigate risks and optimize their supply chain during difficult times. This paper proposes a framework to show how business or supply chain enterprisers can [...] Read more.
The internet of things (IoT) and social media provide information related to disasters that could help businesses to strategically mitigate risks and optimize their supply chain during difficult times. This paper proposes a framework to show how business or supply chain enterprisers can collaborate with community and government in disaster supply chain risk management. Businesses must have an established risk mitigation plan, update it periodically and implement promptly. Community collaboration can build a resilient society, and government should play an important role in leading both financial and non-financial support during natural disasters and pandemic management. The IoT and social media are new mechanisms as a vocal point to enable government, ensuring trustworthiness of information, to provide the community with a means to express needs and feedback, and to assist business services to meet the changeable preferences under risk threats. Social media can be a collaborative effort between all the parties and helps make value added decisions efficiently in supply chain risk management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Smart Cities)
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Article
IoT-Based Sanitizer Station Network: A Facilities Management Case Study on Monitoring Hand Sanitizer Dispenser Usage
Smart Cities 2021, 4(3), 979-994; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/smartcities4030051 - 08 Jul 2021
Viewed by 935
Abstract
Maintaining hand hygiene has been an essential preventive measure for reducing disease transmission in public facilities, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic. The large number of sanitizer stations deployed within public facilities, such as on university campuses, brings challenges for effective facility management. This [...] Read more.
Maintaining hand hygiene has been an essential preventive measure for reducing disease transmission in public facilities, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic. The large number of sanitizer stations deployed within public facilities, such as on university campuses, brings challenges for effective facility management. This paper proposes an IoT sensor network for tracking sanitizer usage in public facilities and supporting facility management using a data-driven approach. Specifically, the system integrates low-cost wireless sensors, LoRaWAN, and cloud-based computing techniques to realize data capture, communication, and analysis. The proposed approach was validated through field experiments in a large building on a university campus to assess the network signal coverage and effectiveness of sensor operation for facility monitoring. The results show that a LoRaWAN created from a single gateway can successfully connect to sensors distributed throughout the entire building, with the sensor nodes recording and transmitting events across the network for further analysis. Overall, this paper demonstrates the potential of leveraging the IoT-based Sanitizer Station Network to track public health mitigation methods in a large facility, which ultimately contributes to reducing the burden of maintaining public health during and post-pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Energy and ICT)
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Article
Technological Developments of Mobility in Smart Cities. An Economic Approach
Smart Cities 2021, 4(3), 971-978; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/smartcities4030050 - 06 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 800
Abstract
This article introduces the concern that exists in the wider economic world concerning the developments carried out in Smart Cities. The various studies that have been developed capture the economic approach by focusing on specific economic development theories. This article initially provides a [...] Read more.
This article introduces the concern that exists in the wider economic world concerning the developments carried out in Smart Cities. The various studies that have been developed capture the economic approach by focusing on specific economic development theories. This article initially provides a theoretical response to the need for a joint approach to the different economic theories relating to Smart Cities, placing the bases of their development in the circular economy. Subsequently, the paper presents a device-based proposal to validate the sustainability principles indicated in the Smart Economy, focusing exclusively on the areas of health and mobility. As a whole, the work concludes with the need to incorporate sustainability criteria into economic ambition so that technological developments have a place in future Smart Cities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges for the Development of Sustainable Smart Cities)
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Article
A Smart City Economy Supported by Service Level Agreements: A Conceptual Study into the Waste Management Domain
Smart Cities 2021, 4(3), 952-970; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/smartcities4030049 - 02 Jul 2021
Viewed by 672
Abstract
The full potential of smart cities is not yet realized, and opportunities continue to exist in relation to the business models which govern service provision in cities. In saying this, we make reference to the waste services made available by councils across cities [...] Read more.
The full potential of smart cities is not yet realized, and opportunities continue to exist in relation to the business models which govern service provision in cities. In saying this, we make reference to the waste services made available by councils across cities in the United Kingdom (UK). In the UK, smart waste management (SWM) continues to exist as a service trialed across designated cities, and schemes are not yet universally deployed. This therefore exists as a business model which might be improved so that wider roll-out and uptake may be encouraged. In this paper, we present a proposal of how to revise SWM services through integrating the Internet service provider (ISP) into the relationship alongside home and business customers and the city council. The goal of this model is to give customers the opportunity for a more dynamic and flexible service. Furthermore, it will introduce benefits for all parties, in the sense of more satisfied home and business owners, ISPs with a larger customer base and greater profits, and city councils with optimized expenses. We propose that this is achieved using personalized and flexible SLAs. A proof-of-concept model is presented in this paper, through which we demonstrate that the cost to customers can be optimized when they interact with the SWM scheme in the recommended ways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Smart Cities)
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