Next Article in Journal
From Conventional to Precision Fertilization: A Case Study on the Transition for a Small-Medium Farm
Previous Article in Journal
Design, Development, and Performance Evaluation of a Power-Operated Jute Fiber Extraction Machine
Article

Comparative Appraisal of Three Low-Cost GPS Speed Sensors with Different Data Update Frequencies

1
Department of Plant Production and Technologies, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Technologies, Nigde Omer Halisdemir University, 51240 Nigde, Turkey
2
Department of Biosystems Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Hatay Mustafa Kemal University, 31040 Antakya, Turkey
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Fernando Lessa Tofoli
Received: 2 May 2021 / Revised: 9 June 2021 / Accepted: 9 June 2021 / Published: 16 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronics of Agricultural Mechanization)
Low-cost GPS (Global Positioning System) speed sensors have been available to quantify vehicle speed on different platforms including agricultural tractors in precision agriculture applications such as yield monitoring, variable rate fertilizer and pesticide applications. One of the advances in low-cost GPS receivers is the higher data update frequencies. However, we found no studies on the accuracy of low-cost GPS speed sensors with different update frequencies, especially under variable speed conditions. Thus, this work investigated the effect of the update frequency on the accuracy of low-cost GPS speed sensors under both constant and varying speed conditions. Three GPS speed sensors with update frequencies of 1 Hz, 5 Hz and 7 Hz (GPS1Hz, GPS5Hz and GPS7Hz) were simultaneously tested under the same conditions. A total of 144 tests were conducted on three different days and at three different times of each day with four speed levels and four repetitions. The percent errors were found to be up to 2.3%, 1.8% and 1.4% at constant speeds; up to −47%, −16% and −12% at the increasing speeds and 24%, 6% and 5% at the decreasing speeds, depending on the acceleration and deceleration levels, for GPS1Hz, GPS5Hz and GPS7Hz, respectively. The differences among the error values of the GPS speed sensors were found to be statistically significant (p < 0.05). The GPS speed sensors with higher update frequencies (5 and 7 Hz) provided higher accuracy compared to the one with lower frequency (1 Hz), particularly in the case of higher acceleration conditions. In sum, low-cost GPS speed sensors with higher update frequencies should be used for better accuracy, especially in variable speed conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: low-cost; GNSS; GPS; speed; velocity; accuracy; data update frequency low-cost; GNSS; GPS; speed; velocity; accuracy; data update frequency
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Akkamis, M.; Keskin, M.; Sekerli, Y.E. Comparative Appraisal of Three Low-Cost GPS Speed Sensors with Different Data Update Frequencies. AgriEngineering 2021, 3, 423-437. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/agriengineering3020028

AMA Style

Akkamis M, Keskin M, Sekerli YE. Comparative Appraisal of Three Low-Cost GPS Speed Sensors with Different Data Update Frequencies. AgriEngineering. 2021; 3(2):423-437. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/agriengineering3020028

Chicago/Turabian Style

Akkamis, Mustafa, Muharrem Keskin, and Yunus E. Sekerli 2021. "Comparative Appraisal of Three Low-Cost GPS Speed Sensors with Different Data Update Frequencies" AgriEngineering 3, no. 2: 423-437. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/agriengineering3020028

Find Other Styles

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop