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Automatic and Reliable Leaf Disease Detection Using Deep Learning Techniques

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Department of Electrical Engineering, Qatar University, Doha 2713, Qatar
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Technology Innovation and Engineering Education (TIEE), College of Engineering, Qatar University, Doha 2713, Qatar
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AI in Healthcare, Intelligent Information Processing Laboratory, National Center for Artificial Intelligence, Peshawar 25120, Pakistan
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Department of Electrical Engineering (JC), University of Engineering and Technology, Peshawar 25120, Pakistan
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Department of Electrical, Electronics and Systems Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600, Selangor, Malaysia
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Lubos Smutny and Petr Bartos
Received: 9 April 2021 / Revised: 11 May 2021 / Accepted: 17 May 2021 / Published: 20 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Systems and Their Applications in Agriculture)
Plants are a major source of food for the world population. Plant diseases contribute to production loss, which can be tackled with continuous monitoring. Manual plant disease monitoring is both laborious and error-prone. Early detection of plant diseases using computer vision and artificial intelligence (AI) can help to reduce the adverse effects of diseases and also overcome the shortcomings of continuous human monitoring. In this work, we propose the use of a deep learning architecture based on a recent convolutional neural network called EfficientNet on 18,161 plain and segmented tomato leaf images to classify tomato diseases. The performance of two segmentation models i.e., U-net and Modified U-net, for the segmentation of leaves is reported. The comparative performance of the models for binary classification (healthy and unhealthy leaves), six-class classification (healthy and various groups of diseased leaves), and ten-class classification (healthy and various types of unhealthy leaves) are also reported. The modified U-net segmentation model showed accuracy, IoU, and Dice score of 98.66%, 98.5%, and 98.73%, respectively, for the segmentation of leaf images. EfficientNet-B7 showed superior performance for the binary classification and six-class classification using segmented images with an accuracy of 99.95% and 99.12%, respectively. Finally, EfficientNet-B4 achieved an accuracy of 99.89% for ten-class classification using segmented images. It can be concluded that all the architectures performed better in classifying the diseases when trained with deeper networks on segmented images. The performance of each of the experimental studies reported in this work outperforms the existing literature. View Full-Text
Keywords: smart agriculture; automatic plant disease detection; deep learning; CNN; classification; segmentation of leaves smart agriculture; automatic plant disease detection; deep learning; CNN; classification; segmentation of leaves
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chowdhury, M.E.H.; Rahman, T.; Khandakar, A.; Ayari, M.A.; Khan, A.U.; Khan, M.S.; Al-Emadi, N.; Reaz, M.B.I.; Islam, M.T.; Ali, S.H.M. Automatic and Reliable Leaf Disease Detection Using Deep Learning Techniques. AgriEngineering 2021, 3, 294-312. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/agriengineering3020020

AMA Style

Chowdhury MEH, Rahman T, Khandakar A, Ayari MA, Khan AU, Khan MS, Al-Emadi N, Reaz MBI, Islam MT, Ali SHM. Automatic and Reliable Leaf Disease Detection Using Deep Learning Techniques. AgriEngineering. 2021; 3(2):294-312. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/agriengineering3020020

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chowdhury, Muhammad E.H., Tawsifur Rahman, Amith Khandakar, Mohamed A. Ayari, Aftab U. Khan, Muhammad S. Khan, Nasser Al-Emadi, Mamun B.I. Reaz, Mohammad T. Islam, and Sawal H.M. Ali 2021. "Automatic and Reliable Leaf Disease Detection Using Deep Learning Techniques" AgriEngineering 3, no. 2: 294-312. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/agriengineering3020020

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